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[Lewis] 
August 1st 1805  [1]
 

       At half after 8 A. M. we halted for breakfast and as had been previously agreed on between Capt. Clark and myself I set out with 3 men in quest of the Snake Indians.    the men I took were the two Interpreters Drewyer and Sharbono and Sergt. Gass who by an accedental fall had so disabled himself that it was with much pain he could work in the canoes tho' he could march with convenience.    the rout we took lay over a rough high range of mountains on the North side of the river.  [2]    the rive entered these mountains a few miles above where we left it.  [3] Capt Clark recommended this rout to me from a belief that the river as soon as it past the mountains boar to the N. of W. he having a few days before ascended these mountains to a position from which he discovered a large valley passing between the mountains and which boar to the N. West.    this however poved to be the inlet of a large creek which discharged itself into the river just above this range of mountains,  [4] the river bearing to the S. W. we were therefore thrown several miles out of our rout.    as soon as we discovered our mistake we directed our course to the river which we at length gained about 2 P. M. much exhausted by the heat of the day the roughnes of the road and the want of water.    the mountains are extreemly bare of timber and our rout lay through the steep valleys exposed to the heat of the sun without shade and scarcely a breath of air; and to add to my fatiegue in this walk of about 11 miles I had taken a doze of glauber salts in the morning in consequence of a slight desentary with which I had been afflicted for several days; being weakened by the disorder and the opperation of the medecine I found myself almost exhausted before we reached the river. I felt my sperits much revived on our near approach to the river at the sight of a herd of Elk of which Drewyer and myself killed two.    we then hurried to the river and allayed our thirst. I ordered two of the men to skin the Elk and bring the meat to the river while myself and the other prepared a fire and cooked some of the meat for our dinner.    we made a comfortable meal of the Elk and left the ballance of the meat on the bank of the river the party with Capt. Clark.    this supply was no doubt very acceptable to them as they had had no fresh meat for near two days except one beaver Game being very scarce and shy.    we had seen a few deer and some goats but had not been fortunate enough to kill any of them.    after dinner we resumed our march and encamped about 6 m. above on the Stard side of the river.  [5]




[Lewis] 
Thursday August 1st 1805.
 

       This morning we set out early and proceeded on tolerably well untill 8 OC'k. by which time we had arrived within a few miles of a mountain through which the river passes.    we halted on the Stard. side and took breakfast.    after which or at ½ after 8 A. M. as had been previously concerted between Capt. Clark and myself I set out with three men in surch of the Snake Indians or Sosonees.    our rout lay over a high range of mountains on the North side of the river. Capt C. recommended this rout to me no doubt from a belief that the river as soon as it passed this chain of mountains boar to the N. of W. he having on the 26th ult. ascended these mountains to a position from whence he discoved a large valley passing between the mountains which boar to the N. W. and presumed that the river passed in that direction; this however proved to be the passage of a large creek which discharged itself into the river just above this range of mountains, the river bearing to the S. W. we were therefore thrown several miles out of our rout.    as soon as we discovered our error we directed our course to the river which we at length gained about 2 P. M. much exhausted by the heat of the day, the roughness of the road and the want of water.    the mountains are extreemly bare of timber, and our rout lay through the steep and narrow hollows of the mountains exposed to the intese heat of the midday sun without shade or scarcely a breath of air: to add to my fatiegue in this walk of about 11 miles, I had taken a doze of glauber salts in the morning in consequence of a slight disentary with which I had been afflicted for several days.    being weakened by the disorder and the operation of the medicine I found myself almost exhausted before we reached the river. I felt my sperits much revived on our near approach to the river at the sight of a herd of Elk, of which Drewyer and myself soon killed a couple.    we then hurryed to the river and allayed our thirst. I ordered two of the men to skin the Elk and bring the meat to the river, while myself and the other prepared a fire and cooked some of the meat for our dinner.    we made a comfortable meal on the Elk, and left the ballance of the meat and skins on the bank of the river for Capt. Clark and party.    this supply will no doubt be acceptable to them, as they had had no fresh meat when I left them for almost 2 days except one beaver; game being very scarce and shy above the forks.    we had seen a few deer and antelopes but had not been fortunate enough to kill any of them.    as I passed these mountains I saw a flock of the black or dark brown phesants;  [6] the young phesant is almost grown we killed one of them.    this bird is fully a third larger than the common phesant of the Atlantic states.    it's form is much the same.    it is booted nearly to the toes and the male has not the tufts of long black feathers on the sides of the neck which are so conspicuous in those of the Atlantic.    their colour is a uniform dark brown with a small mixture of yellow or yelloish brown specks on some of the feathers particularly those of the tail, tho' the extremities of these are perfectly black for about one inch.    the eye is nearly black, the iris has a small dash of yellowish brown.    the feathers of the tail are reather longer than that of our phesant or pattridge as they are Called in the Eastern States; are the same in number or eighteen and all nearly of the same length, those in the intermediate part being somewhat longest.    the flesh of this bird is white and agreeably flavored.    I also saw near the top of the mountain among some scattering pine a blue bird  [7] about the size of the common robbin.    it's action and form is somewhat that of the jay bird and never rests long in any one position but constantly flying or hoping from sprey to sprey. I shot at one of them but missed it.    their note is loud and frequently repeated both flying and when at rest and is char âh', char'âh, char âh', as nearly as letters can express it.    after dinner we resumed our march and my pack felt much lighter than it had done about 2 hours before.    we traveled about six miles further and encamped on the stard. bank of the river, making a distance of 17 miles for this day.    the Musquetoes were troublesome but I had taken the precaution of bringing my bier.

