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[Clark] 
November 7th Thursday 1805  [1]
 

       a Cloudy fogey morning, a little rain. Set out at 8 oClock    proceeded on

 

        

N. 82° W. 2 ½ miles on the Std Side under a high hill    Steep assent
N. 45° W. 1 ½ miles and the high Land on the Std. Side    Steep assent
N. 60° W. 1 mile on the Std. Sid high hill    a thick fog. Can't See across
the Riv opposit the lower pt. of an Isd.  [2]
West 2 miles on the Stard Side under a hill high and rockey
N W. 1     mile to the head of an Island Close under the Stard Side,
Sept. by a narrow Chanel.    2 Canoes of Indians met us, and
returnd. with us, a Island in the middle of the river, we
followed those Inds. on the North Side of the Island thro
a narrow Chanel to their village on the Stard. Side of 4
houses, they gave fish to eate, and Sold us fish Salmon trout,
some Wapto roots and 3 Dogs, the language of those peopl
have a Similarity with those above. The women ware a kind
of Srand made of the fur cedar bark but Soft in place of
a tite pice of leather as worn by the women above.    the
men have nothing except a robe about them, they are badly
made and use but fiew ornements

 

       The womens peticoat is about 15 Inches long made of arber vita or the white Cedar bark wove to a String and hanging down in tossels and [t]ied So as to cover from their hips as low as the peticoat will reach and only Covers them when Standing, as in any other position the Tosels Seperate. Those people Sold us otter Skins for fish hooks of which they wer fond

 

       We delayed 1½ hour & Set out the tide being up in & the river So Cut with Islands we got an Indian to pilot us into the main chanel    one of our Canoes Seperated from us this morning in the fog—    great numbers of water fowls of every descriptn. common to this river.

 

        

N. 10° W. 15 miles to a white tree in a Stard. bend under a high hill passed
Several marshey Isld. on the Stard. Side opposit to which &
on the Stard. Side is a village of 4 houses    passed Several
marshey Islands on the Lard sd. an Indian village on one
of those Islands.    they came and traded 2 beaver skins for
fishing hooks and a fiew Wapto roots. The rivr. verry wide.
The beaver Skins I wish for to make a robe as the one I have
is worn out.    to an old village of 7 houses under the hill
Stard. Side. Several Slashey Isld. on Stard Side, we called and
bought a Dog & Some fish.
S W.   3 miles to a point of high land on the Stard. Side    passed a
Small Island on Stard. Side the head of a large low marshy
Island on the middle river about from 5 to 7 miles wide
S. 62° W   5 miles 〈lard side〉 to a point Stard. Side    a Deep bend to the
Stard Side under a high mountain.    pine
S. 70° W   3 miles to a point on the Stard Side high mountains    Some
high mountains on the Lard Side off the river—    we en-
camped on the Stard Side under a high hill Steep and moun-
tanious we with dificulty found leavel rocks Sufficent to lie
on, Three Indians followed us they Could Speake a little En-
glish, they were detected in Stealing a knife & returned late
to their village. The rain Continued untill 9 oClock mod-
erately.    we are in view of the opening of the Ocian, which
Creates great joy.    a remarkable rock of about 50 feet high
and about 20 feet Diameter is situated opposit our Camp
about ½ a mile from Shore    Several marshey Islands to-
wards the Lard Side the Shape of them I can't See as the river
is wide and day foggey
  34  




[Clark] 
November 7th Thursday 1805
 

       A cloudy foggey morning Some rain.    we Set out early    proceeded under the Stard Shore under a high rugid hills with Steep assent the Shore boalt and rockey, the fog So thick we could not See across the river, two Canos of Indians met and returned with us to their village which is Situated on the Stard Side behind a cluster of Marshey Islands, on a narrow chanl. of the river through which we passed to the Village of 4 Houses,  [3] they gave us to eate Some fish, and Sold us, fish. Wap pa to roots three dogs and 2 otter Skins for which we gave fish hooks principally of which they were verry fond.

