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Set out this morning at an early, the wind being favourable we used our sales which carried us on at a good pace untill about 12 OCk. when the wind became so high that the small canoes were unable to proceed one of them which seperated from us just befor the wind became so violent, is now lying on the opposite side of the river,  being unable to rejoin us in consequence of the waves, which during those gusts run several feet high. we came too on the Lard. shore in a handsome bottom well stocked with cottonwood timber; here the wind compelled us to spend the ballance of the day.  we sent out some hunters who killed a buffaloe, an Elk, a goat and two beaver. game is now abundant. the country appears much more pleasant and fertile than that we have passed for several days; the hills are lower, the bottoms wider, and better stocked with timber, which consists principally of cottonwood, not however of large size; the under-growth willow on the verge of the river and sandbars, rose bushes, red willow and the broad leafed willow in the bottom lands; the high country on either side of the river is one vast plain, intirely destitute of timber, but is apparently fertile, consisting of a dark rich mellow looking lome. John Shields sick today with the rheumatism. Shannon killed a bird of the plover kind.  weight one pound. it measured from the tip of the toe, to the extremity of the beak, 1 foot 10 inches; from tip to tip of wings when extended 2 F. 5 I.; Beak 3⅝ inches; tale 3⅛ inches; leg and toe 10 Ins.— the eye black, piercing, prominent and moderately large. the legs are flat thin, slightly imbricated and of a pale sky blue colour, being covered with feathers as far as the mustle extends down it, which is about half it's length. it has four toes on each foot, three of which, are connected by a web, the fourth is small and placed at the heel about the ⅛ of an inch up the leg. the nails are black and short, that of the middle toe is extreemly singular, consisting of two nails the one laping on or overlaying the other, the upper one somewhat the longest and sharpest. the tale contains eleven feathers of equal length, & of a bluish white colour. the boddy and underside of the wings, except the large feathers of the 1st & 2cd joints of the same, are white; as are also the feathers of the upper part of the 4th joint of the wing and part of those of the 3rd adjacent thereto, the large feathers of the 1st or pinion and the 2cd joint are black; a part of the larger feathers of the 3rd joint on the upper side and all the small feathers which cover the upper part of the wings are black, as are also the tuft of long feathers on each side of the body above the joining of the wing, leaving however a stripe of white betwen them on the back. the head and neck are shaped much like the grey plover, and are of a light brickdust 〈colour〉 brown; the beak is black and flat, largest where it joins the head, and from thence becoming thiner and tapering to a very sharp point, the upper chap being ⅛ of an inch the longest 〈and〉 turns down at the point and forms a little hook. the nostrils, which commence near the head are long, narrow, connected, and parallel with the beak; the beak is much curved, the curvature being upwards in stead of downwards as is common with most birds; the substance of the beak precisely resembles whalebone at a little distance, and is quite as flexable as that substance their note resembles that of the grey plover, tho' is reather louder and more varied, their habits appear also to be the same, with this difference; that it sometimes rests on the water and swims which I do not recollect having seen the plover do. this bird which I shall henceforth stile the Missouri plover, generally feeds about the shallow bars of the river; to collect it's food which consists of [blank], it immerces it's beak in the water and throws it's head and beak from side to side at every step it takes.
We Set out at Sun rise under a Stiff Breeze from the East, the morning Cool & Cloudy. one man J. Shields Sick with rhumetism— one of the men (Shannon) Shot a Gull or pleaver, which is about the Size of an Indian hen, with a Sharp pointed bill turning up & 4 Inches long, the head and neck of a light brown, the breast, the underfeathers of the 2nd and 3d joint of the wings, the Short feathers on the upper part of the 3rd joint of the wings, down the back the rump & tail white. The large feathers of the 1st joints of the wing the upper feathers of the 2d joints of the wings, on the body on the joints of the wing and the bill is black.— the legs long and of a Skie blue. The feet webed &c. This fowl may be properly Stiled the Missouri Pleaver— the wind became verry Hard and we put too on the L. Side, as the wind Continued with Some degree of violence and the waves too high for the Canoes we were obliged to Stay all day
Shannon killed a bird of the plover kind the weight one pound.— eye black percing and prominent [EC: avocet (Recurvirostra)]
the legs are flat, of pale skye blue colour and but slightly imbricated. the second joint, as low as the mustle extends is covered with feathers which is about half it's length. it has three toes on a foot connected by a web. there is also a small toe on each foot placed about the eighth of an inch up the leg behind. the nails are black and short and those of the middle toes ar singular—there being two nails on each the one above the other the upper one the longest and sharpest.— the tale contains eleven feathers of the same length of a bluish white colour. the body and under side of the wings except the large feathers of the 1 & 2cd joints of the wings are white, as are also the feathers of the upper part of the 4th joint of the wing. and some of those of the 3rd adjoining.— the large feathers of the pinion or first 〈joint〉 & the second joint 〈and a part of those of the third on the〉 are black; a part of the larger feathers of the third-joint on the upper side and all the smaller feathers which cover the upper part of these joints ar black; as are also the tuft of long feathers on each side of the body above the joining of the wing, leaving however a stripe of white between them on the back. the head and neck are shaped much like the grey plover, and is a light 〈yellowish〉 brickdust brown. the beak is black and flat, largest where it joins the head and from thence tapering every way gradually to a very sharp point the upper beak being ⅛ of an inch the longest turning down at the point. the nostrils are parrallal with the beak and are long narrow and connected. the beak is curvated and invirted; the Curvature being upwards in stead of downwards as those of most birds are— the substance of the beak is as flexable as whalebone and 〈to all appe〉 at a little distance precisely resembles that substance. their note is like that of the common whistling or grey plover tho' reather louder, and more varied, and their habits are the same with that bird so far as I have been enabled to learn, with this difference however that this bird sometimes lights in the water and swims.— it generally feads about the shallow bars of the river; to collect it's food, it immerces it's beak in the water, and thows it's head and beak from side to side at every step it takes.