 

       Shortly after I left Capt. Clark this morning he proceed on and passed through the mountains; they formed tremendious clifts of ragged and nearly perpendicular rocks; the lower part of this rock is of the black grannite before mentioned and the upper part a light coloured free-stone.  [8]    these clifts continue for 9 miles and approach the river very closely on either side.    he found the current verry strong. Capt. C. killed a big horn on these clifts which himself and party dined on.    after passing this range of mountains he entered this beautifull valley in which we also were it is from 6 to 8 miles wide.    the river is crooked and crouded with islands, it's bottoms wide fertile and covered with fine grass from 9 inches to 2 feet high and possesses but a scant proportion of timber, which consists almost entirely of a few narrow leafed cottonwood trees  [9] distributed along the verge of the river.    in the evening Capt. C. found the Elk I had left him and ascended a short distance above to the entrance of a large creek which falls in on Stard. and encamped opposite to it on the Lard. side.  [10]    he sent out the two Fieldses to hunt this evening and they killed 5 deer, which with the Elk again gave them a plentifull store of fresh provisions. this large creek we called Field's Creek after Reubin Fields one our party.    on the river about the mountains wich Capt. C. passed today he saw some large cedar trees and some juniper also  [11]    just at the upper side of the mountain there is a bad rappid here the toe line of our canoe broke in the shoot of the rapids and swung on the rocks and had very nearly overset.    a small distance above this rapid a large bold Creek falls in on Lard. side which we called Frazier's Creek after Robt. Frazier.  [12] They saw a large brown bear feeding on currants but could not get a shoot at him.

 

        

Courses and distances as navigated with the Canoes
on the 1st of August 1805  [13]

