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[Lewis] 
Saturday May 25th 1805.
 

       The Two canoes which we left behind yesterday to bring on the meat did not arrive this morning untill 8 A M. at which time we set out; the wind being against us we did not proceed with so much ease or expedition as yesterday, we imployed the toe line principally which the banks favored the uce off; the courant strong particularly arround the points against which the courant happened to set, and at the entrances of the little gullies from the hills, those rivulets having brought down considerable quantities of stone and deposited it at their entrances forming partial barriers to the water of the river to the distance of 40 or 50 feet from the shore, arround these the water run with great violence, and compelled us in some instances to double our force in order to get a perorogue or canoe by them.    as we ascended the river today I saw several gangs of the bighorned Anamals on the face of the steep bluffs and clifts on the Stard. side and sent drewyer to kill one which he accomplished; Capt. Clark and Bratton who were on shore each killed one of these anamals this evening.  [1] The head and horns of the male which Drewyer killed weighed 27 lbs.    it was somewhat larger than the male of the common deer, the boddy reather thicker deeper and not so long in proportion to it's hight as the common deer; the head and horns are remakably large compared with the other part of the anamal; the whole form is much more delicate than that of the common goat, and there is a greater disparity in the size of the male and female than between those of either the deer or goat.    the eye is large and prominant, the puple of a deep sea green and small, the iris of a silvery colour much like the common sheep; the bone above the eye is remarkably prominant; the head nostrils and division of the upper lip are precisely in form like the sheep.    there legs resemble the sheep more than any other animal with which I am acquainted tho' they are more delicately formed, like the sheep they stand forward in the knee and the lower joint of the foreleg is smallest where it joins the knee, the hoof is black & large in proportion, is divided, very open and roundly pointed at the toe, like the sheep; is much hollowed and sharp on the under edge like the Scotch goat, has two small hoofs behind each foot below the ankle as the goat sheep and deer have.    the belley, inside of the legs, and the extremity of the rump and butocks for about two inches arround the but of the tale, are white, as is also the tale excet just at it's extremity on the upper side which is of a dark brown.    the tail is about three inches in length covered with short hair, or at least not longer than that of the boddy; the outher parts of the anamal are of a duskey brown or reather a leadcoloured light brown; the anamal is now sheding it's winter coat which is thick not quite as long as that of the deer and appears to be intermixed with a considerable quantity of a fine fur which lyes next to the skin & conceald by the coarcer hear; the shape of the hair itself is celindric as that of the antelope is but is smaller shorter, and not compressed or flattened as that of the deer's winter coat is, I believe this anamal only sheds it's hair once a year.    it has eight fore teeth in the underjaw and no canine teeth. The horns are lagest at their base, and occupy the crown of the head almost entirely.    they are compressed, bent backwards and lunated; the surface swelling into wavy rings which incircleing the horn continue to succeed each other from the base to the extremity and becoming less elivated and more distant as they recede from the head.    the horn for about two thirds of it's length is filled with a porus bone which is united with the frontal bone. I obtained the bones of the upper part of the head of this animal at the big bone lick.  [2] the horns of the female are small, but are also compress bent backwards and incircled with a succession of wavy rings.    the horn is of a light brown colour; when dressed it is almost white extreemly transparent and very elastic.    this horn is used by the natives in constructing their bows; I have no doubt but it would eligant and ucefull hair combs, and might probably answer as many valuable purposes to civilized man, as it dose to the savages, who form their watercups spoons and platters of it.    the females have already brought forth their young    indeed from the size of the young I suppose that they produce them early in March.    they have from one to two at a birth.    they feed on grass but principally on the arromatic herbs which grow on the clifts and inaccessable hights which they usually frequent.    the places they gerally celect to lodg is the cranies or cevices of the rocks in the faces of inacessable precepices, where the wolf nor bear can reach them and where indeed man himself would in many instancies find a similar deficiency; yet these anamals bound from rock to rock and stand apparently in the most careless manner on the sides of precipices of many hundred feet.    they are very shye and are quick of both sent and sight.—

 

      At the distance of two ¾ miles above our encampment of last evening we passed a Creek 20 yard wide affording no runing water,  [3] we also passed 7 Islands in the course of the day. The Country on either hand is high broken and rockey; the rock is either soft brown sand stone covered with a thin strata of limestone, or a hard black rugged grannite, both usually in horizontal stratas and the Sandy rock overlaying the other.—    Salts and quarts still appear, some coal and pumice stone also appear;  [4] the river bottoms are narrow and afford scarcely any timber.    the bars of the river are composed principally of gravel, but little pine on the hills. We saw a Pole-cat  [5] this evening it is the first we have seen for many days.    buffalow are now scarce and I begin to fear our harvest of white puddings are at an end.