Wednesday 1st day of May 1805.  a clear pleasant morning, but cold. we Set off at Sun rise. the wind from the East. we Sailed on verry well passed broken bluffs and round knobs on the S. S. and bottoms covrd with cottonwood timber on each Side of the River and the hills in general are not so high as they have been below and the country is more pleasant, and the timber is gitting pleantier. about 12 oClock the wind rose So high that the Small canoes could not go on without filling. we halted at a bottom covd with timber on S. S. one of the canoes lay on the opposite Shore and could not cross the water ran so high. Some men went out in this bottom a hunting & killed one buffaloe one Deer & a Goose & 2 beaver also. the wind continued So high that we delay and Camped for the night. the sd cannoe lay on the opposite Side all night. came only 10 miles to day.
Wednesday 1st May, 1805. We set out early in a cool morning; and went on till 12 o'clock, when the wind rose so high, that our small canoes could not stand the waves. We made only 10 miles this day.
Wednesday 1st day of May 1805.  a clear pleasant morning but cold. we Set off at Sun rise, the wind from the East. we Sailed Some. we passed high bluffs & round knobs on the S. S. and bottoms of timber on each Side of the River. the hills in general are not So high as they have been below, the country more pleasant, and the timber more pleanty. about 12 oClock the wind rose So high that we were oblidged to halt in a bottom of timber on the South Side. one cannoe lay on the opposite Shore & could not cross. I and one more was in the cannoe and ware obledged to lay out all night without any blanket. it being verry cold I Suffered verry much. Some of the party went out to hunt. they killed one buffaloe one Deer 2 beaver and one Goose. the party camped  opposite to where I lay all night the man who was with me killd a Deer. (came only 10 miles to day)
Wednesday May 1st We set off at day light this morning, the weather being cool and pleasant, and the Wind blowing from the Eastward, we proceeded on Sailing, and passed some high bluffs, and round Nobs,— lying on the South side of the River; and bottoms of fine land lying on both sides of the River, covered with Timber, the hills being not so high as those below, The country appearing more pleasant, and Timber'd land more plenty; At 12 o'Clock A. M. we came too, (the wind being so high) and Stopped in a bottom of Timber'd lands, lying on the South side of the River,— One of our Canoes stopping on the opposite side of the River, on account of the Wind, where she lay all night, the Men in it suffering much, on account of the Cold; Some of the party went out hunting, and killed One Buffalo, One deer, 2 Beaver, and a Goose; The Men that was with the Canoe killed a Deer.— we encamped at this place having come 15 Miles this day.—
1. In this canoe, Whitehouse tells us, were he and another man who were "obledged to lay out all night without any blanket." (Return to text.)
2. In Roosevelt County, Montana, in the vicinity of the later Elkhorn Point. Atlas maps 35, 48, 57; MRC map 62. (Return to text.)
3. An American avocet, Recurvirostra americana [AOU, 225], already known to science. The plover used for comparison is probably the lesser golden-plover, Pluvialis dominica [AOU, 272]. Burroughs, 225, 228–29. Someone drew a vertical line through this passage, apparently in red. (Return to text.)
4. Also given on Atlas map 36, in both captains' hands. (Return to text.)
5. Lewis's zoological note from Codex Q; the bird is the American avocet as identified above for this day. (Return to text.)
6. This entry, and the next three, are especially faint and difficult to decipher. (Return to text.)
7. Entries in Whitehouse's original version of his journal resume. (Return to text.)
8. The party camped in the vicinity of later Elkhorn Point, Roosevelt County, Montana. Whitehouse and his unnamed companion were opposite in Richland County. (Return to text.)
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