N. 30° W.   1 to a point of rocks on the Lard. side, at this place the
river passes through perpendicular Clifts.
N. 60° W.      ¾ to the upper part of the rocks in a Stard. bend
S. 70° W.      ½ to a clift on the Lard. side
S 45° W.      ½ to a Stard. bend.
S. 26° W.   1 ¾ to a bluff on the Stard. side.
South—      ½ to a Lard. bend, at this place the river enters a high
mountain of steep and ruggid clifts on both sides.
N. 30° W.   1 ¼ to a Stard. bend under a high clift
N. 80° W.      ¼ to a clift of high rocks in a Stard. bend    a small bottom
on Lard. side.
S. 60° W.      ½ to a Lard. bend under a piney hill.
N. 25° W.      ¼ to a small Island on the Lard. side
N. 30° E.      ¼ to a Stard. bend high clifts on both sides
N. 80° W.      ¾ to the entrance of a large creek on Lard. side passing an
island and rapid of 6 feet fall; these we called Frazier's
falls and Creek after Robert Frazier one of our party.
here the river again enters a valley.—
North—      ½ to a Stard. bend under a hill.
N. 45° W.      ½ to a Lard. bend.
N. 70° W.   1 ½ to the point of an Island passing several smal Islds.
North—      ¼ to a Stard. bend.
West—      ¾ to the lower point of an Island
N. 45° W.      ¼ to the entrance of a Large creek on Stard. w[h]ich we
called Field's Creek, after Reubin Fields one of our
party.—    opposite to which encamped on Lard. side.—
Miles
13  




[Clark] 
August 1st Wednesday 1805
 

       A fine day    Capt. Lewis left me at 8 oClock just below the place I entered a verrey high mountain which jutted its tremedious Clifts on either Side for 9 Miles, the rocks ragide Some verry dark & other part verry light rock the light rocks is Sand Stone.  [14] The water Swift & very Sholey. I killed a Ibix on which the whole party Dined, after passing through the Mountain we entered a wide extesive vallie of from 4 to 8 Miles wide verry leavell a Creek falls in at the Commencement of this Vallie on the Lard Side, the river widens & spreds into Small Chanels. W[e] encamped on the Lard Side opposit a large Creek    I sent out Jo: & R fields to hunt this evening they killed 5 Deer, I saw a large Bear eateing Currents this evining    The river so rapid that the greatest exertion is required by all to get the boats on wind S W Murckery at sun rise 50° Ab. 0




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday, August the first 1805.    a fine morning    we Set out as usal, and proceeded on. Some of the hunters killed a goose and a beaver.    about 8 oClock A. m. we halted    took breakfast under a handsom ceeder tree on S. Side. Capt. Lewis, Sergt. Gass, G. Drewyer and our Intrepter Sharbonoe Set out to go on by land 4 or 5 days expecting to find Some Indians.    we proceeded on    the current Swift.    we find currents of different kinds as usal, and wild or choak cherries which are now gitting ripe.    the hills & gin to git higher and more pine timber on them, and ceeder along the River.    we passed clifts of rocks about 500 feet from the Surface of the water.    considerable of pine timber along the Sides of the hills. Saw Some timber or trees along the Shores, resembling ceeder which Some call juniper wood.    about noon Capt. Clark killed a Mountain Sheep out of a flock on the Side of a redish hill or clifts on L. Side    he Shot it across the River and the rest of the flock ran up the clifts which was nearly Steep.    the one killed roled down Some distance when it fell.    we got it and dined hearty on it.    we proceeded on.    passed over a bad rapid at the upper end of an Island jest above high rough clifts of rocks.    the towing line of the Captains canoe broke in the pitch of the rapid and the canoe was near turning over nocking again the rocks.    little further up passed a creek or large Spring run, which came in on L. S. and ran rapid.    came to a large valley which Capt. Clark had Seen before when he came up a fiew days ago.    passed large bottoms covered with timber, on each Side of the River. Saw a white bear.    took on board 2 Elk which Capt. Lewis had killed and left for us.    the hunters killed in these bottoms 5 deer this evening.    passed the mouth of a large creek  [15] on the Stard. Side and a Spring.    came 13½ miles and Camped on the Lard. Side in a bottom of cotton timber.    high hills on each Side, and Saw the mountain a Short distance to the South of us.—  [16]




