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[Clark] 
November 6th Wednesday
 

       a cold wet morning. rain Contd. untill [blank] oClock    we Set out early & proceeded on the Corse of last night &c.

 

        

N. 50° W.   1 mile on the Lard. Side under Some high land.    bold rockey
Shore
N. 60° W.   1 mile under a bold rockey Shore on the Lard Side, opsd. the
upper point of a Island close under the Stard Side the high
lands closeing the river on that Side    above river wide
N. 75° W. 12 miles to a point of high land on the Lard Side, passed two
Lodges on the Lard Side at 2 miles in a bottom, The high
land leave The river on the Stard. Side.    passd. a remarkable
[described?] Knob of high land on the Stard. Side at 3 miles
Close on the Waters edge—  [1]    we purchased of the Indians
who cam in their Canoes to us with Salmon—trout—and
Wap-to roots. Some of their Salmon [t]rout roots & 2 Dressed
Beaver Skins for which I gave 5 Small fishing hooks.    passed
a Island nearest the Lard. Side at 10 mile the head of a Isd. on
Std. opposit High Cliffs, with Several Speces of Pine Cedars
&c. arber vita & different Species of under groth.
N. 80° W.   2 miles under a high clift on the Lard Side    the lower point of
the Island on Stard. opposit those hills are Covered thickly
with Spruce pine arbor vita Hackmatack  [2] as called a kind of
alder red wood &c. &c.    rain Continu
N. 88° W.   5 miles to a high Clift a little below an old village in the Stard.
bend and opposit an old village on a Lard. point of a hand-
som & extensive bottom.    passed a Island in the middle of
the river 3 miles long and one wide, passed a Small Island
Close on the Stard. Side & a lower point of a former Isld. be-
low which the lands high & with Clifts to the river Stard. Side
S. 45° W.   5 miles under a Clift of verry high land on the Stard. side wind
high a head. We over took 2 Indian Canoes going down to
trade
S. 50° W.   1 mile under a high rockey Hill of pine. The Indians leave us,
Steep assent, Som Clifts  [3]
S. 75° W.   1 mile under a high hill with a bold rocky Shore, high [X: Steep]
assent    river about 1 mile wide
West   1 mile under a high Steep hill bold rockey Shore, Encampd
under the hill on Stones Scercely land Sufficent between the
hills and river Clear of the tide for us to lie. Cloudy & rain all
wet and disagreeable.    this evening made large fires on the
Stones and dried our bedding. The flees are verry troublesom
which collects in our blankets, at every old village we encamp
at—    we killed nothing to day, we halted to dine and the
bushes So thick that our hunters Could not get through, red
wood, green bryors, a kind of Burch, alder, red holley  [4] a kind
of maple &c. &c. The Species of Pine is Spruce Pine fir  [5] arber
vitia &c. red Loril, the bottoms have rushes grass & nettles,
the Slashes long grass bulrushes flags &c. Som willow on the
waters edge
  29  




