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[Clark] 
October 26th 1805 〈Tuesday〉 Saturday
 

       a fine morning    Sent out Six men to hunt 〈to Kill〉 deer & Collect rozin to Pitch our Canoes, had all our articles put out to dry—    Canoes drawed out and repaired, the injories recved in drawing them over the rocks, every article wet in the Canoe which nearly Sunk yesterday—

 

       Took the Azmuth of the Sun & time this morning.

 

        

Azumuth
     
Time
     
distance
    h   m      s    
S. 64° E   8    41      6   41°    1'     0"
S. 63° E   8    45    32   42      6    30
S. 62° E   8    51      8   43    28    15

 

       Took equal altitudes with Sextn.

 

        

  H.    m    S.     h    m      s
A M 8    54    22   P M 2      9    44
  8    56    41     "     12      5
  8    59      1      

 

       Altitude produced from this observation 44° 14' 15"

 

       a number of Indians came to the opposit Side and Shew great anxiety to Come over. they delayed untill late  [1]

 

       Took time and distance of Sun and moon Sun West P M

 

        

h m  s        
2 21 12             49° 51' 15"
" 25 45   49 51  
" 29   4   49 52  
" 31 43   49 52 30
" 33   9   49 52 45
" 36   2   49 53 30
" 37 49   49 54 30
" 39   5   49 55  
" 40 23   49 55 30
" 41 36   49 56  

 

       Took time and distance of Moons Western limb & Fulenhalt,  [2] Star East—

 

        

 
Time
 
distance
 
  h    m.   S      
P M 6    34    0   67°    36'    15"  
  "     36    4   67      35     15  
  "     39    2   67      34     30 [letters illegible; "Cloudy" in Codex H]

 

       In the evening 2 Chief and 15 men came over in a Single Canoe, those Chfs proved to be the 2 great Chiefs of the tribes above, one gave me a 〈buf〉 dressed Elk Skin, and gave us Som deer meet, and 2 Cakes of white bread made of white roots, we gave to each Chief a Meadel of the Small Size a red Silk handkerchief & a knife to the 1st a arm ban & a pin of Paint & a Comb to his Son a Piece of riben tied to a tin gorget and 2 hams of Venison    They deturmined to Stay with us all night, we had a fire made for them & one man played on the violin which pleased them much    my Servent dances—    our hunters killed five Deer, 4 verry large gray Squirrels,  [3] a goose & Pheasent, one man giged a Salmon trout  [4] which we had fried in a little Bears oil which a Chief gave us yesterday and I think the finest fish I ever tasted, Saw great numbers of white Crains  [5] flying in Different directions verry high. The river has rose nearly 8 Inches to day and has every appearance of a tide, from what Cause I can't Say—    our hunters Saw Elk & bear signs to day in the white oake woods the Country to the Lard is broken Country thinly timbered with pine and white oake, a mountain which I must call Timm or falls Mountain rises verry high and bears to S W the Course it has bore Sinc we first Saw it. our men danced to night.    dried all our wet articles and repaired our Canoes

 

       The flees  [6] my Self and the men got on them in passing thro the plains the Indians had lately lived in Lodges on the Lard. Side at the falls, are very troublesom and with every exertion the men Can't get rid of them, perticilarly as they have no clothes to change those which they wore— Those Indians are at Ware with the Snake Indians on the river which falls in a few miles above this and have lately had a battle with them, their loss I cannot lern.  [7]




[Clark] 
October 26th Saturday 1805
 

       A fine morning    Sent Six men out to hunt Deer, and Collect rozin to pitch the Canoes which has become verry leakey, by frequently hauling them over rocks &c as well Striking rocks frequently in passing down. all our articles we have exposed to the Sun to Dry; and the Canoes drawn out and turned up—    maney of our Stores entirely Spoiled by being repeetedly wet;  [8]

 