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 1st August, 1805.    We set out early in a fine morning and proceeded on till breakfast time; when Capt. Lewis, myself and the two interpreters  [17] went on ahead to look for some of the Snake Indians. Our course lay across a large mountain on the north side,  [18] over which we had a very fatiguing trip of about 11 miles. We then came to the river again, and found it ran through a handsome valley of from 6 to 8 miles wide. At the entrance of this valley, which is covered with small bushes, but has very little timber, we killed two elk and left the meat for the canoes to take up, as the men stood much in need of it, having no fresh provisions on hand. We crossed a small creek  [19] on the north shore, and encamped  [20] on the same side.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday 1st day of August 1805.    a clear morning.    we Set out as usal and proceeded on.    Some of the men killed a goose & a beaver    about 8 oClock A. M. we took breakfast under Some handsome ceeder trees on S. Side.    Capt. Lewis Sergt. Gass Sharbonoe & Drewyer Set out by land to go on up the River to make discoverys &c expecting to find Indians &c.    we proceeded on.    find currents as usal and choak cherrys along the River.    the current Swift    the hills higher and more pine and ceeder timber on them.    we passed high clifts about 500  [21] feet high in many places.    considerable of pine on the Sides of the hills    all the hills rough and uneven.    at noon Capt. Clark killed a mountain Sheep, on the side of a Steep redish hills or clifts    the remainder of the flock run up the Steep clifts.    the one killed roled down Some distance So we got it and dined eairnestly on it.    it being Capt. Clarks birth day he ordered Some flour gave out to the party.    we Saw Some timber along the Shores resembling ceeder which Some call Juniper, which had a delightfull Shade.    I left my Tommahawk on the Small Island where we lay last night, which makes me verry Sorry that I forgot it as I had used it common to Smoak in.    proceeded on    passed verry high ragid clifts, and a bad rapid at the upper end of a Small Island    the toe rope broke of the Capts. perogue and it was in danger of upsetting.    passed a Spring run or creek on L. Side.    came in to a valley.    passed bottoms of timber and the mouth of a large creek on S. Side, and a Spring also.    we came 13½ miles and Caped opposite the Spring in a fine bottom covered with cotton timber and thick bushes &c.    Saw a white bear.    the hunters killed 5 deer    we took on board 2 Elk which Capt. Lewis had killed and left on Shore for us.    Saw Snow on the Mountains a Short distance to the South of us.

 

       Thursday August 1st    This morning, Clear & pleasant.    We set out as usual, and proceeded on our Voyage, some of our party killed a Goose and a Beaver.    We halted about 8 o'Clock A. M—    where we stopped & took breakfast under some handsome Cedar trees, lying on the South side of the River.—    Captain Lewis, Serjeant Gass & George Drewyer, and Sharbono (〈who〉 the latter of which men had joined us at the Mandan Village,) set out shortly after, to go by land, up Jefferson River, in Order to make discoveries, & to try & find out some Indians.    We proceeded on, and found Currants, & Choke cherries growing along the Shores in great abundance.    the current of the River still running very strong against us; and the hills appearing to us, to be much higher, and more Pine & Cedar growing on them, than those we have passed for several days past, We passed some very high Clifts, of Rocks which were in many places 1,200 feet high &—    on the sides of the hills we saw considerable quantities of Pine & Cedar Trees growing.    About noon Captain Clark killed a mountain Sheep or Ibex, out of a flock, which were on the side of Steep reddish hills or Clifts

 

       The remainder of the Flock of mountain sheep or Ibex, ran up the steep Clifts, out of Gunshot, and to such a heighth as is most incredible—    The Mountain sheep that was killed, rolled down the Hill, and we got it.—    We stopped at this place to dine, which was amongst the high Clifts, and it being Captain Clarkes birth day; he ordered some flour to be served out to the party, which with the mountain Sheep made us an excellent meal,—    We proceeded on at 3 o'Clock P. M. and passed by some Trees, growing along the Shore; which resembled in look the Cedar Tree, but it was what is called the Wild Juniper, This Tree afforded a most delightfull shade.    we also passed very high rugged Clifts, lying on both sides of the River, and a very bad Rapid, at the upper end of an Island; where the Tow Rope broke of the Canoe, that Captain Clarke was on board & it had nearly upset.    We came by a Run or Creek, which lies on the South side of the River, and came in at a Valley, & bottoms of timber'd land, the Mouth of a large Creek, and a large Spring lying also on the South side of the River, We came 13½ Miles this day & encamped opposite this spring, in a bottom covered with Cotton wood Timber, & thick Brush.—    We saw a White or brown Bear on the hills some distance from our Camp.    The hunters who were on Shore since morning, returned to us, and had killed 5 Deer which we took on board the Canoes & also 2 Elk which Captain Lewis & party had killed and left at this place for us, We also saw Snow on the Mountains, a short distance to the South of our Camp.—




