†††††


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Part 2: Estimate of the Eastern Indians


†††††† This document, in Clark's hand, consists of seven sheets of letter paper pasted together to form one large sheet about 35" ◊ 28". Apparently there were two copies, one sent to the secretary of war and now lost, and the present copy, now in the archives of the American Philosophical Society, where it was deposited by Biddle in 1818 (see Introduction and Appendix C). The material is arranged in a large table providing information about the tribes living east of the Rocky Mountains, although a few mountain tribes, such as the "Snakes" (Shoshones), Crows, and Flatheads, are included. The captains must have obtained their data from traders and Indians in St. Louis and on up the Missouri. The copy sent to the secretary of war evidently contained information not found in the existing document, as indicated by a memorandum by Clark on the back of the latter, which reads as follows:


†††††† additional Remarks made on the Copy Sent to the Secretary at War


†††††† 1st †† the boundaries of the Countrey which they Claim— †† the quantity of land & face of the Countrey


†††††† 2d †† their Ancient residence if Known.


†††††† 3 †† the State of their Trade whether it Can be expected to increase and in what proportion.


†††††† 4th †† their Trafick with other Indian nations, in what it Consists, and where Carried on


†††††† 5th †† their Disposition towards the whites, and their conduct to their Traders


†††††† 6 †† to what place they might be provailed on to remove to make room for other nations


†††††† 7 †† whether they cultivate or not


†††††† 8 †† whether Stationary or roveing


†††††† 9 †† whether the nations is increasing or Demenishing


†††††† Genl. remarks on the Trade & remittences and amt. Esimtated # of Establishments in a Govtmt pt. of view— †† Notations on Indian Names Sub Divisions of the Sioux Bands & names of the principal Chiefs.


†††††† Also on the reverse of the document are the words: "To Genl. Jno Clark Kentucky," "Wetepehatoes," and "WC." The final column of the table, here given as category "s," is also found on the back of the sheet.


†††††† Jefferson used the secretary of war's copy to prepare his Message for Congress in which the document was titled "A Statistical View of the Indian Nations Inhabiting the Territory of Louisiana and the Countries Adjacent to its Northern and Western Boundaries," and published in 1806. The published version, to avoid the difficulties of printing so large a table, placed the information under lettered headings corresponding to the columns of the original. Thwaites followed this procedure in his edition, and the same is done here. Clark occasionally used ditto marks or the letters "do." under columns of repeating information. Since this would be unclear in the present arrangement, we have repeated the information. Otherwise Clark's words are given as he wrote them. The information given in the printed report exceeds that in the manuscript version, and from its appearance may well have been drawn verbatim, or nearly so, from the secretary of war's copy. Therefore material in category "s" from the printed document of 1806 is given here in paragraphs separate from the tabulated material; these paragraphs follow the "s" tabular material under each tribe. Certain phrases in the lettered material found in the printed document and not in the manuscript appear here in parentheses and italics. The printed document also places the manuscript material here given as letter "r" under the letter "i," thus displacing all subsequent material to letter "s" by one letter. This only becomes confusing if one attempts to compare the two. Bracketed material in italics is that of the editor, as usual.


†††††† There are at least three documents of a roughly similar nature in Clark's hand. Some were probably preliminaries to this compilation, prepared either on the journey up the Missouri or at Fort Mandan, while others may have been made for Nicholas Biddle after the expedition. One document is part of the "seven manuscript items" (item five) at the American Philosophical Society (see Appendix B). It is a table very similar to Clark's "Estimate." Two documents at the Missouri Historical Society, both loosely titled "Names of Nations," are abbreviated versions of the "Estimate."



†††††† A List of the Names of the different Nations & Tribes of Indians Inhabiting the Countrey on the Missourie and its Waters, and West of the Mississippi (above the Missourie) and a line from its head in Latd. 47į 38' N. & Longt. 95į 6' W. to the N W extremity of the Lake of the Woods, in Latd. 49į 37' N. and Longd. 94į 31' W. and Southerley & Westerley, of a West line from the Said Lake of Wood, as far as is known Jany. 1805. Expressive of the Names, Language, Numbers, Trade, water courses & Countrey in which they reside Claim & rove &c. &c. &c.


††††††

Explanatory References [found as column headings on manuscript]


†††††† a. †† The Names of the Indian Nations, as usially Spelt and pronounc'd by the English


†††††† b. †† Primitive Indian names of Nations & Tribes, English orthography, the syllables producing the Sounds by which the Inds themselves express the Names of their respective Nations


†††††† c. †† Nick names or those which have Generally obtained among the Canadian Traders


†††††† d. †† The Language they Speak if primitive marked*, otherwise derived from & approximating to


†††††† e. †† Nos. of Villages


†††††† f. †† Nos. of Tents or Lodges of the roveing Bands


†††††† g. †† Number of Warriours


†††††† h. †† The probable Number of Souls †† of this Numbr. deduct about ⅓ generally


†††††† i. †† The Names of the Christian Nations or the Companies with whome they Maintain their Commerce and Traffick


†††††† j. †† The places at which the Traffick is usially Carried on


†††††† k. †† The estimated Amount of Merchindize in Dollars at the St. Louis & Mickilimackanac, prices for their Anual Consumption [there are separate columns, one for St. Louis and one for Michilimackinac; only the St. Louis column has figures]


†††††† l. †† The estimated amount of their returns, in Dollars, at the St. Louis & Michilimacknac prices—[there are separate columns, one for St. Louis and one for Michilimackinac; only the St. Louis column has figures]


†††††† m. †† The 〈estimated qty and〉 Kind of 〈Furs and〉 pelteries & Robes which they Annually supply or furnish


†††††† n. †† The defferant kinds of Pelteres, Furs, Robes Meat Greece & Horses which each Could furnish for trade


†††††† o. †† The place at which it would be mutually advantageous to form the principal establishment in order to Supply the Several nations with Merchindize.


†††††† p. †† The Names of the Nations with whome they are at War


†††††† q. †† The names of the Nations with whome they maintain a friendly alliance, or with whome they may be united by intercourse or marriage


†††††† r. †† The particular water courses on which they reside or rove


†††††† s. †† The Countrey in which they usially reside, and the principal water Courses 〈They Cultivate Corn Beans &c &c〉 on or near which the Villages are Situated, or the Defferant Nations & tribes usially rove & Remarks


††††††

Notations [found only in the printed document]


†††††† Dash above†symbol over a, denotes that a sounds as in caught, taught, &c.


†††††† Carat above†symbol over a, denotes that it sounds as in dart, part, &c.


†††††† a, without notation has its primitive sound as in ray, hay, &c. except only when it is followed by r or w, in which case it sounds as .


†††††† Cedilla†symbol set underneath denotes a small pause, the word being divided by it into two parts.


††††††

The Indian Trade [found only in the printed document]


†††††† The sums stated under and opposite [k] are the amounts of merchandise annual furnished the several nations of Indians, including all incidental expenses of transportation, &c. incurred by the merchants which generally averages about one third of the whole amount. The merchandise is estimated at an advance of 125 per cent. on the sterling cost. It appears to me that the amount of merchandise which the Indians have been in the habit of receiving annually, is the best standard by which to regulate the quantities necessary for them in the first instance; they will always consume as much merchandise as they can pay for, and those with whom a regular trade has been carried on have generally received that quantity.


†††††† The amount of their returns stated under and opposite [I] are estimated by the peltry standard of St. Louis, which is 40 cents per pound for deer skins; (i. e.) all furs and peltries are first reduced by their comparative value to lbs. of merchantable deer skins, which are then estimated at 40 cents per lb.


†††††† These establishments are not mentioned as being thought important at present in a governmental point of view.


††††††

1. a Grand Osarge
b. Bar-har-cha
c. Grand Ose or zo
d. *Osarge
e. 2
f. [blank]
g. 1200
h. 7000 [or] 5000
i. a Co: at St Louis
j. at their Village & the 3
forks of the Arkansaw
River
k. 15,000
l. 20,000
m. Skins of the small Deer,
Some Beaver a flew Bear,
& otter Skins
n. Beaver, otter, Small
Deer, Black Bear, &
racoons Skins
o. at the 3 forks of the
Arkansaw 600 Miles up
that river and 60 Lg S.
West of their Village
p. With all Nations of
Indians (except the Little
Osage
) untill the United
States took possession of
Louisiana
q. (With the Little Osage only)
r. Osarge Riv (At the three
forks of the Arkansas river,
and eighty leagues up the
Osage river, on the south
side
)
s. Their villages are [blank]
Leagues up the Osarge
River on the S. E. Side,
they Claim all the Coun-
trey included in the
following boundrey. Viz
beginning at a S E.
branch of the Osarge
Called Niangua R up that
river to the head from
thence Southerley to the
Arkansaw 100 miles be-
low the three forks up
the Arkansaw and a
Southerly fork Some Dis-
tance above the Great Sa-
line, & the Ctry nearly to
the Kanzus river—
Cultivate Corn, Beens &c
&c


†††††† Claim the country within the following limits, viz. commencing at the mouth of a south branch of the Osage river, called Neangua, and with the same to its source, thence southwardly to intersect the Arkansas about one hundred miles below the three forks of that river; thence up the principal branch of the same, to the confluence of a large northwardly branch of the same, lying a considerable distance west of the Great Saline, and with that stream nearly to its source; thence northwardly, towards the Kansas river, embracing the waters of the upper portion of the Osage river, and thence obliquely approaching the same to the beginning. The climate is delightful, and the soil fertile in the extreme. The face of the country is generally level, and well watered; the eastern part of the country is covered with a variety of excellent timber; the western and middle country high prairies. It embraces within its limits four salines, which are, in point of magnitude and excellence, unequalled by any known in North America: there are also many others of less note. The principal part of the Great Osage have always resided at their villages, on the Osage river, since they have been known to the inhabitants of Louisiana. About three years since, nearly one half of this nation, headed by their chief the Big-Track, emigrated to the three forks of the Arkansas, near which, and on its north side, they established a village, where they now reside. The Little Osage formerly resided on the S. W. side of the Missouri, near the mouth of Grand river; but being reduced by continual warfare with their neighbors, were compelled to seek the protection of the Great Osage, near whom they now reside. There is no doubt but their trade will increase: they could furnish a much larger quantity of beaver than they do. I think two villages, on the Osage river, might be prevailed on to remove to the Arkansas, and the Kansas, higher up the Missouri, and thus leave a sufficient scope of country for the Shawnees, Dillewars, Miames, and Kickapoos. The Osages cultivate corn, beans, &c.


††††††

2. a. Little Osarge
b. ooed-za-tar
c. Petite ose or zo (or little
zo[)]
d. *Osarge
e. 1
f. [blank]
g. 300
h. 2000 [or] 1300
i. a Co: at St Louis
j. near their Village
k. 5000
l. 8000
m. Skins of the small Deer,
Some Beaver a fiew Bear,
& otter Skins
n. Beaver, otter, Small
Deer, Black Bear, &
racoons Skins
o. at the 3 forks of the
Arkansaw 600 Miles up
that river and 60 Lg S.
West of their Village 〈at
their village on the
Osage〉
p. With all Nations of In-
dians untill the United
States took possession of
Louisiana (except the Great
Osages
)
q. (With the Great Osage only)
r. Osarge Riv (Near the
Great Osages
)
s. Their villages are [blank]
Leagues up the Osarge
River on the S. E. Side,
they Claim all the Coun-
trey included in the
following boundrey. Viz
beginning at a S E.
branch of the Osarge
Called Niangua R up that
river to the head from
thence Southerley to the
Arkansaw 100 miles be-
low the three forks up
the Arkansaw and a
Southerly fork Some Dis-
tance above the Great Sa-
line, & the Ctry nearly to
the Kanzus river—
Cultivate Corn, Beens &c
&c

3. a. Kanzas
b. Kar sea
c. Kah
d. *Osarge
e. 1
f. [blank]
g. 300
h. 2000 [or] 1300
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. at their Village and on
the Missouri about the
mouth of the Kanzes
River (not stationary)
k. 5000
l. 8000
m. Skins of the small Deer,
Some Beaver a fiew Bear,
& otter Skins (with
buffaloe grease and robes
)
n. Beaver otter, Deer, Bear
& 〈fox〉 Muskrat Skins
o. 1 Mile up on the N Side
above the Mouth of the
Kanzas R
p. with all nations
q. (They are sometimes at
peace with the Ottoes and
Missouris, with whom they
are partially intermarried
)
r. on Kanzes R. (Eighty
leagues up the Kansas river,
on the north side
)
s. their village is 80
Leagues up the Kanzes
River, they Hunt high up
the Kanzes and Arkan-
saws †† they Cultivate
Corn Beans &c. &c
Great robers


†††††† The limits of the country they claim is not known. The country in which they reside, and from thence to the Missouri, is a delightful one, and generally well watered and covered with excellent timber: they hunt on the upper part of Kanzas and Arkanzas rivers: Their trade may be expected to increase with proper management. At present they are a dissolute, lawless banditti; frequently plunder their traders, and commit depredations on persons ascending and descending the Missouri river: population rather increasing. These people, as well as the Great and Little Osages, are stationary, at their villages, from about the 15th of March to the 15th of May, and again from the 15th of August to the 15th of October: the balance of the year is appropriated to hunting. They cultivate corn, &c.


