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[Lewis] 
Tuesday May 21st 1805.
 

       A delightfull morning    set out at an early hour and proceeded on very well, imployed the chord principally; the shores are abbrupt and bould and composed of a black and yellow clay: see no extensive collection of pure sand, the bars are composed black mud and a small poportion of fine sand;  [1] the courant still pretty strong.    the Missouri in it's course downward makes a suddon and extensive bend to receive the Muscle shell river, the point of country thus formed tho' high is still much lower than that surrounding it, thus forming a valley of wavey country which extends itself for a great distance in a Northerly direction; the soil is fertile, produces a fine turf of low grass and some herbs, also immence quantities of the Prickley pear, without a stick of timber of any discription.    the country on the South side is high broken and crowned with some scrubby pines and dwarf cedar; the leaf of this pine is much longer than the common pitch or red pine of Virginia, the cone is also longer and slimer, and the imbrications wider and thicker, and the whole frequently covered with rosin. Mineral appearances as usual.    the growse or praire hen are now less abundant on the river than they were below; perhaps they betake themselves to the open plains at a distance from the river at this season.  [2]

 

       The wind which was moderate all the fore part of the day continued to encrease in the evening, and about dark veered about to N. W. and blew a storm all night, in short we found ourselves so invelloped with clouds of dust and sand that we could neither cook, eat, nor sleep; and were finally compelled to remove our lodge about eight oClock at night to the foot of an adjacent hill where we were covered in some measure from the wind by the hills.    several loose articles blown over board and lost.    our first station was on a bar on Stard. opposite the lower point of a small Island, which we now called windy Island.  [3]    the bends of the river are short and suddon, the points covered with some cottonwood, larger willow, or broadleafed willow with an abundance of the wild rose and some small honeysuckle bushes constitute the undergrowth, the redwood is also found in small quantities. Capt. C walked on shore today and killed 2 Elk; the party killed several deer and a buffaloe Cow.—

 

        

Courses and distances of May 21st 1805  [4]

West To a point of timber on the Stard. Side   1
N. 15° W. Along the Stard. point opposite to a hill.      ¼
N. 10° E. To a point of timber on the Lard. side opposite to a bluff
on Star. side

  2
N. 30° W. To a point of a timbered bottom on the Stard. side oppo-
site to a bluff

  1 ½
N. 20° E. To a point of timber on the Lard. side opposite to a bluff   1 ½
N. 35° W. to a point of woodland Lard. side      ¼
N. 80° W. To a point of woodland Stard. side   1 ¼
N. 45° W. Along the Stard. shore opposite to a bluff.      ¼
N. 15° E. To a point of woodland Lard. side   1 ¼
N. 70° W. To a point of woodland Stard. side   1
N. 30° W. Along the Stard. shore      ½
N. 10° W. To the extremity of a willow bar on Lard. side   1 ¼
N. 60° W. To a point of woodland Lard. side   1
S. 70° W. To the commencement of a bluff in a bend on the Lard.
side

  2 ¼
N. 75° W. To a point of woodland Stard. side   1
N. 30° W. To a tree in the center of a Stard. bend.   2
S. 80° W. To the lower point of a timbered bottom on the Stard.
side, near which we encampd
  2   
 
Miles
20

 

      

Point of Observation No. 22  [5]

 

       On the Lard. shore at the commencement of the 5th course of this day observed time, and distance of Sun symbol's and Moon symbol's nearest limbs with Sextant, Sun symbol East.

 

        

Mean of a set of 12 Observations.

 
Time
 
Distance
  h    m      s    
A. M. 9    25    35   91°    45'    19"




[Clark] 
May 21st Tuesday 1805.
 

       a butifull morning, wind from the West, river falling a little, we Set out at an early hour and proceed on in the usial way by the assistance of the Coard principally, but little use of the Oares & less with the poles as the bottoms are muddey, we Se no great bodies of pure Sand the bars & points are rich mud mixed with fine Sand. I walked on Shore Stard. Side    the river makes a great bend to the South to receve Shell River, the boint for many miles out in a Northerley direction is a rich uneaven valley Contain Some Short grass, and Prickley pears without timber    The Countrey on the South Side of the Missouri is high, Soil and mineral appearance as usial, more Scattering pine & Cedar on the hills, the wind which blew moderatly all the forepart of the day increassd and about Dark Shifted to the N W. and Stormed all night, Several loose articles were blown over board, our lodge & Camp which was on a Sand bar on the Std. Side & 〈Sit〉 opposite to the lower point of an Island we were obliged to move under the hills, the dust & Sand blew in clouds. The bends of the river are Short and points Covered with Cotton wood    under groth wild rose bushes    I killed 2 Elk to day Several Deer Killd. & a Buffalow Cow.

