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[Clark] 
October 29th Tuesday 1805
 

       a Cloudy morning    wind Still from th West not hard, we Set out at day light    proceeded on about 5 miles and Came too at a Lodge of a Chief which we made at the upper village at th falls    about his house there is Six others  [1]    This chief gave us to eate Sackacommis burries Hasel nuts  [2] fish Pounded, and a kind of Bread made of roots—    we gave to the Women pices of ribon, which they appeared pleased with—    those houses are large 25 feet Sqr and contain abt. 8 men, Say 30 inhabitents—

 

        

Course

N. 55° W.   4 miles to a Lard. point, pasd a run on Lard Side
West   8 miles to Rock Island near the middle of River    passed 7
Houses of Indians    about 50 men at 1 mile on the Stard
Side. Brakfast    Those people fish at the last narrows, &
have but little pounded fish, Som dried and buries
  12  

 

       Those people are friendly    gave us to eate fish Beries, nuts bread of roots & Drid beries and we Call this the friendly Village    We purchased 12 dogs of them & 4 Sacks of Pounded fish, and Some fiew Dried Berries and proceeded on    at 4 miles further we landed to Smoke a pipe with the people of a village of 11 houses  [3]    we found those people also friendly    Their Village is Situated imediately below the mouth of a River  [4] of 60 yards water which falls in on the Stard. Side and heads in the mountains to the N. & N, E, the Indians inform us that this river is long 〈but〉 and full of falls    no Salmon pass up it. They also inform that 10 nations lives on this river by hunting and on buries &c. The Countrey begin to be thinly timbered with Pine & low white oake verry rocky and hilley—    We purchased at this vilg 4 dogs—    at the end of this Course is 3 rocks, in the river and a rock point from the Lard.    the middle rock is large and has a number of graves on it    we call it the Sepulchar Island.  [5] The last River we call Caterack River from the number of falls which the Indians inform is on it    The Indians are afraid to hunt or be on th Lard Side of this Columbia river for fear of the Snake Ind. who reside on a fork of this river which falls in above the falls    a good  [6] Situaion for winter quarters if game can be had is just below Sepulchar rock on the Lard Side, high & pine and oake timber    the rocks ruged above, good hunting Countrey back, as it appears from the river    Indian village opsd. of 2 Lodgs  [7] river ˝ mile wide at rocks

 

        

  12 miles brought forward
S. 60° W.   5 miles to a point of rocks Island in a Lard bend, passed 2
rocks in the river—    passed 2 Houses at 1 mile on the Stard
Side and 2 at 4 miles on the Stard. Side    Countrey on the
Lard. Side has more timber than common and looks well for
huntg.    high and ruged.—  [8]
S. 80° W.   6 〈to a point〉 miles to 4 Houses in a point of a timbered bottom
on the Lard. Side at a large creek or River 40 yr.    passed a
bottom on the Stard Side the distance in which there is 14
Indian houses—    The falls mountain covered with Snow is
South
S. 70° W.   6 miles to a high Clift of rocks Std bend    passed a large creek
at 1 mile on the Stard. Side in which the Indians catch fish, a
large Sand bar from the Lard. Side for 4 miles, at which
place a small stream of water falls over a rock of 100 feet on
the Lard Side    passed 4 Indian Houses at 5 miles in a bot-
tom on the Lard Side

 

       The robes of those Indians are, of wolf deer Elk, wild cats, Some fox, & Deer    I saw one of the mountain Sheep, th wool thick and long Corse hair on the back, resembling bristles—    those animals live among the rocks in those mountains below, orter is much valued by those people they Cew their hair on each Side with it and ware it about the necks with the tail in front

 

        

S. 56° W.   6 miles to a point of timbr. bottom on the Lard. Side, passd. a
Stard. point at 2 miles    Here the mountains are high on
each Side, the high points of those to the Lard. has Snow
  29  
    6  
ms.
35  

 

       Came too at 3 miles on this Course at 3 Houses of flatheads and Encamped on the Stard. Side,  [9] a Pond lies back of those people in which we Saw great numbers of the Small Swan.  [10]    we Purchased of those people 3 Dogs they gave us    High bush cramburies,  [11] bread of roots and roots, they were pleased with musick of th violin.




