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[Clark] 
Novr. 4th Monday 1805
 

       A Cloudy Cool morning, wind West. we Set out at ½ past 8 oClock having dispatched 4 men in the Small canoe to hunt

 

        

Course

West 6 miles to the North Side & Lower point of a large Island,
passed the lower point of dimon Island at 3 miles, a little be-
low the head of a large Island on the Lard Side.    (river wide
and Countrey low on both Sides & thickly covered with
pine)—.    this Island is Seperated from one on its Lard. by a
narrow Chanl. in which there is only water in high tide—
which rises here ab. 18 Inches.    high tide at 6 oClock P m
〈passed the Lower point the Isld. at 1 mile lower, a large
Indian〉

 

       (Those people men & women 〈flatten the〉 heads 〈village〉 are flat)

 

       We landed at a village 200 men of Flatheads of 25 houses 50 canoes built of Straw, we were treated verry kindly by them, they gave us round root near the size of a hens egg roasted which they call Wap-to to eate  [1]

 

        

N. 88° W. 6 miles to Point on the Stard Side    passed a village 25 Houses on
the Lard. main Shore, those houses are differently built from
those above all except one verry large house covered with
bark & Thached with Straw.    verry worm
N. 80° W. 3 miles on the Stard. Side, a Pon and a Small plain on Std.
Side    passed the head of an Island at 1 miles near the middle
of the river to a 2d Island opsd. the end of this Course
N. 76° W. 4 miles on the Stard. Side    passed a Island near the large Is-
land Lbd.    a range of high hills on the Lard. Side running
S E & N W. leaveing a large bottom on the river.

 

       I walked out on the Stard. Side found the country fine, an open Prarie for 1 mile back of which the wood land comence riseing back, the timber on the edge of the Prarie is white oke, back is Spruce pine  [2] & other Species of Pine mixed Some under groth of a wild crab  [3] & a Specis of wood I'm not acquainted, a Specis of maple & Cotton wood grow near this river,  [4] Some low bushes  [5]

 

       Indians continue to be with us, Several Canoes Continue with us, The Indians at the last village have more Cloth and uriopian trinkets than above I Saw Some Guns, a Sword, maney Powder flasks, Salers Jackets, overalls,  [6] hats & Shirts, Copper and Brass trinkets with few Beeds only. dureing the time I was at Dinner the Indians Stold my tomahawk which I made use of to Smoke I Serched but Could not find it, a Pond on the Stard Side, off from the river. Raspberries  [7] and [blank] are also in the bottoms—    met a large and Small canoe with 12 men from below    the men were dressed with a variety of articles of European manufactory    the large Canoe had emeges on the bow & Stern handsomly Carved in wood & painted with the figur of a Bear in front & man in a Stern. Saw white geese with black wings—  [8]    Saw a Small Crab-apple with all the taste & flavor of the Common—    Those Indians were all armed with Pistols or bows and arrows ready Sprung war axes &c.  [9]

 

        

N W. 3 miles on the Stard. Side    passed the Lower point of Immage
canoe Island and 4 Small Islands at its lower point all on the
Lard Side—
N. 35° W. 1 mile on the Stard. Side, bottoms low and extensive, not Subject
to over flow, river about 1½ miles wide
North 3 miles to a white tree on the Stard. Side.    high tide here at
5 oClock P M.

 

       〈Encamped on the Lard. Side.  [10] Mt. Ranier〉 Mount Hellen  [11] bears N. 25° E about 80 miles, this is the mountain we Saw near the foks of this river.    it is emensely high and covered with Snow, riseing in a kind of Cone perhaps the highest pinecal from the common leavel in america passed a village of 4 hs. on the Stard Side at 2 mils, one at 3 mls.

 

       One deer 2 Ducks & Brant killed

 

        

N. 28° W.   3 miles to a Stard bend & campd. near a village on the Std. Side
passed one on each Side, proceded on untill after dark to get
Clere of Indians    we Could not    2 Canoes pursued us and 2
others Came to us, and were about us all night    we bought a
fiew roots &c.
  29  