 

        

 Courses and distances May 25th 1805. [6]

S. 50° W.   2 ¾ to the entrance of a creek 20 yds. wide in a bend on Lard.
side passing a small Island in a deep bend on Lard. side—
N. 50° W.   1 ¼ To the Stard. Side of tea Island, which is seperated from
the Stard. shore by a narrow channel
N. 35° W.   1 ½ Along the Stard. side passing a sand Island
N. 15° W.   2 To a point of woodland on the Lard. side passing the upper
point of Tea Island.
N. 30° W.   2 to a point of woodland Stard. side, opposite to the lower
point of an Island.
N. 25° W.      ¼ to a bluff bank in a Stard. bend.
N. 65° W      ¾ to a bluff point on the Stard. opposite the upper point of
the Island
N. 60° W.   4 ½ to a clump of trees in a Stard. bend under a high bluff
passing a Lard.  [7] point at 2½ mes. and a Small Island at
3½ mes.
N. 80° W.   1 to the Point of a high plain on the Stard. side passing an
Isd. near the Std. side ¾ of a me. in length.
S. 80° W.   2 to the lower point of an untimbered Island situated in the
middle of the river, passg. a Sd. pt. at 1 ½ mes.
S. 60° W.   1 to a pt. on the Lard. side, passing the head of the Ild. at ¾
of a mile and incamped on the Lard. Side.  [8]
Miles
18  

 

        (Image not available due to copyright restrictions.) 




[Clark] 
May 25th Satturday 1805  [9]
 