[Clark] 
October 29th Tuesday 1805
 

       A cloudy morning wind from the West but not hard, we Set out at day light, and proceeded on about five miles    Came too on the Stard. Side at a village of 7 houses built in the Same form and materials of those above, here we found the Chief we had Seen at the long narrows named [blank] we entered his lodge and he gave us to eate Pounded fish, bread made of roots, Filberts nuts, & the berries of Sackecomme [NB: Sac de Commis]. we gave to each woman of the lodge a brace of Ribon of which they were much pleased.    each of those houses may be calculated to contain 8 men and 30 Soles, they are hospitable and good humered Speak the Same language of the inhabitants of the last village, we call this the friendly village. I observed in the lodge of the Chief Sundery articles which must have been precured from the white people, Such a Scarlet & blue Cloth Sword Jacket & hat. I also observed two wide Split boards with images on them Cut and painted in emitation of a man; I pointed to this image and asked 〈The〉 a man to what use he put them to, he Said Something the only word I understood was "good," and then Steped to the image and took out his Bow & quiver to Show me, and Some other of his war emplemints, from behind it.

 

       The Chief then directed his wife to hand him his medison bag which he opened and Showed us 14 fingers [NB: different fingers not little or middle fingers] which he Said was the fingers of his enemies which he had taken in war, and pointed to S. E. from which direction I concluded they were Snake Indians; his is the first Instance I ever knew of the Indians takeing any other trofea of their exploits off the dead bodies of their Enimies except the Scalp.—    The Chief painted those fingers with Several other articles which was in his bag red and Securely put them back, haveing first mad a Short harrang which I Suppose was bragging of what he had done in war.    we purchased 12 Dogs and 4 Sacks of fish, & Some fiew ascid berries, after brackfast we proceeded on, the mountains are high on each Side, containing Scattering pine white oake & under groth, hill Sides Steep and rockey; at 4 miles lower we observed a Small river falling in with great rapidity on the Stard. Side below which is a village of 11 houses, here we landed to Smoke a pipe with the nativs and examine the mouth of the river, which I found to be 60 yards wide rapid and deep, The inhabitants of the village are friendly and Chearfull; those people inform us also those at the last village that this little river is long and full of falls, no Salmon pass up it, it runs from N. N. E.    that ten nations live on this river and its waters, on buries, and what game that Can kill with their Bow & arrows

 

       we purchased 4 dogs and Set out—    (this village is the of the Same nation of the one we last passed) and proceeded on    The Countrey on each side begin to be thicker timbered with Pine and low white Oake; verry rockey and broken.    passed three large rocks in The river    the middle rock is large long and has Several Squar vaults on it.    we call this rockey Island the Sepulchar—    The last river we passed we Shall Call the Cataract River from the number of falls which the Indians say is on it—    passed 2 Lodges of Indians a Short distance below the Sepulchar Island on the Stard. Side river wide, at 4 mile passed 2 houses on the Stard. Side, Six miles lower passed 4 houses above the mouth of a Small river 40 yards wide on the Lard. Side  [12]    a thick timbered bottom above & back of those houses; those are the first houses which we have Seen on the South Side of the Columbia River, (and the axess to those dificuelt) for fear of the approach of their common enemies the Snake Indians, passed 14 houses on the Std. Side Scattered on the bank—    from the mouth of this little river which we shall Call Labeasche River, the falls mountain [NB: Mount Hood] is South and the top is covered with Snow. one mile below pass the mouth of a large rapid Stream on the Stard. Side,  [13] opposit to a large Sand bar, in this creek the Indians above take their fish, here we Saw Several canoes, which induced us to call this Canoe Creek it is 28 yards wide, about 4 miles lower and below the Sand bar is a butifull cascade falling over a rock of about 100 feet [NB: high], a Short distance lower passed 4 Indian houses on the Lard. Side in a timbered bottom, a fiew miles further we came too at 3 houses on Stard. Side, back of which is a pond in which I Saw Great numbers of Small Swan, Capt. Lewis and [I] went into the houses of those people who appeared Somewhat Surprised at first    Their houses are built on the Same Construction of those above, Speak the Same language and Dress in the Same way, robes of the Skins of wolves Deer, Elk, wild cat, or Loucirvia  [14] & fox, also Saw a mountain Sheap Skin the wool of which is long, thick, & corse with long corse hare on the top of the neck and back Something resembling bristles of a goat, the skin was of white hare, those animals these people inform me by Signs live in the mountains among the rocks, their horns are Small and Streight, Orter Skins are highly prised among those people as well as those on the river above, They Cue their hare which is divided on each Sholder, and also ware Small Strips about their necks with the tale hanging down in front.—    Those people gave us, High bush cram berries, [NB: described hereafter not H. B. Crs] bread made of roots, and roots; we purchased three dogs for the party to eate; we Smoked with the men, all muche pleased with the violin—. Here the mountains are high on each Side, those to the Lard. Side has Some Snow on them at this time, more timber than above and of greater variety.




