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[Clark] 
October 27th 〈Wednesday〉 Sunday 1805
 

       a verry windy night and morning    wind from the West and hard,

 

        

〈h    m    s〉
     〈Took an altitude of the Suns upper Limb. At
〈and 38° 57' 0"〉
  8    34    50〉

 

       Took time and distance of Suns and moons nearest Limbs 〈moon〉 Sun West

 

        

Time
distance
h    m     S
P M 3    20    37 61°   0'     0"
"    22    33 61    0    45
"    23    23 61    1    15
"    24    24 61    1    45
"    25    25 61    2    15
"    26    22 61    2    30
"    27    25 61    2    30
"    28    23 61    3    15
"    29      9 61    3    30
"    29    50 61    3    30

 

       Send out hunters and they killed 4 deer 1 pheasent and a Squirel    the 2 Chiefs and party Continue with us, we treat them well give them to eate & Smoke, they were joined by Seven others, from below who Stayed about 3 hours and returned down the river in a pet, Soon after the Chiefs deturmined to go home    we had them put across the river    the wind verry high, we took a vocabelary of the Languages of the 2 nations, the one liveing at the Falls call themselves E-nee-shur  [1]    The other resideing at the levels or narrows in a village on the Std. Side call themselves E-chee-lute not withstanding those people live only 6 miles apart, but fiew words of each others language—    the language of those above having great Similarity with those tribes of flat heads we have passed—    all have the Clucking tone anexed which is predomint.    above, all flatten the heads of their female children near the falls, and maney above follow the Same Custom  [2]    The language of the Che-luc-it-te-quar  [3] a fiew miles below is different from both in a Small degree. The wind increased in the evening and blew verry hard from the Same point W.    day fair and Cold—    The Creek at which we are Encamped is Called by the natives—Que-nett—Some words with Shabono about his duty—    〈Falls M〉 The pinical of Falls mountain bears S 43° W. about 35 miles




[Clark] 
October 27th Sunday 1805
 

       Wind hard from the west all the last night and this morning.  [4] Some words with Shabono our interpreter about his duty. Sent out Several hunters who brought in four Deer, one Grouse & a Squirel. The two Chiefs & party was joined by Seven others from below in two canoes, we gave them to eate & Smoke    Several of those from below returned down the river in a bad humer, haveing got into this pet by being prevented doeing as they wished with our articles which was then exposed to dry—    we took a Vocabelary of the Languages of those two chiefs which are verry different notwithstanding they are Situated within Six miles of each other, Those at the great falls Call themslves E-nee-shur and are understood on the river above: Those at the Great Narrows Call themseles E-che-lute and is understood below, maney words of those people are the Same,  [5] and Common to all the flat head Bands which we have passed on the river, all have the clucking tone anexed which is prodomonate above.    all the Bands flatten the heads of the female Children, and maney of the male children also. Those two Chief leave us this evening and returned to their bands, the wind verry high & from the West, day proved fair and Cool.

 

       The nativs Call this Creek near which we are encamped—Que-nett.




[Ordway] 
 

       Sunday 27th Oct. 1805.    a fair morning.    the wind high from the west. Six men went out to hunt. Some of the Indians Stayed with us    our officers gave one of the principal men a meddle and Some other Small articles.    towards evening the hunters returned to camp    had killed four Deer.    we Set the Indians across the River.    the waves roled verry high.—




[Gass] 
 

       Sunday 27th.    This was a fine clear morning, but the wind blew very hard up the river, and we remained here all day. This is the first hunting ground we have had for a long time, and some of our men went out. Part of the natives remained with us; but we cannot find out to what nation they belong. We suppose them to be a band of the Flathead nation, as all their heads are compressed into the same form; though they do not speak exactly the same language, but there is no great difference, and this may be a dialect of the same.  [6] This singular and deforming operation is performed in infancy in the following manner. A piece of board is placed against the back of the head extending from the shoulders some distance above it; another shorter piece extends from the eye brows to the top of the first, and they are then bound together with thongs or cords made of skins, so as to press back the forehead, make the head rise at the top, and force it out above the ears. In the evening our hunters came in and had killed 4 deer and some squirrels. The wind blew hard all this day.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Sunday 27th Oct. 1805.    a clear morning.    the wind high from the west.    6 of the party went out to hunt, back from the River in the timbered country, Such as white oak and pitch pine.    the wind continued high all day    in the evening the hunters returned to Camp    had killed 4 Deer.    we Set the Savages across the River which had been with us all day eating our venison.    our officers gave one of the principal men a meddle &c.

 

       Sunday October 27th    This morning Clear, but the Wind blew high from the West, which continued so the whole of this day.    Six of our party went out, in Order to hunt, back from the River in a timbered Country, the growth of which was white Oak & pitch pine Trees.    In the Evening our hunters returned with 4 Deer which they had killed.—    We carried the Indians that had been with us all day; across the River, in order that they might go to their Village.    Our officers gave the principal Men that was among them Medals & some other small articles.—




 

1. The three tribal names here may have been added to blank spaces. (Return to text.)

 

2. As Clark notes, many tribes of the lower Columbia and the Northwest Coast deformed the soft skulls of their infants by applying pressure with a headband or a special attachment to a cradleboard. The result was a pointed skull that lasted through life, apparently without any bad physical or mental effects. This deformation was a mark of status; slaves were not allowed to deform the skulls of their children. For Clark's sketches of the process and some of the results, see figures. (Return to text.)

 

3. Investigators place the Wishram—the easternmost Chinookan tribe—in this area. They report that the Wishram occupied the north shore and the closely allied Wasco tribe occupied the south shore of the Columbia River, and plot villages of these peoples essentially between Mosier, Wasco County, Oregon, and Wishram, Klickitat County, Washington. Spier & Sapir; Lewis (TCV), 179–204; Spier, 20–24. The "Che-luc-it-te-quar" name may represent Upper Chinookan C with caron lowercase symbol-i-l-ktí-gw a-x, "he is pointing at him." Perhaps when Lewis or Clark pointed at someone and asked his tribe, they got this answer. Curtis, 180 n. 1. (Return to text.)

 

4. Here follows Clark's astronomical observation in Codex H, p. 74; being a repeat of the other entry, it is not printed here. (Return to text.)

 

5. Whether the Chinook trade jargon had come into existence by the time of Lewis and Clark is still a debated issue among linguists; it may be that all these Indians were using it, based on the Chinook language which was widespread in the northwest. It served the same function as the sign language on the Great Plains. This would account for the captains' noting similar words used by people of different language families. Hodge, 1:274–75. (Return to text.)

 

6. The Dalles area marked the dividing line between the Shahaptian language (upstream) and the Chinookan language (downstream). The Wishrams lived on the north side of the Columbia, and the closely allied Wascos on the south side; both spoke Chinookan languages. It is possible that these people were trying to communicate in Chinook trade jargon. See Clark's entry of this day. (Return to text.)












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