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23rd of February 1805 Satturday

       All hands employed in Cutting the Perogus Loose from the ice, which was nearly even with their top; we found great difficuelty in effecting this work owing to the Different devisions of Ice & water    after Cutting as much as we Could with axes, we had all the Iron we Could get & Some axes put on long poles and picked throught the ice, under the first water, which was not more the 6 or 8 inches deep—    we disengaged one Perogue,  [1] and nearly disingaged the 2nd in Course of this day which has been warm & pleasent    vised by a no of Indians, Jessomme & familey went to the Shoes Indians Villag to day


       The father of the Boy whose feet were frose near this place, and nearly Cured by us took him home in a Slay—

Saturday February 23rd 1805  [2]

       Observed time and distance of Sun symbol's and Moon symbol's nearest limbs with Sextant, Sun symbol East.



h    m      s
A. M. 6    12    15 66°   24'   15"
"     14    17  "      23    43
"     16    14  "      22    45
"     17    51  "      22    —
"     20    23  "      21    25
"     22    18  "      21    —
h    m      s
A. M. 6    25    56 66°   20'   —"
"     28      5  "      19    15
"     29      6  "      19    —
"     30    58  "      18    —
"     32    38  "      17    45
"     34    59  "      17    15


       Immediately after the Lunar observations observed Equal altitudes of the Sun symbol with Sextant and artificial Horizon with water.



h    m       s       h     m       s
A. M. 6    41      5 P. M. —    46    20
"     43      9 "      48    30
"     45    19 "      50    35


       Altitude given by Sextant at the time of observation    40° 15' 45"



h m   s
Chronometer too slow Mean Time 2 28 14.9

Preperation for Lunar Calculation.
Febr. 23rd 1805 Fort Mandan  [3]

      Latitude of the place of observation 47° 21' 47"



h      m      S  
Time by Chronometer of Obstn.    A. M.
6     23    45  
Chronometer too Slow    Apt. T at noon
2    14    25.7
h      m      S  
True time of observtn. as Shewn by the Chrotr. A. M.
8    38    10.7
True apparent time of observation A. M. as deduced from
Mean Time by the application of the Equation of time
with its sighn changed—

h      m      S  
8     38   18  
Distance of Sun symbol's and Moon symbol's nearest linbs at the time of this ob-
servation. Sun symbol East

66°    20'    31.7"
h      m      S  
Estimated Greenwich time of the Observation
15    15    57.7
Sun symbol's Declination corrisponding with the Greenwich time of
this observation

9°    52'    6.8" South
h      m      S  
True mean time of Observation at this place A. M.
8     51   59.5
Hour Angle symbol of the A M. observation
50°    25'      3"
Altitude of the Sun symbol's Center at time of Obsert. by Mr. Elicot's

17°    24'    00"
By Mr. Patterson's Altd. Sun symbol's Center at time of observa-

18°    30'    56"

[undated, February 23, 1805]  [4]


F. width
12 30    N.
10 30    N.

Place of their entrances
width of their mouths
sources and connexion with other streams
peculiar or distinctive characters, how far navigable
face and description of the country through which they pass
〈how far〉
Salt branch of the Republican, alter to W.


       Saturday 23nd Feby. 1805.    a pleasant morning.    all the party employed cutting the Ice away from round the 2 perogues.    towards evening by hard cutting with the water up within an Inch of filling it. Started it loose with pryzes and pulled it out on the Ice & turned on its Side.    loosed the Ice from round the other.


       Saturday 23rd.    We had fine pleasant weather, and all hands were engaged in cutting away the ice from the boat and the other periogue. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon we had the good fortune to get both free from the ice; and in the three following days succeeded in getting them all safe upon the bank. On the 27th we made preparations for making periogues to pursue our voyage in.


       Saturday February 23d    The weather still continued fine and Clear, all our party were employ'd in cutting the Ice from round the Boat & Pettyaugers.    at one o'Clock we got one of the Pettyaugers out of the Ice on Shore.—


1. The white pirogue; see Weather Diary remarks for this date. (Return to text.)


2. Lewis's astronomical observation from Codex O. (Return to text.)


3. This collection of astronomical data is on document 35 of the Field Notes and is placed here according to the date given. Note the references to Andrew Ellicott and Robert Patterson, from whom Lewis learned navigation. (Return to text.)


4. This material is on document 35 of the Field Notes, upside-down to the preceding astronomical data, and is placed according to the date on that material. Most of it appears to be a list of data to be noted about rivers, similar to Jefferson's instructions to Lewis and similar to the captain's survey of rivers and creeks. The last line appears to be a note about a map correction. There are also a number of other wordings, jottings, and doodles on this sheet which are not transcribed here. (Return to text.)

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