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[Lewis] 
Friday May 24th 1805.
Point of Observation N, 23.
  [1]
 

       On the Stard. point mentioned in the sixth course of this day, observed time and distance of Sun symbol's and Moon symbol's nearest limbs Sun symbol East.    with Sextant.—

 

        

  Time      Distance    
  h     m      s           
A M. 10    39    47      54°    38'    "
}
by myself
  "      41    35        "      37    30
  "      49    23        "      35   
}
by Capt. Clark
  "      53    55        "      34    45
  "      55    23        "      32    15
  "      56    56        "      31   
A. M. 10    59    35      54     30    45
}
by Capt. Clark
  11      3    55        "      28    15
  "        5      4        "      28   
  "        8    17        "      27    15
}
By Myself
  "      10    13        "      26    30
  "      11    30        "      25    45

 

      

 Friday May 24th 1805. [2]

 

      The water standing in the vessels freized during the night ⅛ of an inch thick, ice also appears along the verge of the river.    the folage of some of the cottonwood trees have been entirely distroyed by the frost and are again puting forth other buds.    the high country in which we are at present and have been passing for some days I take to be a continuation of what the Indians as well as the French Engages call the Black hills. This tract of country so called consists of a collection of high broken and irregular hills and short chain of mountains sometimes 120 miles in width and again becomeing much narrower, but always much higher than the country on either side; they commence about the head of the Kanzas river and to the West of that river near the Arkansas, from whence they take their course a little to the W. of N. W. approaching the rockey Mountains obliquely, passing the river platte above the forks and intercepting the Yellowstone river near the big bend and passing the Missouri at this place and probably continuing to swell the country as far North as the Saskashawan river tho' they are lower here than they are discribed to the Sth. and may therefore probably terminate before they reach the Suskashawan.     the black hills in their course nothwardly appear to approach more nearly to the Rocky Mountains. [3]

 

      We set out at an early hour this morning and proceed on principally by the chord untill about 9 A. M. when a fine breeze sprung up from the S. E. and enabled us though the ballance of the day to employ our sails to advantage; we proceed at a pretty good pace notwithstanding the courant of the river was very strong.    we passed two large and four small Islands; also several streams on either side; the first of these is  a large Creek or small river which disinboged on the Stard. side about 1 ½ miles above our encampment of last evening, it is 30 yards wide and contains some water.    the bed is gravley and intermixed with some stone, it takes its rise in the mountains which are situated in a Northwardly direction from its entrance, distant about 30 miles. [4]    the air is so pure in this open country that mountains and other elivated objects appear much nearer than they really are; these mountains do not appear to be further than 15 m.    we sent a man up this creek to explore the country he returned late in the evening and informed that he had proceeded ten miles directly towards these mountains and that he did not think himself by any mean half way    these mountains are rockey and covered with some scattering pine. This stream we call North Mountain creek.    the next stream in order is a creek which falls in on Lard. 2 ½ miles higher; this is 15 yds. wide no water; a large village of the burrowing or barking squirrels on the Stard. side opposite it's entrance, hence the name  Little dog Ck. [5] that being the name by which the French Engages call this anamal.    at three miles and at 10 ms. from hence still ascending 2 Small creek fall in on the Stard. side, no water.    5 ½ miles higher  a small river falls in on Lard. side    this we called South Mountain creek as from it's direction it appeared to take it's rise in a range of Mountains lying in a S. Westerly direction from it's entrance distant 50 or 60 m.; this creek is 40 yards wide and discharges a handsome stream of water. [6]    it's bed is rockey with gravel and sand, the banks high and country broken it's bottom narrow and no timber. The country high and broken, a considerable portion of black rock and brown sandy rock appear in the faces of the hills; the tops of the hills covered with scattering pine spruce and dwarf cedar; the soil poor and sterile, sandy near the tops of the hills, the whole producing but little grass; the narrow bottoms of the Missouri producing little else but Hysop or southern wood and the pulpy leafed thorn. Capt. Clark walked on shore this evening and killed a buffaloe cow, we left 2 Canoes and six men to dress the Cow and bring on the meat, they did not overtake us this evening.    game is becoming more scarce, particularly beaver, of which we have seen but few for several days the beaver appears to keep pace with the timber as it declines in quantity they also become more scarce.