 

       Those people call themselves War-ci-â-cum  [4] and Speake a language different from the nativs above with whome they trade for the Wapato roots of which they make great use of as food.    their houses differently built, raised entirely above ground eaves about 5 feet from the ground Supported and covered in the same way of those above, dores about the Same size but in the Side of the house in one Corner, one fire place and that near the opposit end; around which they have their beads raised about 4 feet from the flore which is of earth, under their beads they Store away baskets of dried fish Berries & wappato, over the fire they hang the flesh as they take them and which they do not make immediate use. Their Canoes are of the Same form of those above. The Dress of the men differ verry little from those above, The womin altogether different, their robes are Smaller only Covering their Sholders & falling down to near the hip—    and Sometimes when it is Cold a piec of fur curiously plated and connected So as to meet around the body from the arms to the hips— 〈Their peticoats are of the bark of the white Cedar〉  [5] "The garment which occupies the waist and thence as low as the knee before and mid leg behind, cannot properly be called a petticoat, in the common acception of the word; it is a Tissue formed of white Cedar bark bruised or broken into Small Strans, which are interwoven in their center by means of Several cords of the Same materials which Serves as well for a girdle as to hold in place the Strans of bark which forms the tissue, and which Strans, Confined in the middle, hand with their ends pendulous from the waiste, the whole being of Suffcent thickness when the female Stands erect to conceal those parts useally covered from familiar view, but when she stoops or places herself in any other attitudes this battery of Venus is not altogether impervious to the penetrating eye of the amorite. This tissue is Sometims formed of little Strings of the Silk grass twisted and knoted at their ends"  [6] &c. Those Indians are low and ill Shaped all flat heads

 

       after delaying at this village one hour and a half we Set out piloted by an Indian dressed in a Salors dress, to the main Chanel of the river, the tide being in we Should have found much dificuelty in passing into the main Chanel from behind those islands, 〈if〉 without a pilot, a large marshey Island  [7] near the middle of the river near which Several Canoes Came allong Side with Skins, roots fish &c. to Sell, and had a temporey residence on this Island, here we See great numbers of water fowls about those marshey Islands; here the high mountanious Countrey approaches the river on the Lard Side, a high mountn. to the S W. about 20 miles, the high mountans. Countrey Continue on the Stard Side, about 14 miles below the last village and 18 miles of this day we landed at a village of the Same nation.  [8] This village is at the foot of the high hills on the Stard Side back of 2 Small Islands    it contains 7 indifferent houses built in the Same form of those above, here we purchased a Dog Some fish, wappato roots and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for the purpose of makeing me a roab, as the robe I have is rotten and good for nothing.    opposit to this Village the high mountaneous Countrey leave the river on the Lard Side below which the river widens into a kind of Bay & is Crouded with low Islands Subject to be Covered by the tides—    we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village under a high mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and Encamped under a high hill on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet Diamieter,  [9] we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on round Stones on which we lay our mats    rain Continud. moderately all day & Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in Stealing a knife and returned, our Small Canoe which got Seperated in the fog this morning joined us this evening from a large Island Situated nearest the Lard Side below the high hills on that Side, the river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the Islands on the Lard Side.

 

       Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian,  [10] [NB: in the morning when fog cleared off just below last village just on leaving the village of Warkiacum], this great Pacific Octean which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly  [11]

 

       we made 34 miles to day as Computed




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 7th Nov. 1805.    a foggy cool morning.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on    about 10 oClock we halted at an Indian Village  [12] where we bought Some fresh fish and Some roots.    we proceeded on    passed a number of Islands which are low and marshy.    partly covred with willows &C—    the hunters killed a Swan and Several geese to day and Camped on the Stard. Side at a Spring run—




