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Set out at an early hour, the weather clear and Calm; I walked on shore this morning for the benifit of exersize which I much wanted, and also to examine the country and it's productions, in these excurtions I most generally went alone armed with my rifle and espontoon; thus equiped I feel myself more than an equal match for a brown bear provided I get him in open woods or near the water, but feel myself a little diffident with respect to an attack in the open plains, I have therefore come to a resolution to act on the defencive only, should I meet these gentlemen in the open country. I ascended the hills and had a view of a rough and broken country on both sides of the river; on the North side of the summits of the hills exhibit some scattering pine and cedar, on the South side the pine has not yet commenced tho' there is some cedar on the face of the hills and in the little ravines. the choke cherry also grows here in the hollows and at the heads of the gullies; the choke Cherry has been in blume since the ninth inst. this growth has freequently made it's appearance on the Missouri from the neighbourhood of the Baldpated Prarie, to this place in the form of it's leaf colour and appearance of it's bark, and general figure of it's growth it resembles much the Morillar cherry,  tho' much smaller not generally rising to a greater hight than from 6 to 10 feet and ascociating in thick clusters or clumps in their favorit situations which is usually the heads of small ravines or along the sides of small brooks which flow from the hills. the flowers which are small and white are supported by a common footstalk as those of the common wild cherry are, the corolla consists of five oval petals, five stamen and one pistillum, and of course of the Class and order Pentandria Monogynia.  it bears a fruit which much resembles the wild cherry in form and colour tho' larger and better flavoured; it's fruit ripens about the begining of July and continues on the trees untill the latter end of September— The Indians of the Missouri make great uce of this cherry which they prepare for food in various ways, sometimes eating when first plucked from the trees or in that state pounding them 〈and〉 mashing the seed boiling them with roots or meat, or with the prarie beans  and white-apple; again for their winter store they geather them and lay them on skins to dry in the sun, and frequently pound them and make them up in small roles or cakes and dry them in the sun; when thus dryed they fold them in skins or put them in bags of parchment and keep them through the winter either eating them in this state or boiling them as before mentioned. the bear and many birds also feed on these burries. the wild hysop sage, fleshey leaf thorn, and some other herbs also grow in the plains and hills, particularly the arromatic herb on which the Antelope and large hare feed. The soil has now changed it's texture considerably; the base of the hills and river bottoms continue the same and are composed of a rich black loam while the summits of the hills and about half their hight downwards are of a light brown colour, poor sterile and intermixed with a coarse white sand.  about 12 OClock the wind veered about to the N. W. and blew so hard that we were obliged to Ly by the ballance of the day.  we saw great quantities of game as usual. the bottom lands still becomeing narrower.
About sunset it began to rain, and continued to fall a few drops at a time untill midnight; the wind blew violently all night.—
Set out at an early hour, the morning Clear and Calm, Capt. Lewis walked on Shore this morning about 12 oClock the wind becam Strong from the E. about half past one oClock the wind Shifted round to the N. W. and blew verry hard all the latter part of the day, which obliged us to Lay by— The Countrey is hilley & rugged and the earth of a lightish brown and but indifferent, Some Small Cedar is Scattered on the Sides of the hils & in the hollars, Some pine ridges is also to be Seen on the North Side, we observe great quantites of game as usual. I killed a beaver in the water, Saw Several Sitting on the bank near the waters edge
about Sunset it began to rain, and rained very moderately only a fiew drops at a time for about half the night, wind Continued violent all night
Sunday 12th May 1805. a clear pleasant & warm morning. we Set off Soon after Sun rise, and proceeded on passed the pitch pine hills on N. S. one of the hunters killed a deer on a bottom on s. s. Capt Clark killed a beaver in the River. passed a creek or Small river on the N. S. about one o.C. P. M. we halted to dine at a bottom covred with timber on S. S. opposite the lower point of a willow Island, which is in the middle of the River. the wind rose high from the N. W. the detained us the remainder part of the day. Some men went out hunting. we camped for the night. the hunters killed Some Elk & deer &.c. we had come [blank] miles this day. Some Squawls of rain this evening.—
Sunday 12th. We early renewed our voyage and had a pleasant morning; passed some hills on the North side, covered with pine and cedar,  the first timber of any kind we have seen on the hills for a long time. At 1 we halted for dinner and a violent storm of wind then arose, which continued until night when some rain fell. Our distance this day only 13½ miles.
Sunday 12th May 1805. a clear pleasant warm morning. we Set off Soon after Sunrise and proceeded on. passed the pitch pine hills on the N. S. one of the hunters killed a deer in a bottom on the S. S. Capt. Clark killed a beaver in the River. passed a Small River  on the N. S. the wind rose high from the N. W. we halted about one oC. to dine on the S. S. opposite the lower point of an Island covred with willows in the middle of the River. the wind detained us the remainder of the day. Some men went out hunting & killed Some Elk & Deer. Camped for the night. had come [blank] miles this day. Squwls of rain this evening. &c.
Sunday May 12th We had a clear, pleasant warm morning and set off soon after sunrise; and passed some hills, having pitch pine growing on them, lying on the North side of the River; one of our hunters that was out, killed a deer in a bottom, which lay on the South side of the River, Captain Clark as we passed on, killed a Beaver as it was swimming in the River, We proceeded on, and passed a small River, lying on the North side of the Mesouri, here the Wind rose from the North West, and blew hard.— About One o'Clock, we stopped to dine, on the South side of the River; opposite to the lower point of an Island, cover'd with Willows. This Iland lies in the middle of the River Mesouri,
The wind continuing to blow hard, detained us here the remainder of the day,— A party of our Men went out hunting, and killed some Elk and deer, which they brought into our Camp, In the Evening we had some squalls of Rain. We encamp'd having come 10 Miles this day.—
1. Prunus cerasus L., sour cherry. The morello is a variety of sour, or pie, cherry. Bailey, 544. It may have been Biddle who drew a vertical linen through the passage, beginning with "the choke cherry" to "end of September." (Return to text.)
2. Another rare instance of Lewis using Latin terminology. In this case the term describes a subdivision of flowering plants which have five stamens and one pistil. (Return to text.)
4. The Missouri River cuts across a preglacial drainage divide here. As the valley narrows, the Hell Creek Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone extend lower down toward the river. These lighter colored formations over lie the darker colored Bearpaw Shale. (Return to text.)
5. The party camped in Garfield County, Montana, on a site now inundated by Fort Peck Reservoir. Atlas maps 37, 50, 58; MRC map 66. (Return to text.)
6. Also given on Atlas map 37, in both captains' hands. (Return to text.)
7. Perhaps later Catamount Creek, today's Sage Creek, in Garfield County. Atlas maps 37, 50, 58; MRC map 66; USGS map Fort Peck Lake East. (Return to text.)
8. Later Seventh Point Coulee in Valley County, Montana; nameless on MRC map 66. Atlas maps 37, 50, 58; USGS map Fort Peck Lake East. (Return to text.)
9. Probably ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Rocky Mountain red cedar, Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Return to text.)
10. Perhaps Seventh Point Coulee, Valley County, Montana. (Return to text.)
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