[Ordway] 
 

       Tuesday 29th Oct. 1805.    a cloudy morning.    we Set out eairly, and proceeded on about 6 miles and halted at Some Indian lodges where we bought a number more dogs and proceeded on    the current gentle    passed a great number of Indian villages  [15] on the Stard Side.    passed a creek on the Stard. Side and one on the Lard. Side.  [16]    Saw 2 or 3 cabbens on the Lard. side which is the first we Seen on that Side on this River. Saw a beautiful Spring on the Lard. Side, which run off a high clift of rocks, and fell of the clift upwards of a hundred feet perpinticular.    the country Mountaineous.    high clifts on the River.    mostly covred with pine timber. Some cotten wood  [17] on the narrow bottoms. Some willow also    we bought several more dogs at one of the villages.    we Came 26 miles this day and Camped at a village on the Stard. Side    Saw Snow on a mountain on the Lard. Side.—




[Gass] 
 

       Tuesday 29th.    We embarked early in a cloudy morning; passed high hills on both sides of the river, on which there was pine timber; and some birch  [18] on the banks of the river. At breakfast time we stopt at a small village of the natives  [19] and purchased some more dogs: then proceeded on; passed a number more Indian camps, and a high mountainous country on both sides. In the evening we discovered a high mountain to the south,  [20] not more than five miles off, covered with snow. We have here still water; and the breadth of the river is from three quarters to a mile. We went 23 miles and encamped at a small village on the north side.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Tuesday 29th Oct. 1805.    a cloudy morning.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on about 6 miles and halted for breakfast at Some Indian villages on the Stard. Side, where we bought a nomber more fat dogs    we proceeded on the current gentle    passed a great nomber of Indian villages on the Stard Side which had their houses built like those at the falls.    Saw 2 or 3 Camps on the Lard. Side, which was the first we Saw on that Side of the Calm. R.    passed the mo. of two creeks, one on each Side, and a Spring on Lard. Side which ran of a high clift of rocks which looked curious.    the country this day mountaineous high clifts of rocks on each side of the River.    the country mostly timbred Such as pine and oak.    Some cottonwood on Some of the narrow bottoms along the Shores willows also.    we bought Several more dogs at one of the villages.    went 26 miles and Camped at a village on the Stard. Side in a Small or narrow bottom of large cotton trees.    we bought Several bags of pounded Sammon to day.    we Saw Snow on the timbred mountains  [21] on the Lard. Side a little back from the River.

 

       Tuesday October 29th    A cloudy cool morning.    We set out early & proceeded on about 6 Miles & halted to breakfast, at some Indian Lodges, lying on the North side of the River; which was Inhabited by a number of Indians.    We purchased from those Indians, a number more fat dogs.    We proceeded on our Voyage, & found the current of the River to run very gentle, & passed a great number of Indian Villages, lying on the North side of the River.    The houses in those Villages; were built in the same manner of those that I have already described that lay at the falls of this River.    We passed 3 Indian Camps which were on the South side of the River.    these were the first Indian camps, that we had seen, that lay on that side of the River.    We also passed two Creeks, lying on each side of the River & a spring which lay on the South side of the River, which ran from off a high Clift of Rocks & had a curious appearance.—

 

       The Country this day is very Mountaineous & has high Clifts of Rocks lying on each side of the River.    The Country here abounds with Timber of Pine & Cotton wood.—

 

       The bottoms along the River is small, & has will growing on them.    We purchased of the Natives a number of bags of pounded Salmon.    We saw mountains lying on the South side of the River; a distance back from it; Covered with timber, which had Snow lying on them.    We came about 26 Miles this day, & encamped at an Indian Village, lying on the North side of the River, in a narrow bottom, which was covered with Cotton Wood Trees.—    We found the Natives here very friendly & of the Flatt head nation.