[Clark] 
November 4th Monday 1805
 

       A cloudy cool morning wind from the West    we Set out at ½ past 8 oClock, one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered  [12] (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp)    near the lower point of this diamond Island is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel,  [13] and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c.    river wide, Country low on both Sides; on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses:  [14]    24 of those houses we[re] thached with Straw, and covered with bark, the other house is built of boards in the form of those above, except that it is above ground and about 50 feet in length and covered with broad Split boards This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation I counted 52 canoes on the bank in front of this village maney of them verry large and raised in bow.    we recognised the man who over took us last night, [NB: our pilot who came in his canoe]    he invited us to a lodge in which he had Some part and gave us a roundish roots about the Size of a Small Irish potato which they roasted in the embers until they became Soft, This root they call Wap-pa-to which the Bulb of the Chinese cultivate in great quantities called the Sa-git ti folia [NB: we believe it to be the Same] or common arrow head—.  [15]    it has an agreeable taste and answers verry well in place of bread.    we purchased about 4 bushels of this root and divided it to our party,

 

       at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island  [16] nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie in which there is a pond opposit on the Stard.    here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash  [17] of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, Saw Some Elk  [18] and Deer Sign and joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner. Soon after Several Canoes of Indians from the village above came down dressed for the purpose as I Supposed of Paying us a friendly visit, they had Scarlet & blue blankets Salors jackets, overalls, Shirts and Hats independant of their Usial dress; the most of them had either war axes Spears or Bows Sprung with quivers of arrows, Muskets or pistols, and tin flasks to hold their powder; Those fellows we found assumeing and disagreeable, however we Smoked with them and treated them with every attention & friendship.

 

       dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with, I imediately Serched every man and the canoes, but Could find nothing of my Tomahawk, while Serching for the Tomahawk one of those Scoundals Stole a Cappoe [NB: Capotte (gr: coat)]  [19] of one of our interpreters, which was found Stufed under the root of a treer, near the place they Sat, we became much displeased with those fellows, which they discovered and moved off on their return home to their village, except 2 canoes which had passed on down—    we proceeded on met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men    the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of 〈man &〉 a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the 〈bow & Stern〉 of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man    two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe    passed the lower point of the Island which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island, three Small Islands at its lower point.    the Indians make Signs that a village  [20] is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd. Side as a Canoe passed in between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles lower, and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river passed a village of four large houses [NB: Mulknomaws]  [21] on The Lard. Side, near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base    it bears N. 25° E about 90 miles—    This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe—  [22]    about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side  [23]    we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side    Soon after 2 canoes Came to us loaded with Indians, we purchased a fiew roots of them.

 

       This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber    the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 1½ miles wide, and current jentle.    opposite to our camp on a Small Sandy Island the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap.    we made 29 miles to day

 

       Killed a Deer and Several brant and ducks. I Saw a Brarow  [24] tamed at the 1st village to day    The Indians which we have passd to day [NB: in their boats were of] of the Scil-loot nation [NB: going up to the falls.    differ a little] in their language from those near & about the long narrows of the Che-luc-it-te-quar or E-chee-lute, their dress differ but little, except they have more of the articles precured from the white traders, they all have flatened heads both men and women, live principally on fish and Wap pa toe roots, they also kill Some fiew Elk and Deer, dureing the Short time I remained in their village they brought in three Deer which they had killed with their Bow & arrows. They are thievishly inclinded as we have experienced.  [25]




[Ordway] 
 

       Monday 4th Nov. 1805.    cloudy.    the tide Ebbs and flowes abt. 3 feet at this place    one of the hunters killed a Deer on Said Island.    about 7 oClock we set out and proceeded on    passed Several large Islands partly covred with cotten timber & partly prarie.    proceeded on about 8 miles    came to a large new village  [26] on the Lard. Side consisting of about 35 Cabbens and have 50 fine canoes    they have considerable of cloaths of different kinds among them, wool hats &C.    we bought Several dogs, and Some excelent roots nearly like potatoes    these Savages killed and brought in Several Deer to day.    we then went on a Short distance farther & halted to dine on the Stard. Side    two canoe loads of Savages followed us and Stole Capt. Clarks pipe tommahawk which he had been Smoaking with them.    we could not find it with them.    they had Several muskets on board of their canoes.    we then proceeded on    passed Islands the most of the way on the Lard. Side and timbred bottoms on each Side Some oak mostly cotton timber    the pine continues back from the River.    we passed Several large villages on each Side    the natives verry numerous    the country appears good    the Soil rich.    towards evening we met several Indians in a handsom canoe which had an Immage on the bow.    one of the Indians could talk & Speak Some words English Such as curseing and blackguard    they had a Sturgeon on board and have five muskets on board.    we discovred a high round mountain Some distance back from the River on the Stard Side which is called mount rainy—  [27]    Saw a number of sea otter in the River.    we Came 28 miles this day and Camped after dark on the Stard Side    the geese and brants verry thick




[Gass] 
 