††††††

4. a. Ottoes
b. War-doke-tar-tar
c. 〈Les Ottoe〉 la Zoto
d. *Missouri, & Some
words of Osarge
e. 1 [with the Missouris]
f. [blank]
g. 120
h. 500
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. at their Village and at
tradeing houses, at dif-
ferent Places between the
Grand Ne ma har and
Platt rivers (not stationary)
k. 4000 (including the
Missouris
)
l. 6000 (8000, including the
Missouris
)
m. Beaver, otter, racoons,
Deer & Black Bear Skins
n. Beaver, otter, Muskat
racoon, wolves Deer,
bear, Skins bears oil &
Buffalow tallow Elk
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. with all nations gener-
ally †† Partially at peace
with the Panias and Kan-
zies nations
q. with the Missouries (With
the Panis proper, Saukees
and Renars
)
r. 18 Lg up the platt (South
side of the river Platte, fif-
teen leagues from its mouth
)
s. The Village is 18
Leagues up the Platt
River, S E. Side they
hunt up the Saline and
grand Ne-ma-har Rivers
&. †† they cultivate Corn
Beans &c. &c. This na-
tion formerley lived on
the Missoure river above
the Plate river, they
Speake Some words of
the Osarge & Mahar
(bad[)]


†††††† They have no idea of an exclusive possession of any country, nor do they assign themselves any limits. I do not believe that they would object to the introduction of any well disposed Indians: they treat the traders with respect and hospitality, generally. In their occupations of hunting and cultivation, they are the same with the Kanzas and Osage. They hunt on the Saline, Nimmehaw rivers, and west of them in the plains. The country in which they hunt lies well; it is extremely fertile and well watered; that part of which borders on the Nimmehaw and Missouri possesses a good portion of timber: population rather increasing. They have always resided near the place their village is situated, and are the descendants of the Missouris.


††††††

5. a. Missouries
b. New-dar-cha
c. Missourie
d. *Missoure, & Some
words of Osarge
e. 1 [with the Otoes]
f. [blank]
g. 80
h. 500 [or] 300
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. at their Village and at
tradeing houses at differ-
ent Places between the
Grand Ne ma har and
Platt rivers
k. 4000 [included with the
Otos
]
l. 6000 [included with the
Otos
]
m. Beaver, otter, racoons,
Deer & Black Bear Skins
n. Beaver, otter, Muskrat
racoon, wolves Deer,
bear, Skins bears oil &
Buffalow tallow Elk
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. with all nations gener-
ally †† Partially at peace
with the Panias and Kan-
zies nations
q. with the Ottoes (With the
Panis proper, Saukees and
Renars
)
r. with the Ottoes
s. with the Ottoes and
hund also above the Plate
near the Missourie near
the Corn Des cerf River;
they Cultivate Corn
Beans &c. This nation
formerley lived below the
grand River, and was
noumerous, they Speake
Some words of the Os-
arge (bad[)]


†††††† These are the remnant of the most numerous nation inhabiting the Missouri, when first known to the French. Their ancient and principal village was situated in an extensive and fertile plain on the north bank of the Missouri, just below the entrance of the Grand river. Repeated attacks of the small pox, together with their war with the Saukees and Renars, has reduced them to their present state of dependence on the Ottoes, with whom they reside, as well in their village as on their hunting exursions. The Ottoes view them as their inferiors, and sometimes treat them amiss. These people are the real proprietors of an extensive and fertile country lying on the Missouri, above their ancient village for a considerable distance, and as low as the mouth of the Osage river, and thence to the Mississippi.


††††††

6. a. Pania proper
b. Parnee
c. Grand par
d. *Pania
e. Ĺ (One)
f. [blank]
g. 400
h. 2000 [or] 1600
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. at their Village
k. 3200
l. 5000
m. Beaver otter & racoons
Skins & Buffalow Robes
n. Beaver, otter, racoon,
Cabra & a fiew Deer
Skins, roabs, Buffalow
meat & greas & Horses
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. Ossar[ge]s, Kanzes, Pania
Pickey, Padouces, A-li
tans
& La-plays
q. republickin Pania Loup
& Mahas
r. 30 Lgs up the Platt
(South side)
s. Their Village is 30
Leagus up the river plate
on the S E. Side, they
Hunt on the heads of the
Kanzes, and its N W
waters and high up the
Platt †† they Cultivate
Corn, Beans &c &c.
(mild well disposed)


†††††† With respect to their idea of the possession of soil, it is similar to that of the Ottoes: they hunt on the south side of the river Platte, higher up and on the head of the Kanzas. A great proportion of this country is open plains, interspersed, however, with groves of timber, which are most generally found in the vicinity of the water courses. It is generally fertile and well watered; lies level, and free of stone. They have resided in the country which they now inhabit, since they were known to the whites. Their trade is a valuable one, from the large proportion of beaver and otter which they furnish, and it may be expected yet to increase, as those animals are still abundant in their country. The periods of their residence at their village and hunting, are similar to the Kanzas and Osages. Their population is increasing. They are friendly and hospitable to all white persons; pay great respect and deference to their traders, with whom they are punctual in the payment of their debts. They are, in all respects, a friendly, well disposed people. They cultivate corn, beans, melons, &c.


††††††

7. a. Pania Loup (or Wolves)
b. 〈Ea〉 Skee-e-ree
c. La Loup (or Lou) Pania
Maher
d. *Pania
e. 〈1〉
f. [blank]
g. 280
h. 1600 [or] 1000
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. at the Pania Vilage
k. 2400
l. 3500
m. Beaver otter & racoons
Skins & Buffalow Robes
n. Beaver, otter, racoon,
Cabra & a fiew Deer
Skins, roabs, Buffalow
meat & greas & Horses
〈and the Skins of the Big
horned animal〉
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. Ottoes & Missouries, and
the Same as the Panias
q. The Same as the Panias
r. on the Loup R. (N. E.
side, 36 leagues from its
mouth
)
s. Their Village is 40
Leagus above the Panias
on the right of the R
Loup which empties into
the Plate 8 Lgs. above the
Panias, they hunt on the
rivers platt & Loup above
their Village †† they Culti-
vate Corn Beens &c. &c
[(]mild & well disposed)


†††††† These are also a branch of the Panias proper, who separated themselves from that nation many years since, and established themselves on a north branch of the river Platte, to which their name was also given: these people have likewise no idea of an exclusive right to any portion of country. They hunt on the Wolf river above their village, and on the river Platte above the mouth of that river. This country is very similar to that of the Panias proper; though there is an extensive body of fertile well timbered land between the Wolf river below their village and the river Corn de Cerf, or Elkhorn river. They cultivate corn, beans, &c. The particulars related of the other Panias is also applicable to them. They are seldom visited by any trader, and therefore usually bring their furs and peltry to the village of the Panias proper, where they traffic with the whites.


††††††

8. a. Pania Republicans
b. Ar-rah-pa-hoo
c. Republick
d. *Pania
e. Ĺ (PA with macron lowercase†symbolnias proper and
PA with macron lowercase†symbolnias Republican live in
the same village
)
f. [blank]
g. 300
h. 2000 [or] 1400
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. at the Pania Vilage
k. 3200
l. 5000
m. Beaver otter & racoons
Skins & Buffalow Robes
n. Beaver, otter, racoon,
Cabra & a fiew Deer
Skins, roabs, Buffalow
meat & greas & Horses
〈and the Skins of the Big
horned animal〉 〈The
Same except the Big
horn〉
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. the Same as the Panias
q. The same as the Panias
r. with the Panias
s. Their village is with the
Pania on the River Plate,
they hunt on a branch of
the Kanzus Called the
Republican fork, and
near the Kanzes river
also with the Panias
Cultivate Corn Beens &c.
&c. †† (mild & well
disposed)


†††††† Are a branch of the PA with macron lowercase†symbolnia proper, or, as they are frequent termed, the Big Paunch. About ten years since they withdrew themselves from the mother nation, and established a village on a large northwardly branch of the Kanzas, to which they have given name: they afterwards subdivided and lived in different parts of the country on the waters of Kanzas river; but being harassed by their turbulent neighbors, the Kanzas, they rejoined the Panias proper last spring. What has been said with respect to the Panias proper is applicable to these people, except that they hunt principally on the Republican river, which is better stocked with timber than that hunted by the Panias.


††††††

9. a. Mahar
b. Oh Mar-ha
c. La Mar
d. *Mahar with Some
words of the Osarge, &
Souix
e. [blank]
f. 80 (60)
g. 200 [or] 150
h. 1200 [or] 600
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. on the Missourie at dif-
ferent places between the
old Mahar Village and
River Platt
k. 3000 (4,000, including the
Pon' c‚rs
)
l. 5000 (7,000, including the
Pon' c‚rs
)
m. Beaver, otter & racoons
Skins & Buffalow Robes
& B Bear
n. Beaver, otter, racoon,
wolves Deer, Bear &
Cabra Skins, & Buffalow
robes, g[r]ees & oil
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. Ottoes & Missouries,
〈Tetons〉 all the Bands of
Sieux, except the
Yanktons of the burnt
woods
q. Panias, Loup, republicks,
Poncarer
r. rove on River Quicure
(and head of the Wolf river)
s. Their Village was 1
League from the Mis-
ourie on the S W Side,
about 4 Leagues below
〈the Grand R〉 Floyds
river & 5 below the
Grand R Sieux, They
now rove (haveing been
reduced by the Small
pox and war with the
Soues) on rapid river or
Quicure †† No Corn
Beens to Cultivate at
present, lost all in the
late maladey with the
Small pox—


†††††† They have no idea of exclusive possession of soil. About ten years since, they boasted 700 warriors. They have lived in a village, on the west bank of the Missouri, 236 miles above the mouth of the river Platte, where they cultivated corn, beans, and melons: they were warlike, and the terror of their neighbors. In the summer and autumn of 1802, they were visited by the small-pox, which reduced their numbers to something less than 300; they burnt their village, and have become a wandering nation, deserted by the traders, and the consequent deficiency of arms and ammunition has invited frequent aggressions from their neighbors, which have tended to reduce them still further. They rove principally on the waters of the river Quicurre, or Rapid river. The country is generally level, high, and open: it is fertile, and tolerably well watered. They might easily be induced to become stationary: †† they are well disposed towards the whites, and are good hunters: their country abounds in beaver and otter, and their trade will increase and become valuable, provided they become stationary, and are at peace. The Tetons Bois brŻlť killed and took about 60 of them last summer.


††††††

10. a. Poncare
b. Poong-car
c. La Pong
d. *Mahar with some
words of the Osarge, &
Souix
e. [blank]
f. 20
g. 50
h. 300 [or] 200
i. the Merchants of St
Louis
j. on the Missourie at dif-
ferent places between
the old Mahar Village
and River Platt (No place
of trade latterly
)
k. 3000
l. 5000
m. Beaver, otter, racoons
Skins & Buffalow Robes
& B Bear
n. Beaver, otter, racoon,
wolves Deer, Bear &
Cabra Skins, &
Buffalow robes, g[r]ees
& oil
o. Council Bluffs 50 miles
by water above R. Platt
or there abouts, and
about
p. Ottoes & Missouries,
〈Tetons〉 all the Bands
of Sieux, except the
Yanktons of the burnt
woods
q. the Mahars only
r. with the Mahas
s. Their Village was 1
League up a Small river
above the quicure
Called Poncerres River,
they being reduced by
the Small pox, and their
war with the Soues rove
in the plains with the
Mahars †† bad fellows (a
tribe of Mahars) †† No
Corn Beens to Cultivate
at present, lost all in the
late maladey with the
Small pox—


†††††† The remnant of a nation once respectable in point of numbers. They formerly resided on a branch of the Red river of Lake Winnipie: being oppressed by the Sioux, they removed to the west side of the Missouri, on Poncar river, where they built and fortified a village, and remained some years; but being pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux, and reduced by continual wars, they have joined, and now reside with the Mahas, whose language they speak.


††††††

11. a. Ricaras 8 tribes
b. Star rah he
c. Ree
d. Pania Corrupted
e. 3
f. [blank]
g. 500
h. 3000 [or] 2000
i. a Co: at St. Louis
j. at their Villages
k. 2500
l. 6000
m. Buffalow roabes, Greese
& a fiew fox Skins, and
a little Beaver
n. Buffalow robes, Tallow
Grece de mele, large &
Small fox Skins, wolves
Beaver otter & Small
furs, also Cabre, a few
Deer & a fiew White
Bear Skins
o. 〈Fort Mandan〉 Those
four nations [Ricaras,
Mandans, Shoes, and Big
Bellies
] would move to
the River Yellowstone at
or about that place
would be a proper place
for the establishment
for them
p. with the Gens des Ser-
pent or Snake Indians
q. the Tetons in their
neighbourhood †† the
Chyennes & nations to
the S. West
r. on the Missouri (On the
S. W. side of the Missouri,
1,440 miles from its
mouth
)
s. Their Villages †† one in
an Island in the Mis-
souries above the
Maropa River 1430
Miles up, two others
near each other 4 miles
above on the S W Side,
those villages are the re-
mains of Eight different
tribes of the Pania Na-
tion who have become
reduced by the Soues
and compelled to live
together in fortified
towns for their protec-
tion, their villages on
Different parts of the
Missouries from the
Teton river to near the
Mandans they may be
Stiled gardners for the
Soues †† they raise Corn
Beans &c & hunt in
their Neighborhood
Those people have a
partial exchange with
the Soues for guns pow-
der Ball &c for Horses
& corn &c &c


†††††† Are the remains of ten large tribes of Panias, who have been reduced, by the small pox and the Sioux, to their present number. They live in fortified villages, and hunt immediately in their neighborhood. The country around them, in every direction, for several hundred miles, is entirely bare of timber, except on the water courses and steep declivities of hills, where it is sheltered from the ravages of fire. The land is tolerably well watered, and lies well for cultivation. The remains of the villages of these people are to be seen on many parts of the Missouri, from the mouth of Tetone river to the Mandans. They claim no land except that on which their villages stand, and the fields which they cultivate. The Tetons claim the country around them. Though they are the oldest inhabitants, they may properly be considered the farmers or tenants at will of that lawless, savage and rapacious race the Sioux Teton, who rob them of their horses, plunder their gardens and fields, and sometimes murder them, without opposition. If these people were freed from the oppression of the Tetons, their trade would increase rapidly, and might be extended to a considerable amount. They maintain a partial trade with their oppressors the Tetons, to whom they barter horses, mules, corn, beans, and a species of tobacco which they cultivate; and receive in return guns, ammunition, kettles, axes, and other articles which the Tetons obtain from the Yanktons of the N. and Sissatones, who trade with Mr. Cammeron, on the river St. Peters. These horses and mules the Ricaras obtain from their western neighbors, who visit them frequently for the purpose of trafficking.