       The two Canoes left for meat yesterday did not joint us untill 8 oClock this morning at which time we Set out, the morning Cool & pleasent    wind a head all day from the S. W.    we pass a Creek on the Lard. Side about 20 yards wide, which does not run, we also passd 7 Islands, I walked on Shore and killed a female Ibex or big horn animal    in my absence Drewyer & Bratten killed two others, this animale is a species peculiar to this upper part of the Missouri, the head and horns of the male which Drewyer killed to day weighed 27 lbs    it was Somewhat larger than the Mail of the Common Deer; 〈(Female very near the Size of the Male)〉 The body reather thicker deeper and not So long in proportion to its hight as the common Deer; the head and horns of the male are remarkably large Compared with the other parts of the animal; the whole form is much more delicate than that of the common goat, and there is a greater disparity in the Size of the mail and female than between those of either the deer or goat.    the eye is large and prominant, the puple of a deep Sea green and Small the iris of a Silvery Colour much like the common Sheep; the bone above the Eye is remarkably prominant; the head nostrils and division of the upper lip are precisely in form like the Sheep.    their legs resemble the Sheep more than any other animal with which I am acquainted tho' they are more delicately formed, like the Sheep they stand foward in the Knee and the lower joint of the fore leg is Smallest where it joins the Knee, the hoof is black and large in perpotion, is divided, very open and roundly pointed at the toe; like the Sheep; is much hollowed and Sharp on the under edge like the Scotch goat, has two Small Hoofs behind each foot below the ankle as the goat Sheep and Deer have.    the belley, iner Side of the legs, and the extremity of the rump and buttocks for about two inches ½ around the but of the tail, are white, as is also the tail except just at its extremity on the upper Side which is of a dark brown.    the tail is about 3 inches in length covered with Short hair, or at least not longer than that of the boddy; the outer part of the animal are of a duskey brown or reather a lead coloured light brown; the animal is now Sheding its winter coat which is thick not quite as long as that of the Deer and appears to be inter mixt with a considerable quantity of fine fur which lies next to the Skin and concealed by the Coarcer hair; the Shape of the hair itself is cylindric as that of the Antilope is, but is Smaller, Shorter and not Compressed or flattened as that of the deers winter Coat is. I believe this animal only Sheds it's hair once a year.    it has Eight fore teeth in the underjaw and no canine teeth. The Horns are large at their base, and occupy the Crown of the head almost entirely, they are compressed, bent backwards and lunated; the Surface Swelling into wavey rings which incircleing the horn continue to Succeed each other from the base to the extremity and becomeing less elivated and more distant as they receed from the head. The horn for about two thirds of its length is filled with a porus bone which is united with the frontal bone    (Capt. Lewis obtained the bones of the upper part of the head of this Animal at the big Bone Lick in the State of Kentucky which I Saw and find to be the Same in every respect with those of the Missouri and the Rockey Mountains)    the horns of the female are Small but are also compressed and bent backwards and incircled with a Succession of wavy rings.    the horn is of a light brown Colour; when Dressed it is almost white extreamly transparent and very elastic.    this horn is used by the nativs in constructing their bows; I have no doubt of it's elegance and usefullness in hair Combs, and might probably answer as maney valuable purpoces to civilized man, as it does to the native indians, who form their water Cups, Spoons and platters of it.    the females have already brought forth their young indeed from the Size of the young, I Suppose that they produce them early in March.    they have from one to two at a birth.    they feed on grass, but principally on the arramatic herbs which grow on the Clifts and inaccessable hights which they frequent most commonly, and the places they generally collect to lodge is the Cranies or Cevices of the rocks in the face of inaccessable precepices, where the wolf nor Bear Can reach them, and where indeed man himself would in maney instances find a Similar deficiency; yet those animals bound from rock to rock and Stand apparently in the most Careless manner on the Side of precipices of maney hundred feet.    they are very Shy and quick of both Sent and Sight. The flesh of this animal is dark and I think inferior to the flesh of the Common Deer, and Superior to the antilope of the Missouri and the Columbian Plains—.  [10]    In my walk of this day I saw mountts. on either side of the river at no great distance, those mountains appeared to be detached, and not ranges as laid down by the Minetarrees, I also think I saw a range of high mounts. at a great distance to the S S W. but am not certain as the horozon was not clear enough to view it with Certainty.  [11] The country on either side is high broken and rockey a dark brown hard rugid Stone intermixed with a Soft white Sand Stone.    the hills contain Coal or cabonated wood as below and Some Scattering pumistone.    the Sides of the river is bordered with coars gravel, which in maney places have washed either together or down Small brooks and forms bars at Some distance in the water, around which the current passes with great valocity.    the bottoms between hills and river are narrow and Contain Scercely any timber. The appearence of Salts, and bitumun Still Continue.    we Saw a polecat to day being the first which we have Seen for Some time past. The Air of this quarter is pure and helthy.    the water of the Missouri well tasted not quite So muddy as it is below, not withstanding the last rains has raised the river a little it is less muddy than it was before the rain.

 

        

Course and Distance of May 25th 1805

S. 50° W.   2 ¾ Miles to the enterance of a Creek in a bend to the Lard
Side 20 yards wide passing a Small island in a deep bend
to Lard.
N. 50° W.   1 ¼ to the Stard. Side of tea island which is Seperated from
the main Stard. Shore by a narrow chanel.
N. 35° W.      ½ on the Stard Side passing a Sand Island.
N. 15° W.   2 to a point of wood land on the Lard. Side passing the
upper point of tea Island.
N. 30° W.   2 to a point of wood land on the Stard. Side opposit to the
lower point of an island.
N. 25° W.      ¼ to a bluff bank in the Stard Bend.
N. 65° W.      ¾ to a bluff point on the Stard. opposit to the upper point
of an island.
N. 60° W.   4 ½ to a Clump of trees in a Stard. bend under a high bluff,
passing a Lard. point at 2 ½ miles    a Small island at 3½
miles.
N. 80° W.   1 mile to a high plain on the Stard. Side passing and island
near the Stard Side ¾ of a m in length.
S. 80° W.   2 to the lower point of an open island Situated in the middle
of the river, passing a Lard pt. at 1½ miles on this course.
S. 60° W.   1 to a point on the lard. Side passing the head of the Island
at ¾ of a mile and Encamped on the Larboard Side.
  18  