       Monday 4th.    A fine morning. We embarked early; passed two large islands,  [28] and a beautiful part of the river. The tide raised the water last night 2 feet. We went about 7 miles and came to a large Indian village, where they informed us that in two days we should come to two ships with white people in them. The Indians here have a great deal of new cloth among them, and other articles which they got from these ships. We got some dogs and roots from the natives. The roots are of a superior quality to any I had before seen: they are called whapto; resemble a potatoe when cooked, and are about as big as a hen egg. Game is more plenty here than up the river, and one of the men killed a deer this morning. At this camp of the natives they have 52 canoes, well calculated for riding waves. We proceeded on, and passed some handsome islands,  [29] and down a beautiful part of the river. We also passed a number of Indian lodges; and saw a great many swans, geese, ducks, cranes, and gulls. We went 28 miles and encamped  [30] on the north side. In the evening we saw Mount Rainy on the same side. It is a handsome point of a mountain, with little or no timber on it, very high, and a considerable distance off this place.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Monday 4th Nov. 1805.    Some cloudy.    the tide [swell?] about two feet perpinticular last night and on the rise this morning.    one of the men went out on the Island and killed a Deer & goose.    about 7 oClock we Set out and proced. on abt. 8 mils.    passd. Several large Islands covd. with cotton timber & praries    the River wider.    we Came to a verry large village on L. Side    the Savages verry nomerous in it, about 35 Cabbens.    it is but a new village.    they have a vast quantity of pounded Sammon in their cabbins.    they have 50 canoes at their handsome village or landing    they have cloths of different kinds among them.    the timber Such as cotton and pine is thick in these bottoms    the River is now handsome—    we bought 2 dogs and Some excelent roots which we found nearly as good as potatoes.    we then proceed. on a Short distance and halted to dine on the Stard Side.    2 canoe loads of Savages followed us from the village.    they Stole Capt. Clarks pipe Tomahawk which we could not find.    [page torn] all the way on [page torn] timbered bottoms on each Side covd. with cotton and oak timber.    a little back from the River the hills is covred with pine and Spruce from which the Savages git the bark to cover their villages.    passd. Several more verry large villages on each Side.    the Savages are verry numerous.    the country appears to be good, the Soil rich and game tollr. pleanty.    we Saw the Indians bring in Several deer to day which they had killed with their bows and arrows.    towards evening we met a large canoe loaded with Indians one of them could curse Some words in Inglish.    they had a Sturgeon on board.    they canoe had images worked on the bow & Stern.    they had five muskets on board.    we discovered a high round mountain Some dis[tance] back from the River on Stard. Side which is called mount Rainy.    we are not yet out of Site of Mount Hood which is covd. with Snow.    Saw a great many Sea otter in the River    we went 28 miles to day and Camped after dark on the Starbord Side.    the Swan and geese are verry pleanty on the River brants al[so]

 

       Monday Novemr. 4th    This morning was cold & foggy.    We are now tide way, the tide fell during last night 2 feet perpendicular, and is on the rise this morning.    One of our party went out early this morning on the Island & killed one deer & a goose which was brought to our Camp.    About 7 O'Clock A. M. we set off & proceeded on about 8 Miles, and passed several Islands, which were large & covered with Cotton wood Trees & Priaries.    The River still getting wider, & we then came to where lay a very large Village of Indians, which lay on the South side of the River.    This Village had about 35 Cabbins which appeared to have been lately built.—

 

       The Indians at this Village was very numerous, & had a vast quantity of pounded Salmon in their Cabbins, & had about 50 Canoes laying at a landing at this Village.    This village was by far the handsomest of the kind that we had yet seen.    It was situated on a rising piece of ground, & lay along the River.    The bottom land near this place is cover'd with Cotton wood & pine timber, the Soil tolerably good, & the River had a pleasant appearance, being wide & the current of the tide running very gentle.—    These Indians had Cloths of different kinds among them, which they made signs to us that they had got from white people at the Ocean.    Our Officers purchased from these Indians, 2 fat dogs, & some excellent roots, which we found to eat nearly as good as potatoes.    We continued on our way a short distance, & halted to dine on the North side of the River, The Indians in the Village that we last left, sent 2 Canoes loaded with Indians after us, and they came to the place that we halted at.    They proved to be a thievish set of Savages; for after being treated well by us, they stole Captain Clarks pipe Tomahawk; & not withstanding the stricktest search that we could make, we could not find it.—    We proceeded on our Voyage, and passed a number of Islands, lying on the South side of the River, & some handsome bottom land which lay along the River, 〈which was〉 covered with Cotton wood and Oak timber.    We saw lying a small distance back from the River, several hills, which were covered with Pine & Spruce Trees, which were very large, The Indians get the bark from these Trees to cover the roofs of their houses with.    We passed this day, several more large Indian Villages, which lay on each side of the River.    The Indians appear'd to be very numerous, The Country pleasant, the Soil rich & Game tolerably plenty.—