††††††

12. a. Mandans
b. Ma-too-tonka 1st Vilg &
Roop-tar ha 2nd Vil.
c. Mandan
d. *Mandan (Some words
like the Osarge &
Sieux[)]
e. 2
f. [blank]
g. 350
h. 〈1,500〉 1250
i. Hudsons Bay, N W. &
X. Y, Companies from
Assinniboin R. over
Land N. 150 ms.
j. at their Villages
k. 2000
l. 6000
m. Buffalow robes, wolves
a fiew Beavers Elk Skins
& a fiew Horses Foxes &
Corn
n. The same as the above
and white Hars, & large
foxes
o. 〈at Fort Mandan on the
Missouri near their vil-
lage 16000 [1600] miles
up in Lat. 47 N.
Longtd. 101į 2', West〉;
Those four nations
[Ricaras, Mandans, Shoes,
and Big Bellies
] would
move to the River Yel-
lowstone at or about
that place would be a
proper place for the es-
tablishment for them
p. with 〈all nations except
the〉 Soues, & Snake
indians
q. with the Shoe Tribe the
big bellies, Cheyennes
ravins & those to the S.
W. who visit them
r. on the Missouri 16000
[1600] mes up (On both
sides of the Missouri, 1612
miles from its mouth
)
s. Their Villages are on
both Sides of the Mis-
souree 1605 miles up,
those Villages are the
remains of thirteen dif-
ferent Villages of this
nation and have been
reduced by the Small
Pox, and the wars which
the Soues have Caused
on them 〈from〉 to col-
lect & form their earli-
est tredition been
Compelled to unite in
two Villages and drove
back by the Sous, from
the Countrey below
white River to this
place, haveing made on
their retreat below, at
this place they have
resided 9 years in
2 Stockaded Towns
raise Corn Beans &c &
hunt a fiew miles
around †† They trade
Horses with the Assin-
naboins for Sundrey ar-
ticles which is not
Sufficiently furnished
by their Traders from
the North


†††††† These are the most friendly, well disposed Indians inhabiting the Missouri. They are brave, humane and hospitable. About 25 years since they lived in six villages, about forty miles below their present villages, on both sides of the Missouri. Repeated visitations of the small pox, aided by frequent attacks of the Sioux, has reduced them to their present number. They claim no particular tract of country. They live in fortified villages, hunt immediately in their neighborhood, and cultivate corn, beans, squashes and tobacco, which form articles of traffic with their neighbors the Assinniboin: they also barter horses with the Assinniboins for arms, ammunition, axes, kettles, and other articles of European manufacture, which these last obtain from the British establishments on the Assinniboin river. The articles which they thus obtain from Assinniboins and the British traders who visit them, they again exchange for horses and leather tents with the Crow Indians, Chyennes, Wetepahatoes, Kiawas, Kanenavich, Stactan and Cataka, who visit them occasionally for the purpose of traffic. Their trade may be much increased. Their country is similar to that of the Ricaras. Population increasing.


††††††

13. a. Shoes Men
(Ahw‚hh‚way)
b. Mah-har-ha (Ah-w‚h-h‚-
way
)
c. Soulier
d. *Minatarra (big belly)
e. 1
f. [blank]
g. 50
h. 〈300〉 200
i. Hudsons Bay, N W. &
X. Y, Companies from
Assinniboin R. over
Land N. 150 ms.
j. at the Mandan Villages
k. 300
l. 1000
m. The same [as the
Mandans
]
n. The Same [as the
Mandans
]
o. 〈at Fort Mandan on the
Missouri near their Vil-
lage 16000 [1600] miles
up in Lat. 47 N.
Longtd. 101į 2', West〉
Those four nations
[Ricaras, Mandans, Shoes,
and Big Bellies
] would
move to the River Yel-
lowstone at or about
that place would be a
proper place for the es-
tablishment for them
p. with 〈all nations except
the〉 Soues, & Snake
indians
q. with the 〈Shoe tribe〉
Big bellies Mandans,
Crows and those to
the S. W. who rove
r. in Sight of the mandans
(On the S. W. side of the
Missouri, three miles about
the Mandans
)
s. This village is Situated
on the S W. Side of the
Missouries at the mouth
of Knife river in Sight
of the Mandans above,
those people Came
from the S W and are
of the Big Belley nation,
they raise Corn &c hunt
in their neigh-
bourhood †† They trade
Horses with the Assina-
boins for Sundrey ar-
ticles which is not
Sufficiently furnished
by their Traders from
the North


†††††† They differ but very little, in any particular, from the Mandans, their neighbors, except in the unjust war which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecute against the defenceless Snake Indians, from which, I believe, it will be difficult to induce them to desist. They claim to have been once a part of the Crow Indians, whom they still acknowledge as relations. They have resided on the Missouri as long as their tradition will enable them to inform.


††††††

14. a. Big bellies (Minetares)
b. 1st Vilg. Me-ne-tar-re,
Me ta hat ta 2 Vilg.
Me-ne-tar-re
c. Gross Ventre
d. Me ne tar re
e. 2
f. [blank]
g. 500 (600)
h. 2500
i. Hudsons Bay, N W. &
X. Y, Companies from
Assinniboin R. over
Land N. 150 ms.
j. at their Villages
k. 1,000
l. 3500 (3,000)
m. The Same [as the Man-
dans
] except robes
n. The Same [as the Man-
dans
] & White bear
o. The Same place [as the
Mandans
] (or higher up)
p. with Souex, Snake Inds.
& partially with the
upper tribes of the As-
sinniboins, to the
N W
q. with the 〈Shoe Tribe〉
the Big bellies Man-
dans, Crows and those
to the S. W. who rove
r. in Sight of the Mandans
(On both sides of the Knife
river, near the Missouri, 5
miles above the Mandans
)
s. Their Villages are on
the Knive river near its
mouth and about 2
Miles apart & 1 from
the Missouri †† they
Came from the S E as
they Say †† they raise
Corn Beans &c &c. and
hunt on both Sides of
the Missourie above
their Villages. They
trade Horses with the
Assinaboins for Sun-
drey articles which is
not Sufficiently fur-
nished by their traders
from the North


†††††† They claim no particular country, nor do they assign themselves any limits: their tradition relates that they have always resided at their present villages. In their customs, manners, and dispositions, they are similar to the Mandans and Ahwahhaways. The scarcity of fuel induces them to reside, during the cold season, in large bands, in camps, on different parts of the Missouri, as high up that river as the mouth of the river Yellow Stone, and west of their villages, about the Turtle mountain. I believe that these people, as well as the Mandans and Ahwahhaways, might be prevailed on to remove to the mouth of the Yellow Stone river, provided an establishment is made at that place. They have as yet furnished scarcely any beaver, although the country they hunt abounds with them; the lodges of these animals are to be seen within a mile of their villages. These people have also suffered considerably by the small-pox; but have successfully resisted the attacks of the Sioux. The N. W. company intend to form an establishment in the course of the next summer, and autumn, on the Missouri, near these people, which, if effected, will most probably prevent their removal to any point which our government may hereafter wish them to reside at.


††††††

15. a. Ayauwais
b. Ah-e-o-war
c. dis Iaways or ne persa
d. Ottoes (Missouri)
e. 1
f. [blank]
g. 250 (200)
h. 〈1600〉 800
i. Mr Crawford (and other
merchants
) from
Michilimacknac
j. at. the villages (and
hunting camps
)
k. 3800
l. 6000
m. Deer Beaver otter Mink
Black Bear, 〈fishes〉 fox
racoon Muskrat &c.
n. Deer, Black Bear
Beaver otter Mink Musk-
rats, Raccons Gray
foxes & Tallow & Bears
Oile
o. on the Missourie at the
mouth of Kanzus or at
the [blank]
p. No Nation particularly,
Sometimes join the
Saukies
q. With the Saukees & re-
nars, and all nations
East of the Mississippi
r. 36 Lgs up Demoin (40
leagues up the Demoin on
the S. E. side
)
s. Their Village is 40
Leagus up the River
Dumoen, their Coun-
trey join the Soues
Lands and extend to
the Missoure River
they are a tribe of the
Ottoes Nation and for-
merley lived on the Mis-
sourie (a fiew miles
below the Antient Ot-
toes Town) or their
Town was at the 1st
Bluff above R. platt on
the N. Side †† they culti-
vate Corn Beans &c.
&c.—


†††††† They are the descendants of the ancient Missouris, and claim the country west of them to the Missouri; but as to its precise limits, or boundaries, between themselves and the Saukees and Foxes, I could never learn. They are a turbulent savage race, frequently abuse their traders, and commit depredations on those ascending and descending the Missouri. Their trade cannot be expected to increase much.


††††††

16. a. Saukees
b. O Sau-kee
c. la Sauk
d. *O Sau kee (like the
Shaw o nee and Au-
Chipaway[)]
e. 2
f. [blank]
g. 500
h. 〈2800〉 2000
i. Merchants at the Prarie
de Chain & St Louis &
Illinois & Mick-a nak
j. at their Villages at
prarie de Chien and on
the Mississippi (and at
Eel river on the Waubash
)
k. 4000
l. 6000
m. Deer skins principally
n. Deer, Black Bear
Beaver otter mink Musk-
rats, Racoons Gray
foxes, & Tallow & Bears
Oile
o. At prarie de Chein
p. With the Osarge
〈Kanzus, ottoes, Mis-
souries〉 & different
〈bands〉 tribes of the
〈Panias &〉 Chipaways
q. 〈Soues〉 and all the Na-
tions on the East of the
Mississippi 〈Chipaways〉
& 〈partially〉 with the
Ayaways
r. on the West of the Mis-
sissippi above rock river
(140 leagues above St.
Louis
)
s. They live in 3 Villages a
fiew miles above the
Mouth of Rock River on
the West bank of the
Mississippi, their Coun-
trey is principally on the
E. Side of the Missippi,
they hunt on the waters
of the Missourie low
down, on the Demoin &
the Mississippi on both
Side from the oisconsin
river down to the Ilinois
river


†††††† Saukees and Renars, or Foxes. These nations are so perfectly consolidated that they may, in fact, be considered as one nation only. They speak the same language: they formerly resided on the east side of the Mississippi, and still claim the land on that side of the river, from the mouth of the Oisconsin to the Illinois river, and eastward towards lake Michigan; but to what particular boundary, I am not informed: they also claim, by conquest, the whole of the country belonging to the ancient Missouris, which forms one of the most valuable portions of Louisiana, but what proportion of this territory they are willing to assign to the Ayouways, who also claim a part of it, I do not know, as they are at war with the Sioux, who live N. and N. W. of them, except the Yankton ahnah. Their boundaries in that quarter are also undefined: their trade would become much more valuable if peace was established between them and the nations west of the Missouri, with whom they are at war: their population has remained nearly the same for many years: they raise an abundance of corn, beans and melons: they sometimes hunt in the country west of them, towards the Missouri, but their principal hunting is on both sides of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Oisconsin to the mouth of the Illinois river. These people are extremely friendly to the whites, and seldom injure their traders; but they are the most implacable enemies to the Indian nations with whom they are at war. To them is justly attributable the almost entire destruction of the Missouris, the Illinois, Cahokias, Kaskaskias, and Piorias.


††††††

17. a. Renarz (Foxes)
b. Ottar-car me
c. la Renars
d. *O Sau kee (like the
Shaw o nee and Au-
Chipaway[)]
e. 1
f. [blank]
g. 300
h. 〈1600〉 1200
i. Merchants at the Prarie
de Chain & St Louis &
Illinois & Mick-a nak
j. at their Villages at
prarie de Chien and on
the Mississippi
k. 2500
l. 4000
m. The Same [as the Sau-
kees
] (a greater perpor-
tion of other skins[)]
n. Deer, Black Bear
Beaver otter mink Musk-
rats, Racoons Gray
foxes & Tallow & Bears
Oile
o. At prarie de Chein
p. With the Osarge
〈Kanzus, ottoes, Mis-
souries〉 & different
tribes of the 〈Panias &〉
Chipaways
q. 〈Soues〉 and all the Na-
tions on the East of the
Mississippi 〈Chipaways〉
& 〈partially〉 with the
Ayaways
r. on the West of the Mis-
sissippi above rock river
(Near the Saukees)
s. They live in 3 Villages a
fiew miles above the
mouth of Rock River on
the west bank of the
Mississippi, their Coun-
trey is principally on the
E. Side of the Missippi,
they hunt on the waters
of the Missourie low
down, on the Demoin &
the Mississippi on both
Side from the oisconsin
river down to the Ilinois
river

18. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Wah-pa-tone tribe
c. Sioux
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. (One)
f. 80
g. 200
h. 〈1000〉 700
i. Mrs Campbell Dickson
and other Merchants
who trade to
Michilimack
j. (On the Mississippi and)
on the R. St. Peters (at
sundry places not
stationary
)
k. 10000
l. 18000
m. Deer Beaver otter, fox
mink Black bear, ra-
coons fishers Muskrats
and a greater perpotion
of Deer
n. Deer Bever otter red
fox Mink martains,
Muskrat fishers Black
bear, racoon and wolves
o. on the Mississippi R
(west side) about the Falls
of St Anthony on
mouth of St peters
p. with the Chipaways of
La fallowoine & leach
Lakes—(and Sandy lakes;
defensive with the Saukees,
Renars and Ayauwais
)
q. The Saukie & Renards
and those who inhabit
East of the R Missis-
sippi, below the
Chipaways
r. rove on the Mississppi
(On the north side of the
river St. Peters, 18 leagues
from its mouth
)
s. a Band of Sieux or Dar-
cotas rove on both Sides
of the Mississippi about
the Mouth of the River
St. peters and Claim
jointly with the other
bands of the Sieux or
Darcotas all the Coun-
trey North of a 〈West〉
East line from the
Mouth of Little Sieux
River to the Mississippi
R on the west Side of
that river to the Oiscon-
sin, and up on both
Sides of the Mississippi,
and an Easterley &
westerley line passing
the otter tail portage &
between the head of St
Peter & river Rogue
and westerley 〈to〉 pass-
ing the heads of River
Jacque (or James) to the
head of War re con ne
River Down that to Mis-
sourie, and on both
Sides of that river (in-
cluding the Ricarei
Tribes) to the White
river, thence on the
West of the west Side of
the Missourie to the
little Soues R


†††††† Claim the country in which they rove on the N. W. side of the river St. Peters; from their village to the mouth of the Chippeway river, and thence north eastwardly towards the head of the Mississippi, including the Crow-wing river. Their lands are fertile, and generally well timbered. They are only stationary while the traders are with them, which is from the beginning of October to the last of March. Their trade is supposed to be at its greatest extent. They treat their traders with respect, and seldom attempt to rob them. This, as well as the other Sioux bands, act, in all respects, as independently of each other as if they were a distinct nation.