 

        

 Courses and distances May 24th 1805. [7]

  mls.  
S. 60° W.   1 ½ To the entrance of N. Mountain Creek in a bend Std. side
S. 20° W.   1 To a point of wood Stard. point opposite to a bluff
S. 75° W.      ¼ Along the Stard. point opposite to a bluff
N. 65° W.   1 Along the Stard. side opposite an Island near the Lard
side under a bluff in a bend, a creek falls in above this
bluff opposite to a Village of burrowing squirrels
N. 45° W.      ¼ To a point on the Lard. side, passing bad water—
N. 70° W.   2 ¾ To a grove of trees at the entrance of a Creek in a bend
on Stard. passing a stard. point at 1 ½ miles
S. 48° W.   1 To a point of woodland Lard. side.
S. 50° W.   1 ½ To a point of woodland Stard. side, opposite to a low
bluff and high piney hill.
West   2 ½ To the lower point of the timber in a bend on Lard.    pass-
ing a Stard. point at 1 ½ mes. opposite the lower point of
a small Island.
N. 60° W.   2 ¼ To the lower point of the timber in a Stard. bend, passing
the Island at ¼ of a mile, a creek falls in on the Stard.—
small and no water.—
S. 50° W.   1 ¼ To a bluff in a Lard. bend passing a small Island
S. 80° W.   1 ¼ To a point of wood Stard.    passed a bluff Lard.
West   3 To the point of a high bluff in a bend on Lard. just below
which S. Mtn. Creek falls in on Lard.
N. 70° W.      ½ To a Stard. point of wood.
N. 50° W.   1 To a point of woodland Stard side
West   2 To some high timber on the Stard. side oppst. a bluff
N. 70° W   2 To a point of woodland Lard    the trees here have no
leaves    here we encamped for the night.—
Miles
24 ¼  [8]  




[Clark] 
May 24th Friday 1805
 

       a Cold night    the water in the Small vestles frosed ⅛ of an inch thick, and the thermometer Stood this morning at the freesing point.    we Set out at an early hour and proceeded on, at 9 oClock we had a Breeze from the S E which Continued all day.    This Breeze afforded us good Sailing, the river rising fast    Current verry rapid. passed Several Small Islands, two large & two Small Creeks, the 1st of those Creeks or Small rivers 1½ m. above our Camp is 30 yards wide and Contains water and appears to take its rise in the South Mountains which is Situated in a northerley derection about 20 miles distant.    2½ m. higher a Creek falls in on the Lard. Side, opposit a large village of Barking Squirels.    3 miles Still higher  a Small Creek falls in on the Stard. [9]    13 miles higher up a Small river falls in on the Lard Side which is 40 yards wide and has running water. This Stream appears to take its rise in the South Mountains which is Situated in a Southerly direction 30 or 40 miles distant.    I walked on the high countrey on the Stard. Side found it broken & Dry    Some pine, Spruce & Dwarf Cedar on the hill sides, I Sent one man 10 mile out    he reports a Similarity of Countrey back    I killed a fat buffalow a Short distance below the place we dined    2 Canoes & 6 men we left to get the meat did not join us this evening.     we Camped on the Lard point. [10]    the Cotton wood in this point is beginning to put out a Second bud, the first being killed by the frost

 