[Clark] 
November 6th Wednesday 1805
 

       A cool wet raney morning    we Set out early    at 4 miles pass 2 Lodges of Indians in a Small bottom on the Lard Side    I believe those Indians to be travelers.    opposit is 〈the head of a long narrow Island close under the Starboard Side, back of this Island two Creeks fall in about 6 miles apart,〉 [NB: an 〈this〉 Island in the mouth of the large river Cow e lis kee  [6] 150 yds wide—    9 miles lower a large creek Same Side]    and appear to head in the high hilley countrey to the N. E. opposit 〈this long Island is 2 others one Small and about the middle of the river〉 [NB: between the mouths of these rivers are 3 Small islands  [7]    one on the Ld. Shore one near the middle] the other larger and nearly opposit its lower point, and opposit a high clift of Black rocks  [8] on the Lard. Side at 14 miles [NB: from our camp]:    here the Indians of the 2 Lodges we passed to day came in their canoes with Sundery articles to Sell, we purchased of them Wap-pa-too roots, Salmon trout, and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for which I gave 5 Small fish hooks. here the hills leave the river on the Lard. Side, a butifull open and extensive bottom in which there is an old Village, one also on the Stard. Side a little above both of which are abandened by all their inhabitents except Two Small dogs nearly Starved, and an unreasonable portion of flees—    The Hills and mountains are covered with Sever kinds of Pine—Arber Vitea or white Cedar, red Loril,  [9] alder  [10] and Several Species of under groth, the bottoms have common rushes, 〈bull rushes〉, nettles, & grass    the Slashey parts have Bull rushes & flags—  [11]    Some willow on the waters edge,  [12] passed an Island [NB: near Ld Shore] 3 miles long and one mile wide,  [13] [NB: & two Sm: isl.  [14] both] 〈one〉 close under the Stard. Side below the 〈long narrow Island〉 [NB: large creek] below which the Stard Hills are verry from the river bank and Continues high and rugid on that Side all day, [NB: called Fanny's Island the large one.]    we over took two Canoes of Indians going down to trade one of the Indians Spoke a fiew words of english and Said that the principal man who traded with them was Mr. Haley,  [15] and that he had a woman in his Canoe who Mr. Haley was fond of &c.    he Showed us a Bow of Iron and Several other things which he Said Mr. Haley gave him.    we came too to Dine on the long narrow Island    found the woods So thick with under groth that the hunters could not get any distance into the Isld.    the red wood, and Green bryors interwoven, and mixed with pine, alder, a Specis of Beech [Berch?], ash &c.  [16] we killed nothing to day    The Indians leave us in the evening, river about one mile wide hills high and Steep on the Std.    no place for several Miles suffcently large and leavil for our camp    we at length Landed at a place which by moveing the Stones we made a place Sufficently large for the party to lie leavil on the Smaller Stones Clear of the Tide  [17] Cloudy with rain all day we are all wet and disagreeable, had large fires made on the Stone and dried our bedding and Kill the flees,  [18] which collected in our blankets at every old village we encamped near    I had like to have forgotten a verry remarkable Knob  [19] riseing from the edge of the water to about 80 feet high, and about 200 paces around at its Base and Situated 〈on the long narrow Island〉 [NB: below the mouth of Cow e liske riv.]  [20] above and nearly opposit to the 2 Lodges we passed to day, it is Some distance from the high land & in a low part of the Island

 

       [NB: Camped 〈nearly〉 opposite to the upper point of an Isl. aftds called Sturgeon Island]  [21]




[Ordway] 
 

       Wednesday 6th Nov. 1805. Several Showers of rain in the course of last night.    we set out as usal and proceeded on    Shortly passed a Small village on the Lard. Side    Several Indians came out in a canoe to trade with us    we bought Some fresh fish and some roots.    we passed large bottoms covred with cotton timber    passd. 2 old villages which was Evacuated.    the wind rose from the west towards evening So that the waves run high.    we Came 29 miles this day and Camped on the Stard. Side close under a clift of rocks—




[Gass] 
 

       Wednesday 6th.    We set out early in a cloudy morning after a disagreeable night of rain. Saw a number of the natives, going up and down the river in canoes. Also passed some of their lodges. The Indians in this part of the country have but few horses, their intercourse and business being chiefly by water. The high land comes more close on the river in this part. Having gone 29 miles we encamped on the south side.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Wednesday 6th Nov. 1805.  [22]    Several Showers of rain in the course of last night.    the guard had to attend to the canoes to keep them loose as the tide Ebbs & flows abt. 3 feet pertular.    a cloudy wet morning.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on.    Shortly passed a Small village on Lard. Side.    Some Indians came out in the River to us with their canoes.    we bought Some fresh fish from them, and bought Some fine roots from a canoe which was going down the R. with a load trading    at noon we halted to dine at a large bottom which was covd. with cotton timber on the S. Side.    Several hunters went out abt. one hour and the underbrush So thick that they could not [go] any distance back.    we proceeded on.    passed high clifts on L. S. abt. 100 feet from the S[urface] of the water.    the hills on each Side are [covered with] different kinds of pine

 