††††††

19. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Min-da-war-car-ton
tribe
c. Gens de Lake
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. (One)
f. 120
g. 300
h. 〈1500〉 1200
i. Mrs Campbell Dickson
and other Merchants
who trade to
Michilimack
j. on the Mississippi &
River St peters not
Stationary
k. 8700
l. 16000
m. Deer Beaver otter, fox
mink Black bear, ra-
coons fishers Muskrats
with a greater perpo-
tion of Deer
n. Deer Bever otter red
fox Mink Martains,
Muskrat fishers Black
bear, racoon and wolves
o. on the Mississippi (west
side
) about the Falls of
St Anthony or mouth of
S Peter
p. with the Chipaways of
La fallovoine & leach
Lakes—(and Sandy lakes;
with the Saukees, Renars
and Ayauwais
) †† never go
to war on the Missouri
q. The Saukie & Renards
and those who inhabit
East of the R Missis-
sippi, below the
Chipaways
r. rove on the Mississppi
(at the mouth of the river
St. Peters
)
s. they rove above the
mouth of the St Peters
River, their Village is on
the Mississippi †† they
rove on both Sides of
the river as far or high
up as the Crow Wing
river, they cultivate
Corn Beans &c. &c.


†††††† 'Tis the only band of Siouxs that cultivates corn, beans, &c. and these even cannot properly be termed a stationary people. They live in tents of dressed leather, which they transport by means of horses and dogs, and ramble from place to place during the greater part of the year. They are friendly to their own traders; but the inveterate enemies to such as supply their enemies, the Chippeways, with merchandise. They also claim the country in which they hunt, commencing at the entrance of the river St. Peters, and extending upwards, on both sides of the Mississippi river, to the mouth of the Crow-wing river. The land is fertile, and well watered; lies level and sufficiently timbered. Their trade cannot be expected to increase much.


††††††

20. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. W‚h-pa-coo-tar tribe
c. people who Shoot at
leaves
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 60
g. 150
h. 700 (400)
i. Mrs Campbell Dickson
and other Merchants
who trade to
Michilimack
j. on the Mississippi &
River St peters not
Stationary
k. 3800
l. 6000
m. the Same [as the Wah-pa-
tone
] (a greater perpn.
of otter Skins)
n. the Same [as the Wah-pa-
tone
]
o. on the Mississippi R
about the Falls of St An-
thony or mouth of St
peters
p. with the Chipaways of
La fallowine & leach
Lakes— †† but Some-
times go to war on the
Missouri
q. The Saukie & Renards
and those who inhabit
East of the R Missis-
sippi, below the
Chipaways
r. St Peters (south-west side,
30 leagues above its
mouth, in Arrow Stone
Prairies
)
s. they rove on St. peters
river †† Claim the Coun-
trey on the N W Side of
the Mississippi to the
Chipaway River and on
both sides above, their
Villag is 18 Lgs. up St
Peters on the N. Side,
do not Cultivate the
land but live by hunt-
ing, and is only Station-
ary when Traders are
with them
They rove in the country south west of the river St. Peters, from a place called the Hardwood to the mouth of the Yellow Medicine river: never stationary but when their traders are with them, and this does not happen at any regular or fixed point. At present they treat their traders tolerably well. Their trade cannot be expected to increase much. A great proportion of their country is open plains, lies level, and is tolerably fertile. They maintain a partial traffic with the Yanktons and Tetons to the west of them; to these they barter the articles which they obtain from the traders on the river St. Peters, and receive in return horses, some robes and leather lodges.


††††††

21. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Sis-sa-tone tribe
c. [blank]
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 80
g. 200
h. 〈1000〉 800
i. Mr. Cammeron who
trades to Mackilimack
j. at the head of the St.
peters river (about 130
leagues from its mouth
)
k. 17000
l. 30000
m. the Same [as the Wah-pa-
tone
] (a greater perpo-
tion of Beaver otter &
Bear[)]
n. The Same [as the Wah-
pa-tone
]
o. at the heads of St.
Peters and red river (or
R Rouch)
p. with the Chipaways &
Mandans Knistanoux &
assinniboins
q. The Saukie & Renards
and those who inhabit
East of the R Missis-
sippi, below the
Chipaways & Ricarras
r. Head of St. peters (and
Red river of Lake
Winnipie
)
s. on the heads of St.
Peters—not Seperate—
Claim the Countrey on
the N. W Side of the
Mississippi—only Sta-
tionary when Traders
are with them †† do not
Cultivate the ground.


†††††† They claim the country in which they rove, embracing the upper portions of the Red river, of Lake Winnipie, and St. Peters: it is a level country, intersected with many small lakes; the land is fertile and free of stone; the majority of it open plains. This country abounds more in the valuable fur animals, the beaver, otter and marten, than any portion of Louisiana yet known. This circumstance furnishes the Sissatones with the means of purchasing more merchandise, in proportion to their number, than any nation in this quarter. A great proportion of this merchandise is reserved by them for their trade with the Tetons, whom they annually meet at some point previously agreed on, upon the waters of James river, in the month of May. This Indian fair is frequently attended by the Yanktons of the North and Ahnah. The Sissatones and Yanktons of the North here supply the others with considerable quantities of arms, ammunition, axes, knives, kettles, cloth, and a variety of other articles; and receive in return principally horses, which the others have stolen or purchased from the nations on the Missouri and west of it. They are devoted to the interests of their traders.


††††††

22. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Yanktons of the N. tribe
c. (La Soo)
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 200
g. 500
h. 〈2500〉 1600
i. a partial Trade [Mr.
Cammeron
] †† no trader
of their own
j. at the head of the St.
peters river (about 130
leagues from its mouth
)
k. 1800
l. 3000
Buffalow robes &
Wolves only
n. The Same [as the Wah-
pa-tone
] (and buffaloe
robes, tallow, dried meat
and grease in addition
)
o. at the same place [as the
Sissatone
] or on the Mis-
sourie (near the mouth of
the Chyenne river
)
p. with the Chipaways &
Mandans, Knistanoux &
assiniboins
q. The Saukie & Renards
and those who inhabit
East of the R Missis-
sippi, below the
Chipaways & Ricarras
r. Hds of R Jacque E Side
(From the heads of the
river St. Peters and Red
river to the Missouri,
about the great bend
)
s. Soues or Darcota †† on
the heads of Rivers
Jacque & Big Sieux
Claim the Countrey on
the N W Side of the
Mississippi, no traders,
& but little acquainted
with whites


†††††† This band, although they purchase a much smaller quantity of merchandise than the Sissatones, still appropriate a considerable proportion of what they do obtain in a similar manner with that mentioned of the Sissatones. This trade, as small as it may appear, has been sufficient to render the Tetones independent of the trade of the Missouri, in a great measure, and has furnished them with the means, not only of distressing and plundering the traders of the Missouri, but also, of plundering and massacreing the defenceless savages of the Missouri, from the mouth of the river Platte to the Minetares, and west to the Rocky mountains. The country these people inhabit is almost one entire plain, uncovered with timber; it is extremely level; the soil fertile, and generally well watered.


††††††

23. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Yank-tons-Ah-nah tribe
on River Demoin
c. [La Soo]
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 80
g. 200
h. 〈1000〉 700
i. with Mr. Crawford on
river Demoin
j. on the river Demoin 30
Leagus up that R. (and
sometimes at the Ayauwais
village Prairie de Chien
)
k. 3000
l. 5000
m. Deer & racoon, Some
Bear otter & Beaver
n. Deer, rackoon, Bear
otter 〈Fox〉 Beaver
Buffalow roabs & Grees
Elk, wolves
o. 〈with〉 near the mouth
of Chyanne or Dog
River or at the Council
Bluffs
p. with the Nations on the
West and lower part of
the Missourie River
(except the Mahas and
Poncars
) and with the
Ricaras (also with the
Chippeways
)
q. The Saukie & Renards
and those who inhabit
East of the R. Missis-
sippi below the
Chipaways & Ayauways
r. River Demoin (From the
river All Jacque east-
wardly, on the lower por-
tion of the river Sioux and
heads of Foids [Floyd's]
river, Little, Sioux and
Demoin rivers
)
s. Soues or Darcota †† be-
tween the Missourie &
River Desmoin, on the
Little River Souix †† they
rove live by hunting do
not Cultivate the
ground †† not good or
verry bad


†††††† These are the best disposed Sioux who rove on the banks of the Missouri, and these even will not suffer any trader to ascend the river, if they can possibly avoid it: they have, heretofore, invariably arrested the progress of all those they have met with, and generally compelled them to trade at the prices, nearly, which they themselves think proper to fix on their merchandise: they seldom commit any further acts of violence on the whites. They sometimes visit the river Demoin, where a partial trade has been carried on with them, for a few years past, by a Mr. Crawford. Their trade, if well regulated, might be rendered extremely valuable. Their country is a very fertile one; it consists of a mixture of wood-lands and prairies. The land bordering on the Missouri is principally plains with but little timber.


††††††

24. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Teton Bous rouley (burnt
woods[)]
c. Bous rouley
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 120
g. 300
h. 〈1400〉 900
i. with Louisell &c from
St Louis
j. at Cedar Island 1235
miles up the Missouri
River
k. 5000
l. 7000
m. Buffalow robes, Dressd
Buffalow Skins Greece
in bladders & meat
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉
o. 〈with〉 near the mouth
of Chyanne or Dog
River Except the Coun-
cil Bluffs
p. with the nations on the
West and lower part of
the Missourie River ex-
cept the Ricaras
q. the Saukie & Renards
and those East of the R
Mississippi below the
Chipeways & Ayauways
r. 400 Lgs. up M[issouri]
(On the east side of the
Missouri, from the mouth
of White River to Teton river
)
s. Soues or Darcota rove
on both Sides of the
Missourie about the
Grand de tour (or big
bend[)] & on Teton
River above White
River, they are but litle
acquainted with the
whites, uncivilised
〈robbers〉 rascals, they
attempted to Stop the
party for N W
D[iscovery]

25. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Teton-O-kan-dan-das
tribe
c. (La Soo)
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 50
g. 120
h. 600 [or] 360
i. with Louisell &c. from
St Louis
j. above the mouth of
Chien or Shar ha R (and
at the Rickaras
)
k. 1500
l. 2500
m. Buffalow robes, Dressd
Buffalo Skins Greece in
bladders & meat
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉
o. 〈with〉 near the mouth
of Chyanne or Dog
River or at the Council
Bluffs
p. with the Loup, Mahars
Ponarer, Mandans &
Big bellies
q. the Saukie & Renards
and those East of the
Mississippi Shar ha &
Ricreras
r. on the Miss[ouri] (On
each side of the Missouri,
from the mouth of Teton
river to the mouth of
Chyenne river
)
s. Soues or Darcota rove
on both Sides of the
Missourie 〈about〉 below
the Mouth of Shar ha
(Chien or Dog) river on
the Teton River above
White River, they are
but little acquainted
with the whites

26. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Teton-Min-na-Kine-az-zo
c. (La Soo)
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 100
g. 250
h. 1200 [or] 750
i. No trader (Mr. Loisell
and Co. of St. Louis
)
j. about the mouth of
Chien and at Ceder Isd.
(and at the Rickaras)
k. 2,000
l. 3,000
m. Buffalow robes, Dressd
Buffalow Skins Greece
in bladders & meat
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉
o. 〈with〉 near the mouth
of Chyenne or Dog
River or at the Council
Bluffs
p. with the Loup, Mahars,
Ponarer, Mandans &
Big bellies
q. the Saukie & Renards
and those East of the
Mississippi Shar ha &
Ricreras
r. on the Miss[ouri] up
(From the mouth of the
Chyenne river on each side
of the Missouri as high as
the Rickaras
)
s. Soues or Darcota rove
on both Sides of the
Missourie above the
Sharha or Chien river
Visious but have be-
haved tolerably well to
the only trader Mr.
Haney †† but little ac-
quainted with the
whites, Some intercourse
with the Ricaras whome
they Sometimes treat
well but oftener bad (a
kind of an exchange
exists between them[)]

27. a. Dar-co-tar's proper the
Soos or Sioux
b. Teton-Sah-o-ne tribe
c. (La Soo)
d. *Dar-co-tar (or Sioux)
e. [blank]
f. 120
g. 300
h. 1400 [or] 900
i. no Trader (Mr. Loisell
and Co. of St. Louis
)
j. about the mouth of
Chien and at Ceder Isd.
(and at the Rickaras)
k. 2,300
l. 3,500
m. Buffalow robes, Dressd
Buffalow Skins Greece
in bladders & meat
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉
o. 〈with〉 near the mouth
of Chyanne or Dog
River or at the Council
Bluffs
p. with the Loup, Mahars,
Ponarer, Mandans &
Big bellies
q. the Saukie & Renards
and those East of the
Mississippi Shar ha &
Ricreras
r. on the Miss[ouri] above
(On each side of the Mis-
souri from the Ricaras to
the mouth of Warreconne
river
)
s. Soues or Darcota rove
on both Sides of the
Missourie above &
below the Ricaraas,
Visious but have be-
haved tolerably well to
the only trader Mr.
Haney †† but little ac-
quainted with the
whites †† Some inter-
course with Ricaras
whome they Sometimes
treat well but oftener
bad (a kind of an ex-
change exists between
them[)]