        

  miles Course & Distance May 24th
S. 60° W.   1 ½ to the mouth of N M. in a bend Stard Side
S. 20° W.   1 to a point of wood Stard Side opsd. a bluff L S.
S. 75° W.      ¼ allong the Stard point opsd. a bluff L. S.
N. 65° W.   1 ¼ allong the Stard. Side opsd. an Island near the Lard Side
under a bluff in a bend.    a Creek falls in Lard. opsd. a
village of barking Squirels S. S.
N. 45° W.      ¼ to a point on the Lard Side, passed bad water
N. 70° W.   2 ¾ to a grove of trees at the mouth of a Creek in a bend to
the Stard.    passed Sd pt. at 1½ m.
S. 48° W.   1 to a point of wood land Lard Side
S. 50° W.   1 ½ to a point of wood land Stard. Side opsd. to a low Bluff &
high pine hill
West   2 ½ to the lower point of the timber in a bend on Lard. passing
a Stard. point at 1½ m. opsd. the lower point of a Small
Isld.
N. 60° W.   2 ¼ to the lower point of the timber in a Stard. bend, passing
the Isld. at ¼ of a m.    a Small Creek falls in on the Stard.
Side
S. 50° W.   1 ¼ to a bluff in a Lard. bend passing an Island
S. 80° W.   1 ¼ to a point of wood Stard    passd. a bluff Ld.
West   3 to the point of a high bluff in a bend on Lard.    a large
Stream falls in just below on Lard. Sd.
N. 70° W      ½ to a Stard point of wood
N. 50° W.   1 to a point of wood land Stard Side
West   2 to Some high timber on the Std. Side opsd. a bluff
N. 70° W.   2 to a point of wood, trees have no leaves on the Lard Side.
Where we camped.
miles
24 ¼  




[Ordway] 
 

       May 24th Friday 1805.    a cold night    the water in the Small vessels froze ⅛ of an Inch thick & the Thurmot. Stood this morning at the freezeing point    we Set out at an eairly hour and proceeded on    at 9 oClock we had a breeze of wind from the S. E. which continued all day    this Breeze aforded us good Sailing the River riseing fast    current verry rapid    passed Several Small Islands two large & 2 Small creeks    the 1st of these creeks or small rivers  [11] ½ a mile above our Camp is 30 yds. wide and contains water and appears to take its rise in the North Mountain which is Situated in a Northely direction abt. 20 miles distant. 2½ miles higher up a creek  [12] falls in on the Lard. Side opposite a large village of Barking Squerrells    3 miles Still higher a Small Creek falls in on the  [13] Lard. Side which is 40 yards wide & has running water this Stream appears to take its rise in the South Mountains  [14] which is Situated in a Southerly direction 30 or 40 miles distant. Capt. Clark walked on the high Country, on the Stard. Side    found it broken & dry    Some pine, Spruce & Dwarf ceeder on the hills Sides.    one man went 10 miles out    he reported a Simelarity of a country back. Capt. Clark killed a fat buffalow a Short distance below the place we dined    2 canoes & 6 men waited & got the best of the meat.    did not joine the party this evening. Camped on the Lard. Side on point    the cotton wood in this point is begining to put out a Second time the first being killed by the frost. Came 24½ miles to day.—




[Gass] 
 

       Friday 24th.    There was again some white frost this morning. We embarked early; passed a large creek on the North side and a beautiful island close on the southern shore. At the head of the island, came in another creek on the South side. The bottom of the river, and sand-bars have become much more gravelly than we found them at any place lower down. The water is high, rapid and more clear. At dinner time a party was sent out to bring the meat of some animals that had been killed at a distance. Here we left two canoes to wait for them and proceeded on. We passed a creek on the North side, and having made 24¼ miles encamped on the South side. The hills are near, on both sides of the river, and very high.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Friday 24th May 1805.    clear & pleasant.    we Set off as usal, & and proceeded on    passed Several Creeks  [15] & Several Small Islands in the river    passed pitch pine hills & timbred bottoms on each Side.    about 3 oClock P. M. we halted to dine at a Small & narrow bottom covered with timber on N. S.    Capt. Clark who walked on Shore had killed a fat buffaloe    Some of the party went for the meat, high black bluffs on the S. S. & a large Creek  [16] which came in a Short distance below.    the wind from the S. E. So that we Sailed Some part of the time    about 4 we proceeded on.    2 canoes waited for the five men to come with the meat.    Came 24¾ miles to day and Camped at a bottom covered with c. wood timber which the leaves were dead.    they had been killed by the frost.    the 2 Canoes & 6 men Stayed behind all night.    we Saw a nomber of old Indian Camps in the bottoms near the River.