       A number of Indians came to the Oposit Side of the river in the fore part of the day and Shew that they were anxious to Cross to us, we did not think proper to cross them in our Canoes and did not Send for them.    in the evening two Chiefs and 15 men came over in a Small Canoe, those two Chiefs proved to be the two Principal chiefs of the tribes above at the falls, and above, who was out hunting at the time we passed their bands; one of those Chiefs made Capt Lewis and my Self each a Small present of Deer meat, and Small Cakes of white bread made of roots.    we gave to each Chief a Meadel of the Small Size a red Silk handkerchief, arm band, Knife & a piece of Paint, and acknowledged them as chiefs; as we thought it necessary at this time to treat those people verry friendly & ingratiate our Selves with them, to insure us a kind & friendly reception on our return, we gave Small presents to Several, and half a Deer to them to eate.    we had also a fire made for those people to Sit around in the middle of our Camp, and Peter Crusat played on the violin, which pleased those nativs exceedingly.    the two Chiefs and several men deturmined to delay all night (yorked Danced for the Inds) with us    all the others returned, leaving the horses for those who Staied on the opposit Side. our hunters returned in the evening Killed five Deer, four verry large grey Squirels and a grouse.    one of the guard at the river guiged a Salmon Trout, which we had fried in a little Bears Oil which the Chief we passed below the narrows gave us: 〈thought this〉 this I thought one of the most delicious fish I have ever tasted

 

       Great numbers of white Crain flying in different Directions verry high—    The river rose 8 Inches to day from what cause I cannot Say certainly, as the tides cannot effect the river here as there is a falls below, I conjecture that the rise is owing to the winds which has Set up the river for 24 hours past.    our hunters inform that the countrey back is broken, Stoney and thinly timbered with pine and White Oake. They Saw Elk & Bear Sign in the mountains. Dried all our wet articles and repared our Canoes to day, and the Party amused themselves at night danceing. The Flees which the party got on them at the upper & great falls, are very troublesom and dificuelt to get rid of, perticularly as the me[n] have not a Change of Clothes to put on, they Strip off their Clothes and kill the flees, dureing which time they remained neckid.

 

       The nations in the vicinity of this place is at War with the Snake Indians who they Say are noumerous and live on the river we passed above the falls on the Same Side on which we have encamped, and the nearest town is about four days march    they pointed neary S. E. and informed that they had a battle with those Inds. laterly, their loss I could not assertain




[Ordway] 
 

       Saturday 26th Oct. 1805.    a clear pleasant morning.    our officers delay here for observations &c. and to repair the canoes also. Several men went out in the timbred land to hunt.    we unloaded the canoes and halled them out of the water to Smooth their bottoms and repair them.    one of the men giged a Sammon Trout in the River.    towards evening the hunters returned to Camp    had killed 5 Deer a goose and a gray Squerrell.    a number of Savages came in canoes made in form of Sciffs to our Camp.    our officers took down Some of the language from these Savages and Compared with all other we have passd. and find them to be all of a flat head nation but different tribes.    we think the flat head nation to be more than ten thousand Strong.    the River raised considerable this afternoon




[Gass] 
 

       Saturday 26th.    A fine morning. We hauled up all our canoes to dress and repair them, as they had been injured in passing over the portage, round the falls. Some hunters went out and killed 6 deer and some squirrels. In the afternoon about 20 of the natives came to our camp (among whom were the head chiefs of the two villages about the falls) who had been out hunting when we passed down. The Commanding Officers gave medals to the chiefs, and some other small articles; and they appeared satisfied and some remained with us all night.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Saturday 26th Oct. 1805.    a clear pleasant morning.    we lay Campd. on the clift or pt. of rocks for Safety.    2 Sentinels to guard us.    our officers conclude to delay here for observations and repair the canoes &c.    So we unloaded all the canoes Shaved the bottoms Smooth and pay them over and made them in good repair &c.    Several men out a hunting.    a nomber of the natives visited us.    we dryed the articles which got wet in the canoe that filled yesterday.    one of the men giged a Sammon Trout in the River.    towards evening the hunters returned to Camp had killed 5 five Deer a goose and a gray Squirrel.    they Saw a great nomber of deer in the timbered land.    we Saw a great no. of geese and ducks.    the Savages came in crafts to our Camp made of Solid wood but are made in form of Sciffs for the convenience of rideing the waves in high winds, or to coast along the Sea Shore.    Several of the Indians Stayed with us this night one of them a chief    Capt. Lewis compared the languages of these with those which he had taken down all the way this Side of the mountains and find them to be all one nation but differ a little in their languages, caused by the different tribes of them Scatered Such a long distance from each other.  [9]    all the way thick along the kimoo-e-nem & Columbia Rivers and to the head of all the Rivers runing in to it.    we think the flat head  [10] nation to be ten Thousand Strong in all.    the River began to raise about 4 oClock P. M. and raised Several Inches, the cause of which we think that the tide Swels a little up to this place.