†††††† Tetons Bois Brulť. Tetons Okandandas. Tetons Minnakineazzo. Tetons Sahone. These are the vilest miscreants of the savage race, and must ever remain the pirates of the Missouri, until such measures are pursued, by our government, as will make them feel a dependence on its will for their supply of merchandise. Unless these people are reduced to order, by coercive measures, I am ready to pronounce that the citizens of the United States can never enjoy but partially the advantages which the Missouri presents. Relying on a regular supply of merchandise, through the channel of the river St. Peters, they view with contempt the merchants of the Missouri, whom they never fail to plunder, when in their power. Persuasion or advice, with them, is viewed as supplication, and only tends to inspire them with contempt for those who offer either. The tameness with which the traders of the Missouri have heretofore submitted to their rapacity, has tended not a little to inspire them with contempt for the white persons who visit them, through that channel. A prevalent idea among them, and one which they make the rule of their conduct, is, that the more illy they treat the traders the greater quantity of merchandise they will bring them, and that they will thus obtain the articles they wish on better terms; they have endeavored to inspire the Ricaras with similar sentiments, but, happily, without any considerable effect. The country in which these four bands rove is one continued plain, with scarcely a tree to be seen, except on the water-courses, or the steep declivities of hills, which last are but rare: the land is fertile, and lies extremely well for cultivation; many parts of it are but badly watered. It is from this country that the Missouri derives most of its colouring matter; the earth is strongly impregnated with glauber salts, alum, copperas and sulphur, and when saturated with water, immense bodies of the hills precipitate themselves into the Missouri, and mingle with its waters. The waters of this river have a purgative effect on those unaccustomed to use it. I doubt whether these people can ever be induced to become stationary; their trade might be made valuable if they were reduced to order. They claim jointly with the other bands of the Sioux, all the country lying within the following limits, viz. †† beginning at the confluence of the river Demoin and Mississippi, thence up the west side of the Mississippi to the mouth of the St. Peters river, thence on both sides of the Mississippi to the mouth of Crow-wing river, and upwards with that stream, including the waters of the upper part of the same; thence to include the waters of the upper portion of Red river, of Lake Winnipie, and down the same nearly to Pembenar river, thence a south westerly course to intersect the Missouri at or near the Mandans, and with that stream downwards to the entrance of the Warrecunne creek, thence passing the Missouri it goes to include the lower portion of the river Chyenne, all the waters of White river and river Teton, includes the lower portion of the river Quicurre, and returns to the Missouri, and with that stream downwards to the mouth of Waddipon river, and thence eastwardly to intersect the Mississippi at the beginning.


††††††

The subdivisions of the Darcotar or Sioux nation, with
the names of the principal chiefs of each band and subdivision
[found only in the printed document]

Names of
the Bands
Name of the
Subdivisions
Names of
the Chiefs

Remarks
Mindawarcarton Mindawarcarton
Kee-uke-sah
Tin-tah-ton
Mah-tah-ton
*Ne-co-hun-dah
Tar-tong-gar-mah-nee
Cha-tong-do-tah
Those marked with
a star are the princi-
pal chiefs of their
respective bands, as
well as their own
subdivisions.
Wahpatone Wah-pa-tone
O-ta-har-ton
*Tar-car-ray
War-bo-sen-dat-ta
Wahpacoota War-pa-coo-ta
Mi-ah-kee-jack-sah
*War-cah-to
Chit-tah-wock-kun-
de-pe
Sissatone Sissatone
Caw-ree
*Wack-he-en-do-tar
Tar-tung-gan-naz-a
Yankton, (of the
north)
Kee-uke-sah
Sah-own
Hone-ta-par-teen
Hah-har-tones
Hone-ta-par-teen-waz

Za-ar-tar
*Mah-to-wy-ank-ka. . . . .
Arsh-kane
Pit-ta-sah
Mah-pe-on-do-tak
Tat-tung-gar-weet-
e-co
Said individually to be
very friendly to the
whites. He posseses
great influence in his
band and nation.
Yankton ahnah Yank-ton,-sa-char-hoo



Tar-co-im-bo-to
*Nap-pash-scan-na-
mah-na. . . . . . .


War-ha-zing ga. . . . .

Accepted a medal and
flag of the United
States.
Do. a medal.
Teton, (Bois brŻle) E-sah-a-te-ake-tar-par
War-chink-tar-he
Choke-tar-to-womb



Oz-ash
Me-ne-sharne
*Tar-tong-gar-sar-par
Man-da-tong-gar
Tar-tong-gar-war-har



Mah-zo-mar-nee
Wah-pah-zing-gar
Do. do. & flag of U.S.
A great scoundrel; We
gave him a medal be-
fore we were ac-
quainted with his
character.
Teton,
O-kan-dan-das
She-o
O-kan-dan-das
*O-ase-se-char
Wah-tar-pa
Teton,

min-na-kine-az-zo
Min-na-kine-az-zo

Wan-nee-wack-a-ta-o
ne-lar
Tar-co-eh-parh
*Wock-ke-a-chauk-in-
dish-ka
Chan-te-wah-nee-jah
Teton, sah-o-ne Sah-o-ne
Tack-chan-de-see-char

Sah-o-ne-hont-a-par-
par
*Ar-kee-che-tar
War-min-de-o-pe-in-
doo-tar
Sharh-ka-has-car


††††††

28. a. Chyennes
b. Shar-ha
c. Chien
d. *Chyenne
e. [blank]
f. 110
g. 300
h. 1700 [or] 1200
i. no Trader (Mr. Loiselle,
& Co. of St. Louis
)
j. on the Chien River (not
stationary
) and at the
Ri[c]aras
k. (1,500)
l. (2,000)
m. Buffalow Robes (of best
quality
)
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
horn anamal Skins
o. at the Mouth of Shar ha
River or at the Mouth
of Yellowstone R.
p. A Defensive War with
Sioux (or Darcotas) and
at war with no other
that I know of
q. with the Ricaras, Man-
dans, Menataries, and
all their neighbours in
the plains to the S. W.
r. on Chien R. (About the
source of the river
Chyenne, in the black hills
)
s. No Settled place †† they
rove to the S. W. of the
Ricaras, and on both
Sides of the Cout noir
or black hills, at the
heads of the Chien
River, do not Cultivate
the Soil, they formerley
lived in a Village and
Cultivated Corn on the
Cheyene River a fork of
the red river of Lake
winnipique, the Soues
drove them from that
quater across the Mis-
sourie, on the S W bank
of which they made a
Stand (a fort) a litte
above the ricares a fiew
years, and was Com-
pelled to rove †† well dis-
posed Inds.


†††††† They are the remnant of a nation once respectable in point of number: formerly resided on a branch of the Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bears their name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, they removed to the west side of the Missouri, about 15 miles below the mouth of the Warricunne creek, where they built and fortified a village, but being pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux, they fled to the Black hills, about the head of the Chyenne river, where they wander in quest of the buffaloe, having no fixed residence. They do not cultivate. They are well disposed towards the whites, and might easily be induced to settle on the Missouri, if they could be assured of being protected from the Sioux. Their number annually diminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.


†††††† [Ed: The printed versions of items 29 and 30 have two sets each: Wetepahatoes and Kiawas, and Kanenavish and Staetan. Where words from the printed source are used, we have two sets of parenthetical material.]


††††††

29. a. We ta pa ha to Cay-au-
wa nation
b. We ta pa ha to & 〈Cas ta
ha na〉 Cay-au-wah
c. (Wete-pahatoes) (Ki'‚w‚s)
d. and e. [blank]
f. 70 (including the Ki‚w‚s)
g. 200 (including the
Ki‚w‚s
)
h. 1000 [or] 700 (including
the Ki‚w‚s
)
i. no Traders that visit
them, what little trin-
kets they possess is ac-
quired from their
neighbouring Tribes or
Nations
j. Sometimes visit the
Ricaras
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 Big
horn Skins and Horses
o. at the Mouth of Shar ha
River or at the Mouth
of Yellowstone R.
p. a Defensive War with
Sioux (or Darcotas) and
at war with no other
that I know of
q. with the Ricaras, Man-
dans, Menataries, and
all their neighbours in
the plains to the S. W.
r. Rivers platt & Loup (On
the Paduca fork of the
river Platte) (and fre-
quently with the
Wetepahatoes
)
s. rove on the Paducar
fork of the river platte
on the Wolf or Loup
river a N W branch of
the Platt to the S W. of
the Black hills or Cout
niree
a litte to the S. of
West from the mouth of
the Chien or Sharha
River
†† they are but little
known †† they Some-
times Come to the
ricaras and trade horses
to them


†††††† They are a wandering nation, inhabit an open country, and raise a great number of horses, which they barter to the Ricaras, Mandans, &c. for articles of European manufactory. They are a well disposed people, and might be readily induced to visit the trading establishments on the Missouri. From the animals their country produces, their trade would, no doubt, become valuable. These people again barter a considerable proportion of the articles they obtain from the Menetares, Ahwahhaways, Mandans, and Ricaras, to the Dotames and Castapanas. [The remainder comes from the second item.] What has been said of the Wetephatoes is in all respects applicable to these people also. Neither these people, the Wetephatoes, nor the Chyennes have any idea of exclusive right to the soil.


††††††

30. a. Ca-ne-na-vich Sta-e-tan
tribes
b. Ca-ne-na-vich Sta-e-tan
c. Kites
d. and e. [blank]
f. 190 (150) (25)
g. 500 (400) (75)
h. 3300 [or] 1900 (1,500)
(300)
i. no Traders that visit
them, what little trin-
kets they possess is ac-
quired from their
neighbouring Tribes or
Nations
j. Sometimes visit the
Ricaras
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
horn Skins and horses
o. at the Mouth of Shar ha
River or at the Mouth
of Yellowstone R. or at
the Mouth of the
Cheyenne or the River
Roche-joune yellow
Rock
p. a Defensive War with
Sioux (or Darcotas) and
at war with no other
that I know of
q. Mandans, Ricaras, and
all their neighbours
r. Heads of R Loup (On
the heads of the Padoucas
fork of the river Platte,
and S. fork of Chyenne
river
) (On the head of the
Chyenne, and frquently
with the Kanenavish
)
s. no limits Can be dis-
cribed for any of the
Nations and tribes in
this quarter as War with
their neighbours fre-
quently happen which
force one party to re-
move a Considerable
distance from the
others, untill peace is
restored, at which pe-
riod all lands are Gen-
erally in Common—
yet it is not common for
two tribes to Camp to-
gether for any long
time or hunt in the
Same place

31. a. Cataka Tribe
b. Ca ta ka
c., d., and e. [blank]
f. 25
g. 75
h. 400 [or] 300
i. no Traders that visit
them, what little trin-
kets they possess is ac-
quired from their
neighbouring Tribes or
Nations
j. Sometimes visit the
Ricaras
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
horn anamal Skins and
Horses
o. at the Mouth of Shar ha
River or at the Mouth
of Yellowstone R. or at
the Mouth of the
Cheyenne or the River
Roche-joune yellow
Rock
p. a Defensive war with
the Soues & Assinni-
boins & Ricaras at war
with no other nation
that I know of
q. Mandans Big bellies
and their wandering
neighbors
r. Heads of R Loup above
(Between the heads of the
north and south forks of
the river Chyenne
)
s. Those tribes [Cataka,
Nemousin, and Dotane
]
rove on the heads of the
Wolf or Loup River and
on the head waters of
the S E branches of the
river, Roche journe or
yellow rock, and between
the Cout Noire and rock
or Shineing moun-
tains— †† one of those
tribes is known to Speak
the Padoucan Lan-
guage. Their Territories
are in Common as
above Stated— †† do not
Cultivate the Soil but
live by hunting in a
countrey abounding in
aniamals— †† inhabit a
fine [country] for
Beaver Otter &c.

32. a. Nemousin Tribe
b. Ni-mi-ou-Sin
c. (Allebome)
d. and e. [blank]
f. 15
g. 50
h. 300 [or] 200
i. no Traders that visit
them, what little trin-
kets they possess is ac-
quired from their
neighbouring Tribes or
Nations
j. Sometimes visit the
Ricaras
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
Horn Skins and Horses
o. at the mouth of Shar ha
River or at the mouth of
Yellowstone R.
p. a Defensive war with
the Soues (or Darcotas)
and at war with no
other nation that I
know of
q. Mandans, Ricaras, and
all their neighbours
r. Heads of R Loup above
(On the head of the north
fork of the river Chyenne
)
s. Those tribes [Cataka,
Nemousin, and Dotane
]
rove on the heads of the
Wolf or Loup River and
on the head waters of
the S E branches of the
river, Roche journe or
yellow rock, and between
the Cout Noire and rock
or Shineing moun-
tains— †† one of those
tribes is known to Speak
the Padoucan Lan-
guage. Their Territories
are in Common as
above Stated— †† do not
Cultivate the Soil but
live by hunting in a
countrey abounding in
aniamals— †† inhabit a
fine [country] for
Beaver Otter &c.


†††††† These differ from the others (viz. Wetepahatoes, Kiawas, Kanenavich, Staetan and Cataka) in as much as they never visit the Ricaras; in all other respects they are the same.