       Wednesday Novemr. 6th    We had several showers of rain during last night; Our officers placed a guard on our Canoes during the night, to attend them, the tide rising & falling 3 feet perpendicular.    This morning was cloudy & wet.    We set off early, & proceeded on our Voyage.    We passed a small Indian Village, which lay on the South side of the River.    Some Indians came to us in Canoes; from whom we purchased some fresh fish of different kinds, And also purchased, some Roots from 〈some〉 Indians who over took us in Canoes; & were going down the River with loads of this root &ca to trade.    About noon, we halted to dine, at a large bottom, which was covered with Cotton wood Trees, lying on the South side of the River.    several of our hunters went out for about an hour, & found the underbrush growing so thick; that they could not go any distance.—    We continued on, & passed high Clifts of rocks lying on the South side of the River, which were about 100 feet high, from the surface of the Water, & hills on both sides of the River, covered with different kind of Pine & White Cedar, & a wood called Abervity, Red wood  [23] &ca.—

 

       We proceeded on & passed large bottoms having Cotton wood Trees & white Oak  [24] timber growing in them, & two old Indian Villages which were evacuated & had been left sometime past.    We also passed several springs.    Towards evening we had the Wind blowing hard from the Westward & the Waves ran very high.    We came 27 Miles this day & encamped on the North side of the River, under a Clift of Rocks.—




 

1. An asterisk to the side of this entry may have some reference to the knob. A "Knob" is shown on Atlas map 80 (see note below). Also a subtotal of "14" is at the bottom of this page and at the top of the next. (Return to text.)

 

2. Arborvitae is western redcedar, Thuja plicata Donn. Hitchcock et al., 1:111. Apparently Clark is saying that it is also called hackmatack, although that term was previously used for western, Montana, or mountain larch, also called tamarack and hackmatack, Larix occidentalis Nutt. (see September 14, 1805), but it is found only at higher elevations. In the second entry of this day he uses the term "white cedar" for the western redcedar. (Return to text.)

 

3. A subtotal of "27" appears at the top of the next page after this course. (Return to text.)

 

4. Possibly either dull Oregon grape, Berberis nervosa Pursh, or Oregon grape, B. aquifolium Pursh. The term red could be describing the reddish-purple color of the plants' leaves in winter. See the detailed description of February 12, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

5. Probably grand fir, Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl., described by Lewis on February 6, 1806. Little (CIH), 6-W. (Return to text.)

 

6. The Cowlitz River, meeting the Columbia at present Longview and Kelso, Cowlitz County, Washington. Atlas maps 80, 81, 89. The name is from káwlits, in the Cowlitz and Lower Chehalis languages. The island is apparently not shown on the maps but may be present Cottonwood island. (Return to text.)

 

7. The possibilities for the islands include Dibblee (formerly Lord), Walker, and Fisher islands. The creek is presumably Coal Creek (labeled "not known" on Atlas map 81) in Cowlitz County. The island marked with the camp of March 26, 1806, on Atlas map 81 is probably either Dibblee Island or Walker Island or a former combination of the two. Two islands are shown on Atlas map 89, with the camp of March 26 apparently on Walker Island. The island on the north shore at the entrance of Coal Creek is probably Fisher Island. Cf. Coues (HLC), 2:699 n. 16, 3:909 n. 11. (Return to text.)

 

8. The rocks in this area are composed of basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Micene age and of the Goble Volcanics of Eocene-Oligocene age. (Return to text.)

 

9. Clark's laurel may either be the california rhodeodendron, Rhododendron macrophyllum G. Don, a large-leaved evergreen understory shrub of the old-growth forest west of the Cascade Range, or salal, Gaultheria shallon Pursh. References to laurel by the captains indicate the extent of the western hemlock vegetation zone. The men were probably familiar with the Eastern species mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia L., which is similar to the rhododendron in appearance, hence the use of the term laurel. The flowers of the rhododendron vary from pink to deep rose-purple and appear in late spring or early summer but are gone by the time Lewis made his observation. His use of the term "red" is thus unclear; he may have been informed of its flower color by natives or some red coloring may be apparent in winter. On February 4, 1806, Lewis wrote that the salal "resembles the lorel in some measure," and on February 8, 1806, he described the salal in detail and notes that he had "heretofore taken [it] to be a species of loral." Hitchcock et al., 4:27; Franklin & Dyrness, 45, 74, 77; Bailey, 764; Cutright (LCPN), 417. (Return to text.)