 

1. Shown as a seven-house village of Chilluckittequaws on Atlas maps 78, 86; it was in Klickitat County, Washington, a little above present Lyle. It may be the Friendly Village site (after Clark's designation) which was occupied about 1780 A.D. Cole. (Return to text.)

 

2. See above, October 22, 1805, where the nuts are called "Philburts" as in Clark's notebook entry for this day. Saccacommis is bearberry or kinnikinnick, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. It is the same plant which Lewis and Clark collected at Fort Mandan (see part 3 of Fort Mandan Miscellany). The plant is relatively abundant in the Cascade Range. Hitchcock et al., 4:7. (Return to text.)

 

3. In Klickitat County, just below Klickitat River. Atlas map 78. Lyle site is in this general area and a permanent village named xla'tixat ("klikitat") was occupied by Klickitat peoples here. Cole; Ray (NVCB), 148. (Return to text.)

 

4. "Cataract River" on Atlas map 78; present Klickitat River. (Return to text.)

 

5. The later Memaloose Ilahee or Lower Memaloose Island, in Wasco County, Oregon, a few miles above Mosier, Wasco County. Here begins a new page of the Elkskin-bound Journal, on which and under the text, is a sketch map showing the Kooskooskee (Clearwater) and Kimooenem (Snake) rivers with some tributaries and their junction, with circular symbols presumably representing Indian habitations. At the bottom of the preceding page is the notation, "S. 60 W 5," the first course listed next in this entry. Atlas map 78. Examples of these graves are shown in Strong (SACR) and in Seaman. Some of these were apparently excavated in 1934 but have never been reported and described in detail. Memaloose Ilahee is derived from Chinook jargon words for "land of the dead." Either the Wishram or the Dalles Indians used Memaloose Island as a burial ground. Strong (SACR), 80–83; Seaman, 114–15; Phebus, 141–45; Spier & Sapir, 271. (Return to text.)

 

6. There is an asterisk here, but it is unclear how or if it relates to other such marks in the text. (Return to text.)

 

7. In Klickitat County. Atlas map 78. (Return to text.)

 

8. There is an asterisk here, but it is unclear how or if it relates to other such marks in the text. (Return to text.)

 

9. In Skamania County, Washington, a little above the mouth of Little White Salmon River, "Little lake C" on Atlas map 78. Investigators report two villages in this area on the north shore of the Columbia occupied by White Salmon and Klickitat peoples. Spier & Sapir, 67. (Return to text.)

 

10. Probably the tundra (Lewis and Clark's whistling) swan, Cygnus columbianus [AOU, 180]; see the description on March 9, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

11. Contrary to the interlineation in the second entry this probably is the American cranberrybush, Viburnum trilobum Marsh. (also known as high-bush cranberry, V. opulus L.). It is rare in Washington and restricted to the Columbia gorge. The species is more common in the northeastern United States which explains Lewis's familiarity with the name. However, the squashberry, V. edule (Michx.) Raf., also has edible fruits which can be dried and may have been the item in question. Little (MWH), 200; Hitchcock et al., 4:468–70. (Return to text.)

 

12. "River Labiche" on Atlas map 78 and named for expedition member FranC with cedilla lowercase symbolois Labiche, now Hood River, meeting the Columbia at present Hood River, Hood River County, Oregon. (Return to text.)

 

13. White Salmon River, "Canoe Creek" on Atlas map 78, the present boundary between Skamania and Klickitat counties. (Return to text.)

 

14. Lynx, Lynx canadensis. Burroughs, 92. (Return to text.)

 

15. More Chilluckittequaws, living in Klickitat County, Washington. (Return to text.)

 

16. The party's Cataract River, now Klickitat River, Klickitat County, on their right, and their Labiche River for FranC with cedilla lowercase symbolois Labiche, now Hood River, Hood River County, Oregon, on the left. (Return to text.)

 

17. Probably black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa T. & G. (Return to text.)

 

18. Probably water birch, Betula occidentalis Hook. (Return to text.)

 

19. Another village of Chiluckittequaws, Klickitat County, Washington, above Lyle. (Return to text.)

 

20. Mt. Hood, of the Cascade Range in Hood River County, Oregon. The captains called it Timm, or Falls Mountain, following the Indians. See Gass's entry of November 3. (Return to text.)

 

21. The Cascade Range. (Return to text.)












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