 

        

Course Distance May 21st 1805

West   1 mile to a point of timber on the Std. Side
N. 15° W      ¼ allong the Std. point opsd. a Hill
N. 10° E   2 to a point of timber on the Lard Side opposit to a Bluff on
the S. S.
N. 30° W.   1 ½ to the point of a timbered bottom on the Stard. Side opsd.
to a Bluff
N. 20° E.   1 ¼ to a point of timber on the L. Side opsd. to a bluff
N 35° W.      ¼ to a point of wood land Lard Side
N. 80° W.   1 ¼ to a point of wood land Stard Side
N. 45° W.      ¼ allong the Stard. Shore opposit to a bluff on the L. S.
N. 15° E.   1 ¼ to a point of wood land Lard Side
N. 70° W.   1 to a point of wood land Stard. Side
N. 30° W      ½ allong the Stard. Shore
N. 10° W.   1 ¼ to the extremity of a 〈Sand〉 willow bar on the Lard Side
N. 60° W.   1 to a point of wood land Lard. Side
S. 70° W.   2 ¼ to the Comencement of a bluff in a bend to the Lard Side
N. 75° W.   1 to a point of wood land Stard. Side
N. 30° W.   2 to a tree in the center of the Std. bend
S. 80° W   2    to the lower point of timbered botm. on the Stard. Side &
Camped
miles
20  




[Ordway] 
 

       May 21st Tuesday 1805.    a butiful morning.    wind from the west.    river falling a little.    we Set out at an eairly hour and proceeded on in the usal way by the assistance of the chord principally, but little use for the oars & less withe the poles, as the bottom are muddy.    we See no great bodies of pure Sand    the bars & points are rich mud mixed with fine Sand. Capt Clark walked on Shore Stard. Side    the river makes a great bend to the South    in a Northerly direction is a rich vallie contain Some Short grass, and prickly pears  [6] without timber    the Country on the South Side of the Missourie is high Soil and mineral appearence as usal    Some Scatering pine &.C. ceeder on the hills. The wind which moderately all the fore part of the day increased and about dusk Shifted to the N. W. and blew high & Stormed all night    Several loose articles were blown overboard, our Camp  [7] which was on a Sand bar on the Stard. Side at the lower point of an Island    we were obledged to move under the hills    the dust & Sand blew in clouds.    the bends of the river are Short and points covered with cotton wood under grooths wild rose bush. Capt. Clark killed 2 Elk to day. Several deer killed and a buffaloe cow.    we Came 20 miles to day.—




[Gass] 
 

       Tuesday 21st.    We proceeded on early and had a fine morning; towards the middle of the day the wind blew hard; but we went on very well for 20 miles, and encamped on a sand-beach on the North side.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Tuesday 21st 1805.    a clear pleasant morning.    the 2 men returned who Stayed out all night had caught one beaver & killed a deer.    they Swam across the Mussel Shell River before Sun rise.    Soon after we Set off.    another beaver was caught    we proceeded on.    passed timbred bottoms & hilly land on each Side, but the River hills are not So high, as they were for Some distance below.    Some of the party yesterday discovered a high range of mountains  [8] to the west, a long distance off.    we Saw Some old Indian Camps in a timbred bottom on N. S. where Capt. Clark killed an Elk.    about 1 oC. P. M. we halted to dine at a handsom timbred bottom on the South Shore.    one of the hunters killed an Elk.    the wind rose So high from the N. W. that we delayed about 2 hours and proceeded on    passed bottoms & pine hills as usal.    Came about 15 Miles and Camped on a large Sand beach on N. S.    one of the hunters killed a buffaloe another killed a beaver.    the wind rose verry high Soon after we Camped, and made the Sand fly So that it was verry disagreeable.    the most of the party moved back towards the hills.

 

       Tuesday May 21st    This morning we had clear and pleasant Weather; the Men that were out catching beaver returned this Morning at day light.    they had bad success, having caught only one Beaver, however they kill'd a deer, both of which they brought to our Camp.    We set out early, and passed bottoms covered with Timber, and hilly land lying on both sides of the River.    The Hills here are not so high, as they were below,—    Some of our party that was out hunting Yesterday, reported that they had seen, a high ridge of Mountains, which lay to the West, but appeared to be a very great distance from them, We proceeded on, and passed by some Bottom land, lying on the North side of the River where we saw some Indian Camps, that were old; these Camps were surrounded with Cotton Wood Trees, 〈where〉 Captain Clark went on shore at that place, and killed an Elk, we shot a Beaver in the River, on our way here this day.—    About 1 o'Clock P. M. we halted to dine in a bottom of Timber, lying on the South side of the River, where one of our hunters killed an Elk.—    The wind rose here, to a very great height, from the North west so that we were forced to halt for two hours at that place.—

 

       We proceeded on our Voyage about 3 o'Clock P. M and passed bottom land & Pine hills, lying on both sides of the River, and came about 5 Miles and encamped on a Sand beach, lying on the North side of the River, our hunters that were out, killed a Buffalo, and a Beaver which was brought to our Camp, Soon after we encamped, the Wind blew so very hard, and the sand flew so much; that it made the place disagreeable, that most of our party moved back to some hills not far distant from the River.—




 

1. The river hills are formed principally of Bearpaw Shale, but some of the summits contain the lighter colored Fox Hills Sandstone. The sand in the river bars probably comes from the Judith River Formation. (Return to text.)

 

2. Someone drew a vertical line from "the soil is fertile" to here, and below on the passage, from "the bends" to "small quantities." (Return to text.)

 

3. The two sites are in Phillips County, Montana, and are now inundated by Fort Peck Reservoir. Windy Island might be a small, nameless island appearing on MRC map 69. Atlas maps 39, 51, 59. (Return to text.)

 

4. Also given on Atlas map 39, in both captains' hands. (Return to text.)

 

5. A nearly identical observation is found in Lewis's astronomy notebook (see Appendix C). (Return to text.)

 

6. Probably plains prickly pear, Opuntia polyacantha Haw. (Return to text.)

 

7. In Phillips County, Montana, now inundated by Fort Peck Reservoir. (Return to text.)

 

8. The Little Rocky Mountains, in Phillips and Blaine counties, Montana, which Clark saw on May 19. (Return to text.)












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