 

       Saturday October 26th    A clear pleasant morning, and we continued at our Encampment near the point of rocks, with 2 Centinals placed to guard us.    Our hunters were sent out in order to hunt for game.    Our officers mean to delay here this day in order to ascertain the Latitude of this place, repair our Canoes &ca.    We unloaded our Canoes, shaved their bottoms clean, payed them over with Pitch.    We also put the loading that had got wet, in the Canoe Yesterday Out in order to dry 〈them〉.    We had a number of the Natives at our Camp, to visit us.    One of our party gigged a large Salmon Trout in the River, which he brought to our Camp.    Towards Evening our hunters returned to the Camp.    They had killed 5 deer, 1 Goose & a grey squirrel.    They informed us, that they had seen a great number of deer, in the timbered land, We saw a great number of Ducks, & Geese in the River this day.—    The Indians came to our Camp this day, on Crafts made out of Cedar Wood.    These Crafts were made in the form of a Skiff, for the convenience of riding the Waves in high winds; or to coast along the Sea shore.—    They were neatly formed & dug out.—    Several of these Indians staid with us all Night, among which was one of their Chiefs.—    Captain Lewis compared the language of these Indians, with the different languages that he had taken down in writing, of all the Indians that we had seen on this side of the Rockey Mountains, & found them to be the same Nation, & to differ but little in their languages, which is occasioned by the different tribes of them, being scattered such a long distance from each other & all the way 〈thick〉 numerous along the Kio-me-num & Columbia Rivers & to the heads of all the Rivers that run into them.—

 

       Our Officers as well as the Men, are of oppinion that all the Indians that we met with (since we first met with the flatt head Indians) belong to that Nation; & from the best calculation that we can make suppose them to be Ten thousand Men strong 〈in all,〉    The Columbia River began to rise at about 4 o'Clock P. M. and raised several Inches.    The cause of which we suppose to be from the flowing of the tide, which occasions the swell at this place.—    The place we are at lies in Latitude 45° 0' North & called the long Narrows of Columbia River.




 

1. The numbers "54 22" follow this line at the bottom of a page of the Elkskin-bound Journal. They probably represent astronomical data. (Return to text.)

 

2. The star Fomalhaut. (Return to text.)

 

3. Probably the western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus, then new to science. For Lewis's detailed description, see below, February 25, 1806. Burroughs, 97. (Return to text.)

 

4. Evidently the steelhead trout. See above, August 22, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

5. The endangered whooping crane, Grus americana [AOU, 204]. (Return to text.)

 

6. It seems more likely that the "flees" are lice, since fleas do not attach themselves to hosts for any length of time. If lice, they would be human body lice, Pediculus humanus. Harwood & James, 129–41. (Return to text.)

 

7. Two blank pages follow in the Elkskin-bound Journal. (Return to text.)

 

8. Here follows in Codex H, p. 71, Clark's astronomical observation as probably copied from the Elkskin-bound Journal. As no significant differences were noted, it is not printed here. (Return to text.)

 

9. "This Side of the mountains" is a vague location. However, since they had descended from the Bitterroots and met the Nez Perces, most of the people they had encountered had belonged to the Shahaptian language family, as Lewis had discerned. The Dalles area marked the dividing line between the Shahaptian language (upstream) and the Chinookan language (downstream). The Wishrams lived on the north side of the Columbia, and the closely allied Wascos on the south side; both spoke Chinookan languages. (Return to text.)

 

10. The first "Flatheads" they met were the Salish, of the Salishan language family. From the Nez Perces on down to The Dalles the people were primarily Shahaptian speakers. Now they were among Chinookans. Perhaps they picked up the idea of calling all the people west of the mountains Flatheads from the Mandans and Hidatsas, or maybe from Sacagawea and her fellow Shoshones. (Return to text.)












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