 

       We saw the Indians bringing into their Villages several deer, which they had killed with their Bows & arrows.    Towards evening, we were met by a number of Indians, who were in a Canoe (which was very large)    One of these Indians, could curse in English which he did.    They had a large Sturgeon on board this Canoe.    This Canoe had Images carved on its head & stern, and the Indians had five Muskets with them.    We discovered a mountain, which lay on the North side of the River, some distance back from it.    It appeared to be round, and is called Mount Rainey.    We are not yet out of sight of Mount Hood, which from this place appears to be covered with Snow.    We saw this day a considerable number of Sea Otters in the River.    In the Evening we encamped, on the North side of the River, where we saw, Swan, Geese, Brants & ducks in the greatest abundance in the River.    We came about 28 Miles this day, our Course being nearly West.




 

1. Wapato, Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Lewis and Clark describe the importance and ethnobotanical use of the wapato in entries for March 29, 1806. Biddle describes the gathering process under April 4, 1806. Hitchcock et al., 1:147; Coues (HLC), 3:929. See also October 22, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

2. "White oke" is Oregon white, or Garry, oak, Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook. Hitchcock et al., 2:85; Little (CIH), 166-W. "Spruce pine" is probably not the same tree as noted on September 9, 1805, near Missoula, Montana, where it was identified as Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry. Pine is clearly being used in a general sense, as it is today, to refer to any evergreen coniferous species. Spruce refers to species with sharply pointed, square needles, not in bundles. The spruce pine of this day at this low elevation is probably Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., which reaches its easternmost distributional limit in this region of the Columbia gorge in southwestern Skamania County, Washington, and northern Hood River County, Oregon. Little (CIH), 42-W. Lewis describes the tree more fully on February 4, 1806, where he calls it a species of fir. An important and interesting ecological feature of the Columbia gorge here is the transition from dry ponderosa pine-white oak forest on the east to the moist Douglas fir–western hemlock forests (with Sitka spruce) on the west, and the complex interdigitation of vegetation zones at this low elevation. Franklin & Dyrness, 310—11. There remains a possibility that the spruce pine could be Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Little (CIH), 80-W. (Return to text.)

 

3. The wild crab, then new to science, is Oregon crabapple, Malus diversifolia (Bong.) Roem., given by Hitchcock et al. as western crabapple, Pyrus fusca Raf. Little (MWH), 100-W: Hitchcock et al., 3:164; Cutright (LCPN), 268, 274, 416. See Lewis's detailed description at January 28, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

4. The maple is probably bigleaf maple, Acer macrophyllum Pursh (new to science), and the final tree is black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa T. & G. Little (CIH), 95-W, 153-W; Franklin & Dyrness, 72; Cutright (LCPN), 288–89, 401. (Return to text.)

 

5. A subtotal of "19" appears at the top of the next page following these words. (Return to text.)

 

6. Not the bib overalls of later usage, but trousers of strong material worn over regular clothes for their protection. Criswell, 60. (Return to text.)

 

7. The raspberry of the floodplain ("bottoms") is the Pacific blackberry, Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht., a common, low-elevation blackberry that is ethnobotanically important in the area. The captains usually call it the green brier because it retains its green leaves late in the fall. Hitchcock et al., 3:182–83; Gunther (EWW), 35–36; Franklin & Dyrness, 74. (Return to text.)

 

8. Snow goose. (Return to text.)

 

9. Again the number "19" at the top of the next page. (Return to text.)

 

10. An error; elsewhere in both entries Clark indicates a camp on the starboard side, which may account for striking the passage. (Return to text.)

 

11. Mt. St. Helens in Skamania County, Washington, still an active volcano although it did not erupt during Lewis and Clark's stay on the Pacific Coast. Vancouver named it in 1792 after (Baron St. Helens (Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1753–1839), Britain's ambassador to Spain. (Return to text.)

 

12. There is a blank space equivalent to several lines after this sentence. (Return to text.)

 

13. This island ("White Goose Isd." of Atlas map 79) may be Government and McGuire islands and adjoining islands and sandbars; it is "Twin Islds." of Atlas map 88. See also Diamond Island of entry of November 3. (Return to text.)