 

10. The alder is red, or Oregon, alder, Alnus rubra Bong., and new to science. Little (CIH), 104-W; Cutright (LCPN), 274, 401. (Return to text.)

 

11. Rushes and bulrushes are Scirpus sp.; nettles are stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L.; "Slashey," in Virginia and Kentucky, are wet or swampy places overgrown with bushes, while here it would be flooded marshes, oxbows, or sloughs of the river; "flags" are common cat-tail, Typha latifolia L. Hitchcock et al., 2:91, 1:731; Criswell, 79. (Return to text.)

 

12. The willow would be one or more of the following, low-elevation species: Pacific willow, Salix lasiandra Benth.; Scouler willow, S. scouleriana Barratt; Sitka willow, S. sitchensis Sanson; Hooker willow, Salix hookerianan Barrett ex Hook. Little (MWH), 173-W, 179-W, 182-W. (Return to text.)

 

13. Probably present Crims (sometimes given as Grim's) Island, Columbia County. "Fanny's Isd." on Atlas map 81 and later in the text, perhaps named on the return in March 1806. It is unnamed on Atlas map 89. Coues considers Clark to have given the name in honor of his sister Frances. Coues (HLC), 3:909 n. 11. (Return to text.)

 

14. Only one island is shown on Atlas map 81. It was apparently Biddle who crossed out "one" in this entry, in his red ink. In the first entry Clark calls the second one "a former Isld." (Return to text.)

 

15. "Haley" may have been Captain Samuel Hill of Boston, skipper of the brig Lydia, who traded with the Lower Columbia Indians in April 1805, reportedly going upriver in a boat as far as the "Great Rapids" (Cascades). He would return in April or July 1806, after the expedition had left. See notes for November 24, 1805. It is also possible that Haley was Captain William Shaler of the brig Lelia Bird, who visited the Columbia in May 1804, but the facts learned from the Indians fit Hill better. Ruby & Brown (CITC), 88–90, 110–11; Howay (1931), 143, 146, 149. (Return to text.)

 

16. "Red Wood" is possibly red osier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (or C. stolonifera Michx.). If the word is birch, it is water, or river, birch, Betula occidentalis Hook., which is mainly east of the Cascade Range with only a small population in the gorge. From this entry, however, the word appears to be beech. If so, it could be the red alder again, confused for a beech. See a similar discrepancy at November 30, 1805. Hitchcock et al., 3:588–90, 2:77–81; Little (MWH), 22-NW. (Return to text.)

 

17. In southwestern Wahkiakum County, Washington, on the point later called Cape Horn and opposite "Sturgeon Isd.," perhaps today's Wallace Island, Columbia County, Oregon. Atlas map 81. However, on Atlas map 89, Sturgeon Island relates better to the position of modern Puget island. There may have been an error in transferring information between maps and texts. Atlas map 81 appears more reliable. See the next entry and cf. Thwaites (LC), 3:206. (Return to text.)

 

18. Fleas are of the family Pulicidae. (Return to text.)

 

19. Mt. Coffin, which was given that name by Broughton of Vancouver's expedition in 1792 because of several Indians being buried in canoes in the vicinity. Franchère (JV), 78, 78 n. 6. Clark's wording gives the impression it was on an island, but its historic location is on the mainland in the area of Longview, just downstream from the mouth of the Cowlitz River. Clark's estimate of 80 feet is considerably short of its 225 (or 240) feet height when it existed. Beginning early in this century it was extensively quarried and leveled. It was composed of the volcanic unit of the Eocene-age Cowlitz Formation. (Return to text.)

 

20. Biddle struck out the passage when he substituted his own, all in red ink. (Return to text.)

 

21. Perhaps Wallace Island, but see n. 17 above. Atlas map 81. Nearly one-quarter of the remaining p. 113 of Codex H is blank. (Return to text.)

 

22. This is the last entry in the original version of Whitehouse's journal (see Introduction to volume 11). There are edges of perhaps three or four pages remaining and some writing is visible but not legible. There is no way of determining to what date this notebook continued. (Return to text.)

 

23. White cedar, arborvitae, and red wood are all names for one species, western redcedar. (Return to text.)

 

24. Oregon white, or Garry, oak, Quercus garryana Dougl. ex. Hook. (Return to text.)












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