 

1. Here begins Lewis's Codex Fa, containing what are apparently the first drafts of entries for August 1–4, 1805, the second drafts being in Codex F. Lewis probably wrote the first drafts during his separation from the main party on these dates, perhaps in a blank notebook carried along for the purpose. See the Introduction and Appendix C. (Return to text.)

 

2. Lewis's route appears as a dotted line on Atlas map 65. (Return to text.)

 

3. The Bull Mountain in Jefferson County, Montana; the river runs through between the Bull and Tobacco Root mountains, Jefferson Canyon, in this area. Atlas map 65. (Return to text.)

 

4. "R. Fields Creek," for Reubin Field of the party, on Atlas map 65, now Boulder River in Jefferson County. (Return to text.)

 

5. Lewis camped in Jefferson County, somewhere above the present village of Cardwell. Atlas map 65. (Return to text.)

 

6. Evidently the first description of the blue grouse, Dendragapus obscurus [AOU, 297]. Cutright (LCPN), 177; Burroughs, 215–16. Lewis uses the ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus [AOU, 300], for comparison. Perhaps it was Biddle who drew a red vertical line through this passage from "I saw a flock" to "letters can express it." (Return to text.)

 

7. The first description of the pinyon jay, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus [AOU, 492]. Cutright (LCPN), 177. The American robin, Turdus migratorius [AOU, 761], and the blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata [AOU, 477], are used for comparison. (Return to text.)

 

8. The rocks adjacent to the Jefferson River along Jefferson Canyon are dominantly light gray to yellow-gray limestone of the Mission Canyon and Lodgepole formations. There are also some light-to-medium brown sandstones of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age, and some reddish shales of Pennsylvanian age. Near the upper end of the canyon, dark gray to gray-green sedimentary rocks of Precambrian age crop out on either side of the river. No granite is exposed in the Jefferson Canyon. (Return to text.)

 

9. Narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus augustifolia James. Booth & Wright, 22; Little (MWH), 114. (Return to text.)

 

10. Clark camped opposite the mouth of Boulder River, near the present village of Cardwell, Madison County, Montana. Atlas map 65. (Return to text.)

 

11. Rocky Mountain juniper or red cedar, Juniperus scopulorum Sarg., and common juniper, J. communis L. Little (CIH), 30-W; Hahn, Juniperus maps. (Return to text.)

 

12. "Frasures Creek," after Robert Frazer of the party, on Atlas map 65, now South Boulder Creek, in Madison County, near Cardwell. (Return to text.)

 

13. Lewis evidently obtained these and other courses from Clark after they reunited. Clark's courses for August 1–5 are found at his entry of August 5, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

14. During late Tertiary and early Quaternary time, the Jefferson River cut through this area leaving an imposing, rugged canyon. The exposed rocks are primarily light gray to yellow-gray Mississippian limestones, but sandstones and shales ranging in age from Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous are also present. Dark gray sedimentary rocks of Precambrian age are exposed along the upper portion of the canyon. (Return to text.)

 

15. Boulder River, Jefferson County, named "R. Fields Vally Creek" for Reubin Field. (Return to text.)

 

16. Again, the Tobacco Root Mountains. (Return to text.)

 

17. Drouillard and Charbonneau, all seeking the Shoshone Indians, Sacagawea's people. (Return to text.)

 

18. The Bull Mountains, Jefferson County, Montana. (Return to text.)

 

19. Labeled "R. Fields Valley Creek," by the captains, for Reubin Field of the party, now Boulder River, Jefferson County. (Return to text.)

 

20. In Jefferson County, somewhere above Cardwell. (Return to text.)

 

21. Whitehouse may have written "700" initially. (Return to text.)












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