 

14. Designated "Sha-hala N." on Atlas map 79, evidently a part of the Upper Chinookan-language Watlalas. Hodge, 2:519; Berreman, 16, 18–19; Swanton, 476; Hajda, 67. The village was within present Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon, and was probably destroyed by the construction of the city's airport. "Skil-loot" ("Skil-lute" on Atlas map 79) is probably the Chinookan imperative form s(i)K with comma above lowercase symbollútk, "look (at him)!" which Silverstein suggests Clark misconstrued as an ethnonym. Cf. Hodge, 2:519; Hajda, 65–66, 108–9. (Return to text.)

 

15. The Chinese species is Sagittaria sagittifolia L., old-world arrowhead, and is not the same species as the North American arrowhead, more commonly called wapato. Bailey, 130. Here Clark may have been borrowing from Lewis's knowledge of the Linnaean Latin nomenclature. (Return to text.)

 

16. "Image Canoe Island" on Atlas map 79, evidently later Hayden and Tomahawk islands. An adjacent island is named "Tomahawk" on Atlas map 88, in reference to the item's loss. Archaeological work here has failed to locate any prehistoric materials. The pond on the adjacent north shore is present Vancouver Lake, Clark County. (Return to text.)

 

17. Probably bigleaf maple of the first entry, rather than ash. There is some confusion between the two species, as discussed at February 10, 1805. However, the Oregon ash, Fraxinus latifolia Benth., is commonly found along watercourses with the black cottonwood and bigleaf maple. Franklin & Dyrness, 72. (Return to text.)

 

18. Elk (or more properly, wapiti), Cervus elaphus. (Return to text.)

 

19. The capote, or blanket coat, a long, hooded coat of heavy blanket material, was popular in the Canadian fur trade of the period. Criswell, 21. (Return to text.)

 

20. The village may be one of several shown on Atlas map 80 on the Oregon shore behind Sauvie ("Wappâto") Island. In this vicinity on the island is the so-called Sunken Village, a deeply stratified, partially submerged archaeological site. Many perishable artifacts have been found in the water-logged deposits; radiocarbon dates indicate submergence of this site within the last 500 years. Warren (RSWA), 19; Butler (PLCV), 7, 10. (Return to text.)

 

21. An Upper Chinookan-language group living on Sauvie Island ("Multnomahs" on "Wappâto Island" on Atlas map 80), Multnomah County. The term is Chinookan máłnuma(x̣), "(those) at/toward the body of water." They are identified by tribe on Atlas maps 80, 88, and in the Estimate of Western Indians. Berreman, 16–17; Hajda, 66, 109–15. Both Sauvie Island and the Vancouver Lake area on the Washington side are very rich and important archaeologically, but neither has been intensively studied. The bulk of the archaeological record pertains only to the last 3,000 years of prehistory. Pettigrew. At the time of historic contact, this area had one of the densest Indian populations in the western North America. Hajda, 67–75; Boyd & Hajda, 309–26. Indian settlements in the Lower Columbia Valley referred to in historic accounts are listed by Hajda and by Saleeby & Pettigrew. (Return to text.)

 

22. The mountain seen on October 19 was Mt. Adams, but Clark is now seeing Mt. St. Helens. Allen (PG), 312 n. 15. (Return to text.)

 

23. The camp was probably near the entrance of present Salmon Creek in Clark County, Washington. The creek is not shown on Atlas maps 79, 80, while the lake shown near the camp may be one of the lakes north of present Vancouver Lake (probably the "Pond" on Atlas map 79), perhaps Post Office Lake or Green Lake. (Return to text.)

 

24. A badger, Taxidea taxus; see above, July 30, 1804; below, February 26, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

25. The remaining one-quarter of p. 107 here in Codex H is blank. (Return to text.)

 

26. Called Shahala Village by Clark, it was home to the Watlala Indians, an Upper Chinookan-language people. The village, long since destroyed, was within the limits of modern Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon. (Return to text.)

 

27. Not Mt. Rainier, but the closer Mt. St. Helens in Skamania County, Washington. (Return to text.)

 

28. The party's Diamond and Image Canoe islands; the first is apparently later Government and McGuire islands, the second Hayden and Tomahawk islands. (Return to text.)

 

29. Including various small islands and the large Sauvie Island, the party's Wappato Island. (Return to text.)

 

30. More correctly on the east side of the Columbia, probably near Salmon Creek, Clark County, Washington. (Return to text.)












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