 

       Friday May 24th    This morning we had Clear pleasant weather, We sett of early, and proceeded on our Voyage, we passed several Creeks, & small Islands lying in the middle of the River, and bottoms and hills with pitch pine growing on them on both sides.—    At 3 o'Clock P. M. we halted to dine at a small narrow bottom, covered with Timber lying on the North side of the River; Captain Clark, who walked along shore, killed a fat buffalo, some of our party was sent to bring the Meat to us.    we proceeded on, and passed high black bluffs, lying on the South side of the River, & a large Creek, which came in, just below them.—    The wind began to blow from the South east, and we set all Sail.—    leaving 2 Pettyaugers behind, to waite for the five men that had went for the Buffalo meat.—    At 4 o'Clock P. M. we encamped at a bottom, covered with Cotton wood timber, lying on the North side of the River.—    The leaves of these Trees were killed by the frost, The Men that went for the Meat, did not return to us this night, we saw a number of old Indian Camps lying in the River bottoms.—    on both sides of it




 

1. Lewis's astronomy note is found on the flyleaf of Codex E, preceding the daily entry for this day. (Return to text.)

 

2. Here begin the daily entries in Lewis's notebook Codex E. (Return to text.)

 

3. Lewis explains his concept of the "Black Hills," actually including various disconnected small ranges east of the Rockies. This concept, elaborated on Clark's postexpeditionary maps, continued until corrected in the 1850s. Allen (PG), 202, 239, 240. (Return to text.)

 

4.  "North Mountain Creek" on Atlas maps 39, 51, 59, now Rock Creek, in Phillips County, Montana. It rises in the Little Rocky Mountains. MRC map 70. (Return to text.)

 

5. Today's Sand Creek, in Fergus County, Montana. Atlas maps 39, 51, 59; MRC map 70. (Return to text.)

 

6. South Mountain Creek, in Fergus County, later known by that name or as Armells Creek. The mountains are the Judith Mountains (and possibly Moccasin Mountains) in Fergus County. Atlas maps 39, 51, 59, 60; MRC map 70; Allen (PG), 265.  (Return to text.)

 

7. Also given on Atlas map 39, in both captains' hands. (Return to text.)

 

8. The correct total is 25¼, but the captains had the total given in both their journals and on Atlas map 39. The mistake was perhaps made on the map, where the last two distances were added to an erroneous subtotal Of 20¼. Lewis oddly did not correct this although he had the correct subtotal in his journal. (Return to text.)

 

9. Later Siparyann Spring Creek, in Phillips County. Atlas maps 39, 51, 59, 60; MRC map 70. (Return to text.)

 

10. In either Fergus or Phillips County, some three miles above where U.S. Highway 191 crosses the Missouri. Atlas maps 39, 51, 60; MRC map 71. (Return to text.)

 

11. The party's North Mountain Creek, now Rock Creek, Phillips County, Montana. (Return to text.)

 

12. Lewis's Little Dog Creek, now Sand Creek, Fergus County, Montana. (Return to text.)

 

13. At this point Ordway drops a line of Clark's writing. The missed portion from Clark reads: "Stard. 13 miles higher up a Small river falls in on the." The small stream on the north is probably Siparyann Spring Creek, Phillips County, and the small river on the south is the party's South Mountain Creek, now Armalls Creek, Fergus County, Montana. (Return to text.)

 

14. Judith Mountains, possibly including Moccasin Mountains. (Return to text.)

 

15. Including the captains' North Mountain Creek, now Rock Creek, Phillips County, Montana, and their Little Dog Creek, after a prairie dog village on the other side of the river, now Sand Creek, Fergus County. (Return to text.)

 

16. Their South Mountain Creek, Fergus County, later known by that name or as Armells Creek. (Return to text.)












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