††††††

33. a. Do-ta-ne tribe (Dotome)
b. Do-ta-na
c. (Dotame)
d. Padouces
e. [blank]
f. 10
g. 30
h. 200 [or] 120
i. no Traders that visit
them, what little trin-
kets they possess is ac-
quired from their
neighbouring Tribes or
Nations
j. Some times visit the
Ricaras
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
Horn Skins and Horses
o. at the Mouth of Shar ha
River or at the Mouth
of Yellowstone R. or at
the Mouth of the
Cheyenne or the River
Roche-joune yellow
Rock
p. a Defensive War with
Sioux (or Darcotas) and
at war with no other
that I know of
q. with the Ricaras, Man-
dans, Menataries, and
all their neighbours in
the plains to the S. W.
r. Heads of the R. Loup
above (On the heads of the
river Chyenne
)
s. Those tribes [Cataka,
Nemousin, and Dotane
]
rove on the heads of the
Wolf or Loup River and
on the head waters of
the S E branches of the
river, Roche journe or
yellow rock, and be-
tween the Cout Noire
and rock or Shineing
mountains— †† one of
those tribes is known to
Speak the Padoucan
Language. Their Ter-
ritories are in Common
as above Stated— †† do
not Cultivate the Soil
but live by hunting in
a countrey abounding
in aniamals— †† inhabit
a fine [country] for
Beaver Otter &c.


†††††† The information I possess, with respect to this nation, is derived from Indian information: they are said to be a wandering nation, inhabiting an open country, and who raise a great number of horses and mules. They are a friendly, well disposed people, and might, from the position of their country, be easily induced to visit an establishment on the Missouri, about the mouth of Chyenne river. They have not, as yet, visited the Missouri.


††††††

34. a. Cas-ta-ha-na N
b. Cas-ta-ha-na Nation
c. Gens des Vache
d. Me na ta re (or big
belly)
e. [blank]
f. 500
g. 1300
h. 7000 [or] 5000
i. what little trinkets they
posses is acquired from
their neigbouring
Tribes or Nations (No
Trader
)
j. Some visit the Mandans
& Wanataries
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
Horn Skins and Horses
(and skins of the lynx or
louverin, and martens in
addition
)
o. at the mouth of Roche
joune (or Yellow Stone
R)
p. a Defensive War with
the Sioux & Assinni-
boins, at war with no
other nation that I
know of
q. Mandans Big bellies
and their wandering
neighbours
r. Yellow rock river &
Loup (Between the sources
of the Padoucas fork, of the
rivers Platte and Yellow
Stone
)
s. rove on a S E. fork of
the Yellow Rock River
Called Big horn River,
and the heads of the
Loup. Their Territories
are in common †† do not
cultivate the Soil but
live by hunting


†††††† What has been said of the Dotames is applicable to these people, except that they trade principally with the Crow Indians, and that they would most probably prefer visiting an establishment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth on the Missouri.


††††††

35. a. Ravin nation
b. 〈Arp-Sar-co-gah〉
Kee-h‚t-s‚
c. Cor beaus
d. Menetare (or big belly)
e. [blank]
f. 350
g. 900
h. 5000 [or] 3500
i. what little trinkets they
possess is acquired for
their neigbouring
Tribes or Nations (No
Trader
)
j. Some visit the Mandans
& Minataries
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins; Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
Horn Skins and Horses
(and skins of the lynx or
louverin, and martens in
addition
)
o. at the mouth of Roche
joune (or Yellow Stone
R)
p. a Defensive War with
the Sioux & Assinni-
boins, at war with no
other nation that I
know of & Ricaras
q. Mandans Big bellies
and their wandering
neighbours
r. on the Yellow Rock R.
low down (about the
mouth of the Big-horn
river
)
s. rove on both Sides of
the River Roche jone (or
Yellow Stone) a 〈Short〉
Some distance above
the mouth. Their Ter-
ritories are in Com-
mon †† do not cultivate
the Soil but live by
hunting †† Ther Coun-
trey is full of anamals or
Game of every Kind
perticularly Beaver, a
great perpotion Wood
Ld.


†††††† These people are divided into four bands, called by themselves A-h‚h'-‚r-ro'-pit-no-pah, Noo'-ta, Pa-rees-car, and E-h‚rt'-s‚r. They annually visit the Mandans, Minetares, and Ahwahhaways, to whom they barter horses, mules, leather lodges, and many articles of Indian apparel, for which they receive, in return, guns, ammunition, axes, kettles, awls, and other European manufactures. When they return to their country, they are in turn visited by the Paunch and Snake Indians, to whom they barter most of the articles they have obtained from the nations on the Missouri, for horses and mules, of which those nations have a greater abundance than themselves. They also obtain from the Snake Indians, bridle-bits and blankets, and some other articles which those Indians purchase from the Spaniards. The bridle-bits and blankets I have seen in the possession of the Mandans and Minetares. Their country is fertile, and well watered, and in most parts well timbered.


††††††

36. a. Pau〈nch tribe〉 (Paunch
Indians
)
b. 〈pa-Sha-pa-to-rah〉
Kee-h‚t-s‚
(Al-la-ka-we-ah)
c. Gens des panse
d. Menetarre (or big belly)
e. [blank]
f. 300
g. 800
h. 4000 [or] 2300
i. what little trinkets they
possess is acquired from
their neighbouring
Tribes or Nations (No
Trader
)
j. Some visit the Mandans
& Minataries
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
Horn Skins no Horses
(and skins of the lynx or
louverin, and martens in
addition
)
o. at the mouth of Roche
joune (or Yellow Stone
R)
p. a Defensive War with
the Sioux & Assinni-
boins, at war with no
other nation that I
know of except Ricaras
q. Mandans Big bellies
and their wandering
neighbours
r. on the Yellow Rock R.
high up (near the rocky
mountains, and heads of
the Big-horn river
)
s. rove on the River Roche-
jone
high up †† their
Countrey abounds in
animals of Different
kinds. Their Territories
are in Common †† do
not cultivate the Soil
but live by hunting


†††††† These are said to be a peaceable, well disposed nation. Their country is a variegated one, consisting of mountains, vallies, plains, and woodlands, irregularly interspersed. They might be induced to visit the Missouri, at the mouth of the Yellow Stone river; and from the great abundance of valuable fured animals which their country, as well as that of the Crow Indians, produces, their trade must become extremely valuable. They are a roving people, and have no idea of of exclusive right to the soil.


††††††

37. a. As[sini]boins T[ribe]s as
cald. by the Chipaways
or Stone Sious
b. Ma-ne-to-par Tribe
c. or Band lar Gru Crain
or canoe
d. Soues (Dar co ta) with a
little Corruption
e. [blank]
f. 100
g. 200
h. 1200 [or] 750
i. Hudsons Bay N W. &
X. Y. Companies
j. The Establishments at
the mouth of Mous R.
on the assiniboin River
& at the Establishmts.
on R. Cappell abt. 150
mes. N. of Fort Mandan
k. 4500
l. 7000
m. Some Beaver a fiew
Roabs, Grees, meat
wolves & pemitigon
Some Brown Bear &c
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
Horn Skins and Horses
(Buffaloe robes, tallow,
dried and pounded meat
and grease, skins of the
large and small fox, small
and large wolves, antelopes
(or cabri) and elk in great
abundance; also some
brown, white and grisly
bear, deer and lynx
)
o. at the mouth of Roche
joune (or Yellow Stone
R)
p. Sioux snake Indians
and partially with
Ricaras & Several na-
tions on the S. W. of
Missouri
q. the Knistanoes (or
Cristanoes & their own
tribes only)
r. on Mous river (between
the Assinniboin and the
Missouri
) & R. Rogue
s. rove on the Mouse
River and the branches
of River Ossinaboin
North of the Mandans,
those people do not
cultivate the ground,
they are Vicious. †† they
live by hunting pay but
little respect to their en-
gagements, great
Drunkards

38. a. As[sini]boins T[ribe]s as
cald. by the Chipaways
or Stone Sious
b. Na-co-ta O-ee-gah
c. Gens des fees or Girls
(Gem des Tee)
d. Soues (Dar co ta) with a
little corruption
e. [blank]
f. 100
g. 250
h. 1200 [or] 850
i. Hudsons Bay N W. &
X. Y. Companies
j. The Establishments at
the mouth of Mous R.
on the assiniboin River
& at the Establishmts.
on R. Cappell abt. 150
mes. N. of Fort Mandan
k. 6000
l. 6500
m. Some Beaver a fiew
Roabs, Grees, meat
wolves & pemitigon
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins; Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉, & Big
Horn Skins and Horses
(Buffaloe robes, tallow,
dried and pounded meat
and grease, skins of the
large and small fox, small
and large wolves, antelopes
(or cabri) and elk in great
abundance; also some
brown, white and grisly
bear, deer and lynx
)
o. At the mouth of Roche-
joune (or Yellow Stone
R)
p. Sioux snake Indians
and partially with
Ricaras & Several na-
tions on the S. W. of
Missouri
q. the Knistanoes (or
Cristanoes & their own
tribes only)
r. between the R. Rouche
& Missouri (about the
mouth of Little Missouri,
to the Assinniboin, at the
mouth of Capelle river
)
s. Rove on the heads of
the Mouse river & River
Capell (or that Calls)
and on a N West branch
of the Missourie Called
Little Muddy River">White earth River,
vicious & do not Culti-
vate the land live by
hunting †† pay but little
respect to their engage-
ments, great Drunkards.

39. a. As[sini]boins T[ribe]s as
cald. by the Chipaways
or Stone Sious
b. Na-co-ta Mah-ta-pa-nar-to
c. Big Devils (Gens des
grand Diable
)
d. Soues (Da co ta) with a
little corruption
e. [blank]
f. 200
g. 450
h. (2000) [or] 1600
i. Hudsons Bay N W. &
X. Y. Companies (and
occasionally at the estab-
lishments on the river
Saskashawan
)
k. 8000
l. 8000
m. Some Beaver a fiew
Roabs, Grees, meat
wolves & pemitigon
n. Buffalow roabs, Dressed
Buffalow Skins, Grees,
Beaver, Deer, Cabbra,
Skins, Small & large
foxes 〈Mink〉 otter,
wolves 〈& Hair Pecon,
Careajoe Skins〉 & Big
horn Skins and Horses
(Buffaloe robes, tallow,
dried and pounded meat
and grease, skins of the
large and small fox, small
and large wolves, antelopes
(or cabri) and elk in great
abundance; also some
brown, white and grisly
bear, deer and lynx, with
more bears and some mar-
ten, with more bears and
some marten
)
o. at the mouth of Roche-
joune (or Yellow stone R)
p. Sioux snake Indians
and partially with
Ricaras & Several na-
tions on the S. W. of
Missouri
q. the Knistanoes (or
Cristanoes & their own
tribes only)
r. between the R. Rouche
& Missouri & up White
earth R (and on the head
of Assinniboin and Capelle
rivers
)
s. rove in the plains in
Different parties be-
tween the Missouris &
the Saskashowanrivers
above the Yallow Stone
River & heads of the
Ossiniboins River—
they are vicious do not
Cultivate the Soil live by
hunting.


†††††† Manetopa. Oseegah. Mahtopanato. Are the descendants of the Sioux, and partake of their turbulent and faithless disposition: they frequently plunder, and sometimes murder, their own traders. The name by which this nation is generally known was borrowed from the Chippeways, who call them Assinniboan, which, literally translated, is Stone Sioux, hence the name of Stone Indians, by which they are sometimes called. The country in which they rove is almost entirely uncovered with timber; lies extremely level, and is but badly watered in many parts; the land, however, is tolerably fertile and unincumbered with stone. They might be induced to trade at the river Yellow Stone; but I do not think that their trade promises much. Their numbers continue about the same. These bands, like the Sioux, act entirely independent of each other, although they claim a national affinity and never make war on each other. The country inhabited by the Mahtopanato possesses rather more timber than the other parts of the country. They do not cultivate.


††††††

40. a. Knistanoes or
Cristanoes
b. Knis-ta-nau 2 bands
c. Crees
d. Corupted Chipaway
e. [blank]
f. 150
g. 300
h. 1000
i. Hudsons Bay N. W. &
X. Y. Companies
j. The Establishments at
the mouth of Mous R.
on the Assiniboin River
& at the Establishmts.
on R. cappell abt 150
mes. N. of Fort Mandan
k. 10000 (15,000)
l. 15000
m. Beaver, Wolves, otter,
carkajeu (or wolverine
or Beaver robes)
Dressed Elk or Mose
little fox Loucirva
[picou?] or Lynx, Mink
Martin &c
n. Dressed Moos Skins &
Martins (The skins of the
beaver, otter, lynx, wolf,
wolverine, marten, mink,
small fox, brown and
grizzly bear, dressed elk
and moose-deer skins, musk-
rat skins, & some buffaloe
robes, dried meat, tallow
and grease
)
o. at the mouth of Roche-
joune (or Yellow Stone R)
p. Sioux the fall Indians
Blood Indians, Crow,
&c.
q. Algonquins Chipaways
Assiniboins mandans
Grovantre &c. and the
Ah-nah-ha-ways or
Shoe Indians
r. Assiniboin River (and
thence towards
Saskashawan
)
s. rove on Heads of Os-
siniboin & its waters
and to the Missouri in
the Countrey of the As-
siniboins, principally on
the head Assiniboin—
not Stationary.


†††††† They are a wandering nation; do not cultivate, nor claim any particular tract of country. They are well disposed towards the whites, and treat their traders with respect. The country in which they rove is generally open plains, but in some parts, particularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, it is marshy and tolerably well furnished with timber, as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to which they sometimes resort. From the quantity of beaver in their country, they ought to furnish more of that article than they do at present. They are not esteemed good beaver hunters. They might, probably be induced to visit an establishment on the Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Their number has been reduced, by the small pox, since they were first known to the Canadians.