[Ordway] 
 

       May 25th Saturday 1805.    the 2 canoes left for meat did not join us untill 8 oClock this morning at which time we Set out.    the morning cool & pleasant    wind a head all day from the S. W.    we passed a creek on the Lard. Side about 20 yards wide, which does not run    we also passed 7 Islands. Capt. Clark walked on Shore and killed a female Ibex or big hornd animel: two of the hunters killed 2 others    this animel is of a blackish colour or dark duskey colour over the body. they have great resemblance of the deer kind, especally the leggs, but the head & huffs resemble a Sheep.    they are verry active & keep freequently on the Sides of Steep bluffs & places where wolves & bears cannot hurt them.    the Country on each Side is high broken and rocky    the rocks are soft Sand Stone and of a dark brown hard & rough, the hills also contain Coal &.C    the bars in the river covered with corse gravel the bottom of the river are Small do. [ditto]    we Saw a pole cat to day being the first we have Seen for a long distance.    the air of this country is pure & healthy the water of the Missourie fine and cool. Came 18 miles to day.—




[Gass] 
 

       Saturday 25th.    We waited here in the morning until the canoes came up; and about 7 proceeded on our voyage. The forenoon was pleasant. We passed two creeks opposite to each other on the opposite sides of the river. About 12 we passed a bottom on the North side with one solitary tree on it, upon which there was an eagle's nest. The bottoms here are very small. As we went on this afternoon some of the party killed three of what the French and natives call mountain sheep  [12] but they very little resemble sheep, except in the head, horns and feet. They are of a dun colour except on the belly and round the rump, where they are white. The horns of the male are very large; those of the female small. They have a fine soft hair. Captain Clarke calls them the Ibex,  [13] and says they resemble that animal more than any other. They are in size somewhat larger than a deer. The hills here are very high and steep. One of our men  [14] in an attempt to climb one had his shoulder dislocated; it was however replaced without much difficulty. These hills are very much washed in general: they appear like great heaps of clay, washing away with every shower; with scarcely any herbs or grass on any of them. This evening we passed an island all prairie except a few trees on the upper end of it. We went 18 miles and encamped on the South side.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Saturday 25th May 1805.    a clear pleasant morning.    we waited for the 2 Canoes to Come up.    about 7 oC. they came.    then we Set off and proceeded on.    passed 2 creeks  [15] on the N. S. and one large one on the S. S.    passed 2 Small Islands before noon    about 12 oC we passed a large handsom large Island covered with handsom c. wood timber, near the N. S.    Saw Several Eagles nests.    passed high bluffs & knobs and hills partly covred with pitch pine timber on each Side of the R.    the wind blew from the N. W.    about 3 oClock we halted to dine on a beautiful level thin timbred Island near the N. S. of the River.    Capt. Clark and one man who walked on Shore joined us    had killed two Mountain Sheep, one a yew the other a ram.    the ram had large horns which turned back of a gradual taper, they have the resemblence of our Sheep only fine brownish hair in Stead of wool.    they were poor and not as large as the natives represented, but these are the first we have killed.

 

       about 4 oC. P. M. we proceeded on    the current has been verry Swift for Several days.    we passed river hills as usal.    passed Several Creeks in the course of the day.    Came 18 miles to day and Camped on the S. S. little above a high handsom Island in the river mostly prarie only a little large timber at the upper end of it.    Gibson one of the hunters putt one of his Shoulders out of place to day but got it in again.