††††††

41. a. Fall Indians
b. (A-l‚n-s‚r)
c. Fall Indians or Gen de
rapid
d. Me ne tar re
e. [blank]
f. 260
g. 660
h. 2500
i. N W Company
j. 〈about the great Falls of
Missouri〉 Eagle Moun-
tain (Upper establishment
on the Saskashawan; but
little trade
)
k. 1000
l. 4000
m. Beaver, wolves, otter,
carkajeu (or wolverine
or Beaver robes)
Dressed Elk or Mose
little fox Loucirva
[picou?] or Lynx, Mink
Martin &c
n. Dressed Moos Skins &
Martins and Big horned
animal Skins (Skins of
the beavers, brown, white
and grizzly bear, large and
small foxes, muskrat, mar-
ten, mink, lynx, wolverine,
wolves, white hares, deer,
elk, moose-deer, antelopes
of the Missouri, and some
buffaloe
)
o. about the falls of
Missouri
p. (Defensive war with the
Christenoes
)
q. [blank]
r. near Rock M (On the
head of the south fork of
the Saskashawan river,
and same streams supposed
to be branches of the
Missouri
)
s. rove between the Mis-
souries and askaw or
Bad river a fork of the
Saskashawan, a tribe of
Menetaries, but little
known, they rove as far
as the rock mountains


†††††† The country these people rove in is not much known: it is said to be a high, broken, woody country. They might be induced to visit an establishment at the falls of the Missouri: their trade may, no doubt, be made profitable.


††††††

42. a. Cat-tan a haws
b. Cat an a haws
c. none
d. through h. [blank]
i. (No trader)
j., k., and l. [blank]
m. Beaver, wolves, otter,
carkajeu (or wolverine
or Beaver robes)
Dressed Elk or Mose
little fox Loucirva
[picou?] or Lynx, Mink
Martin &c
n. and Big horned animal
Skins and all other
northern animals inhab-
iting a N. climate except
racoons & fisher (Skins
of the beavers, brown,
white and grizzly bear,
large and small foxes,
muskrat, marten, mink,
lynx, wolverine, wolves,
white hares, deer, elk,
moose-deer, antelopes of the
Missouri, and some
buffaloe
)
o. about the falls of
Missouri
p. and q. [blank]
r. near Rock M (Between
the Saskashawan and the
Missouri, on waters sup-
posed to be of the Missouri
)
s. on the heads of the
South fork of the Sas-
kas-ha-wan, and North
branches of the Mis-
souri 〈near〉 about the
rock Mountain †† but
little known


†††††† What has been said of the Fall Indians is, in all respects, applicable to this nation. They are both wandering nations.


††††††

43. a. Blue Mud (and Long
Hair
) Indians
b. [blank]
c. (Blue Mud and Long
Hair Indians
)
d. through h. [blank]
i. (No trader)
j., k., and l. [blank]
m. Beaver, wolves, otter,
carkajeu (or wolverine
or Beaver robes)
Dressed Elk or Mose
little fox Loucirva
[picou?] or Lynx, Mink
Martin &c
n. and Big horned animal
Skins and all other
northern animals inhab-
iting a N. climate except
racoons & fisher (Not
known, but from the posi-
tion of their country sup-
posed to abound in
animals similar to those
mentioned in [42 O]
o. about the falls of
Missouri
p. and q. [blank]
r. near Rock M (West of the
Rocky mountains, and near
the same on water courses
supposed to be branches
of the Columbia river
)
s. In the Rock or Shineing
mountains on the S.
Side of a River Called
Great Lake River, Sup-
posed to run into the
Columbia river, but little
known


†††††† Still less is known of these people, or their country. The water courses on which they reside, are supposed to be branches of the Columbia river. They are wandering nations.


††††††

44. a. Alitan or Snake Ind.
b. A-li-tan, (So-so-na, So-so-
b‚, and i'-‚-k‚r
)
c. Gen de Serpent
d. *Ali tan
e., f., and g. [blank]
h. very noumerous
i. Some of those Inds
trade with the Span-
iards 〈North and S. of
them〉
j. New Mexico
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Carkajous wolverine or
Beaver eaters Loucirva
Pichou or Lonkz (The
same with the Fall, Cat-
tanahaws and Black Foot
Indians, except buffaloes;
but they have in addition
immense quantities of
horses, mules and asses
)
o. Head of Platt or Arkan-
saws R (At or near the
Falls of Missouri
)
p. act on the Defensive as
far as I can lern †† the
most of the nearer na-
tions make war upon
them
q. with those who wish to
be friendly (Mandans
and Crow Indians, and all
those who do not attack
them
)
r. in and about Rockey
Mounts. (Among the
rocky mountains, on the
heads of the Missouri,
Yellow Stone, and Platte
rivers
)
s. rove on both Sides from
the falls about 2500
miles up near the Rock
mountain to the head
and about those moun-
tains Southerley quite to
the head of Arkansaw,
verry moumerous †† all
the nations on the Mis-
souries below make war
on them & Steal their
horses †† Those I have
seen are mild and ap-
pear well disposed (I
am told they are the
best nation known)
those to the South have
some trade with the
Spaniards of N. Mexico
from whom those on
the Missouries get some
articles †† they abound in
horses


†††††† Aliatans, Snake Indians. These are a very numerous and well disposed people, inhabiting a woody and mountainous country; they are divided into three large tribes, who wander at a considerable distance from each other; and are called by themselves So-so-na, So-so bu-bar, and I-a-kar; these are again subdivided into smaller tho' independent bands, the names of which I have not yet learnt; they raise a number of horses and mules which they trade with the Crow Indians, or are stolen by the nations on the east of them. They maintain a partial trade with the Spaniards, from whom they obtain many articles of cloathing and iron-mongery, but no warlike implements.


†††††† [Ed: The printed version adds two other divisions to the Snake Indians, material not found on the manuscript. We repeat the item number.]


††††††

44. a. (Aliatans)
b. (A-lŪ-a-t‚n)
c. (Aliat‚)
d. (Aliatan)
e. and f. [blank]
g. (Very numerous)
h. [blank]
i. (With the Spaniards of New Mexico)
j. (The place at which this
trade is carried on is not
known
)
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. (Immense quantities of
horses, mules, asses,
buffaloe, deer, elk, black
bear, and large hares; and
in the northern regions of
their country, big horn and
Missouri antelopes, with
many animals of the fur
kind
)
o. (On the Arkansas, as high
up as possible. It would be
best that it should be west
of the source of the Kan-
sas, if it should be neces-
sary even to supply it some
distance by land
)
p. (Defensive war with the
Great and Little Osages,
Paniapique, Kansas,
Pania Proper, Pania Re-
peublican, Pania Loups,
Ricaras, and Sioux
)
q. (At peace with all who do
not wage war against
them
)
r. (Among the rocky moun-
tains and in the plains at
the heads of the Platte and
Arkansas rivers
)


†††††† Of the West. These people also inhabit a mountainous country, and sometimes venture in the plains east of the Rocky mountains, about the head of the Arkansas river. They have more intercourse with the Spaniards of New Mexico than the Snake Indians. They are said to be very numerous and warlike, but are badly armed. The Spaniards fear these people, and therefore take the precaution not to furnish them, with any warlike implements. In their present unarmed state, they frequently commit hostilities on the Spaniards. They raise a great many horses.


††††††

44. a. (Alitan)
b. [blank]
c. (La Plays)
d. (Aliatan)
e., and f. [blank]
g. (Very numerous)
h. [blank]
i. (With the Spaniards of
New Mexico
)
j. (The place at which this
trade is carried on is not
known
)
k., l., and m., [blank]
n. (Immense quantities of
horses, mules, asses,
buffaloe, deer, elk, black
bear, and large hares; and
in the northern regions of
their country, big horn and
Missouri antelopes, with
many animals of the fur
kind
)
o. (On the Arkansas, as high
up as possible. It would be
best that it should be west
of the source of the Kan-
sas, if it should be neces-
sary even to supply it some
distance by land
)
p. (Defensive war with the
Great and Little Osages,
Paniapique, Kansas,
Pania Proper, Pania Re-
peublican, Pania Loups,
Ricaras, and Sioux
)
q. [blank]
r. (The mountains on the
borders of New Mexico,
and the extensive plains at
the heads of the Arkansas
and Red rivers
)


†††††† La Playes. These principally inhabit the rich plains from the head of the Arkansas, embracing the heads of Red river, and extending with the mountains and high lands eastwardly as far as it is known towards the gulph of Mexico. They possess no fire arms, but are warlike and brave. They are, as well as the other Aliatans, a wandering people. Their country abounds in wild horses, besides great numbers which they raise themselves. These people, and the West Aliatans, might be induced to trade with us on the upper part of the Arkansas river. I do not believe that any of the Aliatans claim a country within any particular limits.


††††††

45. a. 〈Padoucas〉
b. 〈p〉
c. padoo
d. *Padoucies
e. Several V[illages]
f. and g. [blank]
h. verry noumerous
i. Some of those Inds
trade with the Span-
iards 〈North and S. of
them〉
j. New Mexico
k., l., and m. [blank]
n. Carkajous wolverine or
Beaver eaters Loucirva
Pichon or Lonkz (ex-
cept Moose Martin
Picou & Carckjou
Skins[)] (they have in ad-
dition immense quantities
of horses, mules and asses
)
o. near the head of Platt,
or Arkansaw Rivers
p. act on the Defensive as
far as I can lern †† the
most of the nearer na-
tions make war upon
them; q. with those who
wish to be friendly
r. Heads of Platt &
Arkansaws R
s. This nation live in Vil-
lages on the heads of
River Platt & Arkansaws
noumerous, well dis-
posed, abound in
horses, have Some
[trade] with New Mex-
ico, I can obtain no cer-
tain account of their
Situation Numbers &c.
&c.


†††††† This once powerful nation has, apparently, entirely disappeared; every inquiry I have made after them has proved ineffectual. In the year 1724, they resided in several villages on the heads of the Kansas river, and could, at that time, bring upwards of two thousand men into the field (see Monsr. Dupratz history of Louisiana, page 71, and the map attached to that work). The information that I have received is, that being oppressed by the nations residing on the Missouri, they removed to the upper part of the river Platte, where they afterwards had but little intercourse with the whites. They seem to have given name to the northern branch of that river, which is still called the Paducas fork. The most probable conjecture is, that being still further reduced, they have divided into small wandering bands, which assumed the names of the subdivisions of the Paducas nation, and are known to us at present under the appellation of Wetepahatoes, Kiawas, Kanenavish, Katteka, Dotame, &c. who still inhabit the country to which the Paducas are said to have removed. The majority of my information led me to believe that those people spoke different languages, but other and subsequent information has induced me to doubt the fact.


††††††

46. a. Chipaways
b. Oo-chi-pa-wau
c. Souteau
d. *Oo he-pawau
e. 1
f. [blank]
g. 400
h. 〈2000〉 1600
i. British N W. Co.
j. near their Village
k. 12,000
l. 16000
m. Beaver Otter, racoon
fox Min[k] Deer & B
Bear Skins & Martens
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, Mink, Deer & B.
Bear Skins & Martens
o. head of Mississippi or at
Red lake (Sandy Lake)
p. Sioux (or Darcotas)
(Saukees, Renars, and
Ayouwais
)
q. all the tribes of
Chipaways and the na-
tions about the Lakes &
Down the Missippi
r. in an Island in Leach
Lake (formed by the Mis-
sissippi river
)
s. a village in a lake near
the head of the Missis-
sippi and an expansion
of the Same Called
Leach, they own all the
Countrey West of L. Su-
peror & to the Sous
line— †† wild rice which
is in great abundance in
their [country] raise no
Corn &c.


†††††† Chippeways, of Leach Lake. Claim the country on both sides of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Crow-wing river to its source, and extending west of the Mississippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, with whom they still contend for dominion. They claim, also, east of the Mississippi, the country extending as far as lake Superior, including the waters of the river St. Louis. This country is thickly covered with timber generally; lies level, and generally fertile, though a considerable portion of it is intersected and broken up by small lakes, morasses and swamps, particularly about the heads of the Mississippi and river St. Louis. They do not cultivate, but live principally on the wild rice, which they procure in great abundance on the borders of Leach Lake and the banks of the Mississippi. Their number has been considerably reduced by wars and the small pox. Their trade is at its greatest extent.


††††††

47. a. Chipaways about L. Du-
bois (or wood) and the
head of the Mississippi
b. Algonquins 100 men &
Chipaways 200
c. Souteaus
d. *Oochepawau
e. [blank]
f. ramble
g. 300, 200, 100 (200)
h. 500, 700, 350 (700)
i. British N W. Co.
j. at Dift. Camps (At an es-
tablishment on Red Lake,
and at their hunting
camps
)
k. 12000 (8,000)
l. 16000 (10,000)
m. Beaver Otter, racoon
fox Min[k] Deer & B
Bear skins & Martens &
some Berch Canoos
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, Mink Deer & B.
Bear skins & Martens &
Canoos
o. head of the Mississippi
or at Red Lake
p. Sioux (or Darcotas)
q. all the tribes of
Chipaways and the na-
tions about the Lakes &
Down the Missippi &
partially with the
Assiniboin
r. about the head of Mis-
sissippi & L. of Woods
(and around Red Lake)
s. in differant parts of the
Countrey from the
heads of the Mississippi
Northerley to the N W.
part of Lake Dubois
do not cultivate the
land but live on Wild
rice hunting &c &c


†††††† [Chippeways] Of Red lake. Claim the country about Red lake and Red lake river, as far as the Red river of Lake Winnipie, beyond which last river they contend with the Sioux for territory. This is a low level country, and generally thickly covered with timber, interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This, as well as the other bands of Chippeways, are esteemed the best hunters in the north west country; but from the long residence of this band in the country they now inhabit, game is becoming scarce; therefore, their trade is supposed to be at its greatest extent. The Chippeways are a well disposed people, but excessively fond of spirituous liquor.


††††††

48. a. Chipaways on River
Rouge
b. 〈Kristanoe〉
Oo-che-pa-wau
c. Souteu
d. *Oochepawau
e. [blank]
f. ramble
g. 100
h. 800 (350)
i. N W & X Y Co.
j. at the mouth of
Pembinar river
k. 7000
l. 10000
m. Beaver Otter, racoon
fox Min[k] Deer & B
Bear Skins & Martens
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, Mink, Deer & B.
Bear skins & Martens
and Lynx, wolverine &
wolves
o. head of the Mississippi
or at Red Lake (On the
Red river of Lake Win-
nipie, about the mouth of
the Assiniboin river
)
p. Sioux (or Darcotas) (and
partially with Assinniboins
)
q. all the tribes of
Chipaways and the na-
tions about the lakes &
Down the Missippi &
cristinoes
r. on R. Ruge (of Lake
Winnipie, and
) about the
Mouth of Pembina
s. ramble near the Estab-
lishment on the River
〈Rogue〉 Assiniboin &
fork of red River run-
ning into Lake Wini-
picque
This tribe of
Chipaways formerley
lived on the Mississippi
at Sand Lake and en-
couraged by the British
traders to hunt on River
Rogue


†††††† [Chippeways] Of river Pembena. These people formerly resided on the east side of the Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced by the north west company, to remove, about two years since, to the river Pembena. They do not claim the lands on which they hunt. The country is level and the soil good. The west side of the river is principally prairies or open plains; on the east side there is a greater proportion of timber. Their trade at present is a very valuable one, and will probably increase for some years. They do not cultivate, but live by hunting. They are well disposed towards the whites.


††††††

49. a. Algonquin
b. Oo Chipawau
c. Souters
d. *Oochepawau
e. [blank]
f. ramble
g. 200
h. 〈1200〉 600
i. N. W. & X Y Co.
j. Portage de prarie (Es-
tablishments on the Assini-
boin at Fort de Prairie
)
k. 8000
l. 11000
m. Beaver Otter, racoon,
fox Min[k] Deer & B
Bear Skins & marten
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, Mink, Deer & B.
Bear Skins & Martens
Lynx & Wolverines
[words crossed out,
illegible
]
o. Mouth of Assinnoboin
about the place the West
line will cross from the
L. of Wo[o]ds in Lat.
49į 37' North or
therabouts (At the Red
river establishment
)
p. Sioux (or Darcotas) (and
partially with the
Assinniboins
)
q. all the tribes of
Chipaways and the na-
tions about the lakes &
Down the Missippi &
cristinoes
r. about the Mouth of the
assiniboin (on Red river)
s. Those bands [including
No. 50
] rove on the
river Rogue from the
Pembaner down to the
Lake Winipicque and
about the Lake Mani-
tauber
, removed from
the East encouraged by
the British traders to
hunt on River Rogue
Those people do not
Cultivate the earth but
hunt beaver & valuable
furs


†††††† [Algonquins] Of Portage de Prairie. These people inhabit a low, flat, marshy country, mostly covered with timber, and well stocked with game. They are emigrants from the lake of the Woods and the country east of it, who were introduced, some years since, by the N. W. traders, in order to hunt the country on the lower parts of the Red river, which then abounded in a variety of animals of the fur kind. They are an orderly, well disposed people, but like their relations on Rainy lake, extremely addicted to spirituous liquors. Their trade is at its greatest extent.


††††††

50. a. Algonquins [word begin-
ning with "K" crossed out,
illegible
]
b. Oo Chepa wau
c. Souteau
d. *Oochepawau
e. [blank]
f. ramble
g. 100
h. 500 (300)
i. N W & X Y Co.
j. Portage de prarie (Es-
tablishments on the rivers
Winnipie and Rainy Lake,
and at their hunting
camps
)
k. 〈4000〉
l. 〈5000〉 (6,000)
m. Beaver Otter, racoon,
fox Min[k], Deer & B
Bear Skins & marten
(Principally birch bark
canoes
)
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, min[k] Deer & B
Bear Skins & martens
Lynx & Wolverines &
wolverines & wolves &
Muskrats
o. Mouth of Assinnoboin
about the place the West
line will cross from the
L. of Wo[o]ds in Lat.
49į 37' North or
therabouts (At the Red
river establishment
)
p. Sioux (or Darcotas) (and
partially with the
Assinniboins
)
q. all the tribes of
Chipaways and the na-
tions about the lakes &
Down the Missippi &
Algonquians
r. low down the red R (On
the south side of Rainy
Lake, Rainy Lake river,
and Lake of the Wood
)
s. Those bands [including
No. 49
] rove on the
river Rogue from the
Pembaner down to the
Lake Winipicque and
about the Lake Mani-
tauber
, removed from
the East encouraged by
the British traders to
hunt on River Rogue
Those people do not
Cultivate the earth but
hunt beaver & valuable
furs


†††††† Algonquins, of Rainy lake, &c. With the precise limits of the country they claim, I am not informed. They live very much detached, in small parties. The country they inhabit is but an indifferent one; it has been much hunted, and the game, of course, nearly exhausted. They are well disposed towards the whites. Their number is said to decrease. They are extremely addicted to spirituous liquor, of which large quantities are annually furnished them by the N. W. traders, in return for their bark canoes. They live wretchedly poor.


††††††

51. a. Black foot Indians
b. [blank]
c. la peain noir
d. through h. [blank]
i. (No trader)
j., k., and l. [blank]
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, Mink, Deer, B Bear
Skins & martens Lynx
& Wolverines & wolves
& Muskrats and Elk &
Big horn
o. about the falls of
Missouri
p. and q. [blank]
r. near the Rock M. (Be-
tween the Saskashawan
and the Missouri on
waters supposed to be of
Missouri
)
s. Blackfot rove near the
Rock mountains on the
East Side on the waters
of the Missouries but
little known †† Those na-
tions [including
Flatheads
] being little
known the information
is from the Menerres


††††††

52. a. Flat head Inds.
b. (Tut-see-was)
c. Tate Platt
d. through h. [blank]
i. (No trader)
j. through m. [blank]
n. Beaver, otters, racoon,
fox, Mink, Deer & B
Bear Skins & Martens &
Lynx & wolverines &
wolves & Muskrats and
Elk & Big horn
o. [blank]
p. (Defensive war with Minetares)
q. [blank]
r. on the W. of Rock M.
(On the west side of a
large river, lying west of
the Rocky mountains, and
running north, supposed to
be the south fork of the
Columbia river
)
s. Flat heads live on a
river running to the
N W beyond the Mis-
souri, Supposed to be a
branch of the Colum-
bia. Those nations
[including Blackfeet]
being little known the
information is from the
Menerres


†††††† The information I posses with respect to these people has been received from the Minetares, who have extended their war excursions as far westerly as that nation, of whom they have made several prisoners, and brought them with them to their villages on the Missouri: these prisoners have been seen by the Frenchmen residing in this neighborhood. The Minatares state, that this nations resides in one village on the west side of a large and rapid river, which runs from south to north, along the foot of the Rocky mountains on their west side; and that this river passes at a small distance from the three forks of the Missouri. That the country between the mountains and the river is broken, but on the opposite side of the river it is an extensive open plain, with a number of barren sandy hills, irregularly distributed over its surface as far as the eye can reach. They are a timid, inoffensive, and defenceless people. They are said to possess an abundance of horses.


††††††

53. a. 〈Chippaway tribe〉 Pania
Pickey
b. 〈O jib a no〉
c. 〈Sou teaux〉 Pania
Pickey
d. 〈Chippaway〉* Pania
e. 2
f. [blank]
g. 500
h. 2000
i. through n. [blank]
o. 3 Forks of Arkansaw
p. Little & Big Ossage
Kanses & Panias
q. [blank]
r. on the head of Red
River of Mississippi


†††††† These people have no intercourse with the inhabitants of the Illinois; the information, therefore, which I have been enabled to obtain, with respect to them, is very imperfect. They were formerly known by the name of the White Panias, and are of the same family with the Panias of the river Platte. They are said to be a well disposed people, and inhabit a very fertile country; certain it is that they enjoy a delightful climate.


†††††† [Ed: Here end both the printed statistical view and Clark's manuscript table in its full coverage. Number 53 might also be added to this category. In the additional space at the foot of the table, Clark added the following information on the Southern tribes.]


††††††

54. a. Dellaways Kickapoos
about the mouth of the
Missouri
c. Loups
d. Dillaway &c.
f. ramble
g. 20
h. 60
r. above the Mouth of
Missouri & up that river
as high as Osarge
Womans River
55. a. Deallaways Miamis &c.
about De Moins & St
Louis
c. Loups
d. Dellaway &c.
f. ramble
g. 25
h. 80
r. about St. Louis &
[Dilliard? De Moins?]
village.
56. a. Piories & Illinois
f. camps
g. 18
h. 50
r. near St. Genivieve

57. a. Shawonies
d. Shawonies
e. 3
g. 150
h. 600
r. on apple River near
Cape Gerardeau

58. a. Dillaways
c. Loups
d. Dillawais
e. 2
g. 200
h. 800
r. on a Small Creak near
Cape Girardeau

59. a. Cherikees Creeks &c.
delewais & Chickasaws
f. ramble
h. varies
r. near New madrid

60. a. Chickasaws, Chocktaws
& Cherikees
f. ramble
h. varies
r. Between the Mississippi
& Arkansaws Rivers

in Lower Louisiana
61. a. Arkansas
b. O-zar-jees
d. Osage
e. 2
g. 260
h. 1000
r. Near the mouth of the
Arkansaws R

62. a. Chacktaws
f. ramble
g. 300
h. 1500
r. from the Natchetouchs
to the Mississippi

63. a. Biloxes 〈Na〉
e. 2
g. 40
h. 150
r. on red River below the
Natchetouches

64. a. Chacktaws
e. 1
g. 25
h. 100
r. 26 Leagues up Red R.
at the Rapids

65. a. Biloni N.
e. 2
g. 15
h. 60
r. on Red river near
Avoyelles

66. a. Cadoquies
e. 〈1〉
f. ramble
g. 400
h. 1600
r. on Red River 80
Leagues above
Natchitoches

67. a. Conchates
e. 〈1〉
f. Dispersed
g. 100
h. 350
r. Dispersed through the
Opilousas countrey

68. a. Alibamas N
e. 1 g. 30
h. 100
r. near Opiousas Chirch

69. a. Bilexes & Chacktaws
e. 1
g. 15
h. 50
r. Rochedile Beyou

70. a. Atacapas
e. 〈1〉
f. Dispersed
g. 30
h. 100
r. Dispersed on vermillion
Creek

71. a. Chitenachas
d. Natachas
e. 3
g. 30
h. 100
r. 12 Leagues from the
Sea on bayou Teeche

72. a. Tounicas
e. 1
g. 18
h. 60
r. Point Coupee E Side


††††††

IDENTIFICATIONS OF CLARK'S EASTERN INDIANS

Clark's Name †† †† Modern Name
1. Grand Osarge Grand Osages
2. Little Osarge Little Osages
3. Kanzas Kansas
4. Ottoes Otos
5. Missouries Missouris
6. Pania proper Chawi Pawnees
7. Pania Loup Skiri Pawnees
8. Pania Republicans Kitkahahki Pawnees
9. Mahar Omahas
10. Poncare Poncas
11. Ricaras Arikaras
12. Mandans Mandans
13. Shoes Men Awaxawi
14. Big Bellies Hidatsas
15. Ayauwais Iowas
16. Saukees Sauks
17. Renarz Fox
18. Sioux Wah-pa-tone Wahpeton
19. Sioux Min-da-war-car-ton Mdewakanton
20. Sioux Wah-pa-coo-tar Wahpekute
21. Sioux Sis-sa-tone Sissetons
22. Sioux Yanktons Yanktons
23. Sioux Yank-tons-Ah-nah Yanktonais
24. Sioux Teton Bous rouley Brulť
25. Sioux Teton O-kan-dan-das Oglalas
26. Sioux Teton Min-ne-kine-az-zo Miniconjou
27. Sioux Teton Sa-on-ne Saone
28. Chyennes Cheyennes
29. Wetapahato and Cay-au-wa Kiowas
30. Ca-ne-na-vich and Sta-e-tan Arapahoes
31. Cataka Plains Apaches
32. Nemousin Comanches
33. Do-ta-ne Plains Apaches
34. Cas-ta-ha-na Arapahoes
35. Ravin Crows
36. Paunch Crows
37. Assiniboin Ma-ne-to-par Assinniboines
38. Assiniboin Na-co-ta O-ee-gah Assinniboines
39. Assiniboin Na-co-ta
Ma-ta-pa-nar-to
Assinniboines
40. Knistanoes Crees
41. Fall Indians Atsinas
42. Cat-tanahaws Kutenais
43. Blue Mud Indians
Long Hair
Nez Perces
Crows?
44. Alitan or Snake Indians
Snake Indians
Of the West
La Playes
Shoshones
Shoshones
Utes
Comanches
45. Padoucas
Wetepahatoes
Kiawas
Kanevavish
Katteka
Dotame
Plains Apaches
Kiowas
Kiowas
Arapahoes
Kiowa Apaches
Plains Apaches
46. Chipaways of Leach Lake Chippewas
47. Chipaways about Lake Dubois Chippewas
48. Chipaways on River Rouge Chippewas
49. Algonquins of Rainy Lake Chippewas
50. Algonquins of Portage de
Prairie
Chippewas
51. Black foot Blackfeet
52. Flat head Flathead (Salish)
53. Pania Pickey Wichitas
54. Dellaways Kickapoos about the
mouth of the Missouri
Delawares and Kickapoos
55. Dellaways Miamis about
DeMoins and St. Louis
Delawares and Miamis
56. Piories and Illinois Peorias and Illinois
57. Shawonies Shawnees
58. Dillaways Delawares
59. Cherikees Creeks &c. delewais
and Chickasaws
Cherokees, Creeks, Delawares,
and Chickasaws
60. Chickasaws, Chocktaws and
Cherikees
Chickasaws, Choctaws, and
Cherokees
61. Arkansaws Osages
62. Chacktaws Choctaws
63. Biloxes Biloxis
64. Chacktaws Choctaws
65. Biloni Biloxis
66. Cadoquies Caddoes
67. Conchates Conchanty (Creek)
68. Alibamas Alabamas
69. Bilexis and Chacktaws Biloxis and Choctaws
70. Atacapas Attacapas
71. Chitenachas Natchez
72. Tounicas Tunicas












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