 

       Saturday May 25th    This morning we had clear & pleasant weather, we waited at our encampment for the 2 Canoes that had gone for Meat, to come up 〈at which〉 it was some time before they arrived, We then set off, and proceeded on our Voyage, and passed two Creeks, lying on the North side, and one large Creek lying on the South side of the River; we passed 2 Small Islands before 12 o'Clock, At 1 oClock we passed a large Island, covered with handsome Timber; lying near the North side of the River, were we saw several Eagles nests.—    We proceeded on, and passed high bluffs, and Nobs and hills, partly cover'd with pitch pine lying on each side of the River.—

 

       The wind shifted to the Northwest, but blew moderately.—    About 3 o'Clock we halted to dine, on a beautiful level piece of land, thinly timbered, (being an Island,) lying near the North side of the River; Captain Clark who had walked on the Shore, having one of our party with him, since Early this morning joined us here, they had killed two mountain Sheep (or Ibex) a Ewe and a Ram, the ram had very large horns which turned back like those of a common Ram Sheep    their make resembles that of the common Sheep, but had fine brownish Colour'd hair, instead of Wool, they were poor, They were not so large as the Natives had represented them to us to be; About 4 oClock P. M. we proceeded on the current of the River running very swift, (it being so for these several days past;) and we passed several hills lying near the River, in the Course of this day.—    We encamped in the Evening, on the South side of the River, a little above a handsome Island, lying high, having some large Timber at the upper end of it, the remainder being Priari land.—




 

1. Here they obtained their first specimens of the bighorn sheep, which had already been described in 1804 from a specimen obtained in Canada. See also April 26, 1805. Burroughs, 171. Someone drew a red vertical line through the passages which follow to the end of the paragraph. (Return to text.)

 

2. Big Bone Lick was a famous fossil deposit southwest of Covington, Kentucky, which Lewis visited during his westbound journey in October 1803, to obtain fossils for Jefferson. Jackson (LLC), 1:126–32; Cutright (LCPN), 33. Fossil remains of an extinct Pleistocene race of bighorn have been recovered from Big Bone Lick. Information of Bill Melton, Curator, University of Montana Geological Museum, Missoula, March 5, 1986. It is unknown if the bones that Lewis found here were those of a bighorn. (Return to text.)

 

3. Two Calf Creek, in Fergus County, Montana, nameless on Atlas maps 39, 51, 60. MRC map 71.  (Return to text.)

 

4. The broken country (the Missouri Breaks) was formed when the Missouri River cut a new course from Virgelle, Chouteau County, Montana, to Fort Peck Dam, Montana, when its former course (the Milk River valley) was blocked by glacial ice. The sandstone and limestone (actually molluscan shells cemented with lime) and coal are part of the Judith River Formation. The black rock is probably the Claggett Shale which underlies the Judith River Formation. There is no granite near the river here. (Return to text.)

 

5. A skunk, Mephitis mephitis. (Return to text.)

 

6. Also given on Atlas map 40, in both captains' hands. (Return to text.)

 

7. "Lard" agrees with Atlas map 40, but Clark's journal entry apparently has "Stard." (Return to text.)

 

8. In Fergus County, some five or six miles below the present Cow Island Landing Recreation Area and near the present ferry crossing the Missouri, by the Goodrich's Island on Atlas maps 40, 52, 60. MRC map 71. (Return to text.)

 

9. Here Clark has made a rough sketch of a bighorn sheep (see figure). (Return to text.)

 

10. The reference to the plains of the Columbia indicates that Clark wrote the passage at least several months later. In fact, Clark wrote most of the May 25 entry—starting with his description of the bighorn—and the first part of the entry for May 26 in a neater and smaller hand than the material immediately preceding and following, and the end of the neater passage on May 26 is obviously crowded in. Clark probably left a space here to insert material later. Much of the following writing in this journal is obviously copied from Lewis and may well have been done at Fort Clatsop, or on the return journey in 1806. See the Introduction. (Return to text.)

 

11. The mountains to the north would be the Little Rocky and Bears Paw mountains and to the south, the Judith range. In the distance Clark was probably seeing the Highwood Mountains near the Great Falls. Allen (PG), 265–66. (Return to text.)

 

12. Their first specimens of the bighorn sheep. (Return to text.)

 

13. "Ibex" refers to several species of Old World mountain goats. Clark, not Lewis, uses the term in reference to the bighorn on this day, and Gass's reference suggests that Clark had done some reading in natural history, even though Lewis usually wrote the scientific descriptions of species. (Return to text.)

 

14. Whitehouse indicates that it was Gibson. The captains do not mention this episode. (Return to text.)

 

15. One of them is Antelope Creek, Phillips County, Montana. (Return to text.)












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