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 7th.    We set out again early in a foggy morning; went about 6 miles and came to an Indian camp, where we got some fresh fish and dogs. The dress of the squaws here is different from that of those up the river; it consists of a long fringe made of soft bark, which they tie round the waist, and which comes down almost to their knees;  [12] and of a small robe, made out of small skins cut into thongs, and wove somewhat like carpetting. We remained here about 2 hours and then proceeded on. At this place the river is about 3 miles wide, with a number of small islands, and the country broken. In the evening we came to a part of the river, where it is 5 miles broad. We went 34 miles and encamped  [13] on the south side at the mouth of a fine spring.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday Novemr. 7th  [14]    A cool foggy morning.    We set out early, & proceeded on 'till about 10 o'Clock A. M. when we arrived at an Indian Village, consisting of 4 cabbins which were inhabited by the Natives.    We halted at this place a short timber; & purchased from the Indians, some fish, roots, & a number of dogs.    We continued on our Voyage, and passed a number of Islands, which lay low.    These Islands were Marshy & were covered with Grass, & had Water laying in different parts of them.    Towards evening, we passed another Indian Village, which lay on the North side of the River, where we stopped a short time, & purchased from the Natives some fresh fish, Roots &ca.    The Indians who lived in this small village, where from their appearance a dirty, indolent sett of beings.    They had among them Elk meat & Venison; pounded fish, roots &ca.    The Indians both at this, & the other Indian village that we passed this day, made signs to us that there were vessells lying at the Mouth of this River.    Some of them signed to us that the Vessells were gone away from it.    We saw among these Savages, long planks or puncheons; which they used to cover their Cabbins with.    The Men among these Indians go entirely naked, & the Women have pettycoats made out of a sort of grass & platted, which they wear; the other part of their body, being entirely naked.    We continued on, & saw some high rough hills, which was covered with pine Trees, high clifts of rocks & some Springs of water.—

 

       We went about 35 Miles this day, & encamped at a Springs run, which lay on the South side of the River, opposite to which lay in the River a high round Rock, which had very much the resemlance of a Tower; Our hunters killed this day several Geese & Swans, which they brought to our Camp.—




 

1. It is not clear why an asterisk follows this line. It may be related to one below after the words "but fiew ornements" or at "great numbers," but in what way is unknown. (Return to text.)

 

2. Perhaps Puget Island, Wahkiakum County, Washington, and labeled "[Sea] otter Isd." on Atlas map 81, apparently "Sturgeon Isd." on Atlas map 89. (Return to text.)

 

3. The village of "4 Large Houses" shown on Atlas map 81 may correspond to the Wahkiakum settlement of wáqaiqam, from which the name of these people was derived, or to the nearby village of I dotless lowercase symbollo'xumI dotless lowercase symboln or Lo'xumin. Ray (LCEN), 38; Sw n, 414; Martin, 44. (Return to text.)

 

4. These people were the Wahkiakums, a Chinookan group who lived along the Columbia River in Wahkiakum County, from Grays Bay upsteam to the vicinity of Oak Point. Hodge, 2:890; Ray (CI), 127–28; Ruby & Brown (CITC), 5–6; Martin, 40–52; Hajda, 105–6; Ronda (LCAI), 184–86. Their name comes from Chinookan wáqaiqam or qáiqamix, "region downriver." Silverstein. Clark observed that the langage of the Wahkiakums was different from that of the Chinookan peoples upriver. The Wahkiakums, and the neighboring Cathlamets across the river, spoke a dialect known as Kathlamet. Kathlamet is similar to the dialects spoken by other Chinookan peoples farther upriver, and all of these dialects are commonly grouped together as the Upper Chinook language. Clark's observation, however, is in accord with the recently proposed idea that Kathlamet had sufficiently different pronunciation, grammar, and lexical items for it to be considered a third language, standing between Lower and Upper Chinook, for which the name Middle Chinook has been suggested. Hymes, 16. It was apparently Biddle who substituted in his red ink "ki" for "ci" in the tribal name. (Return to text.)

 

5. In addition to the language difference, the Wahkiakums and neighboring Cathlamets differed from Chinookan peoples upstream in constructing their houses entirely above ground, in women's dress, and in their greater use of the smallest of the canoe types among the marshy islands in their territory (see entry for February 1, 1806). At this point, the party approached the upper estuary of the Columbia River. The archaeology of this area is known almost entirely from the work of Minor (ASCR). (Return to text.)

 

6. The passage in quotation marks was copied from Lewis's Codex J entry for March 19, 1806. See the Introduction; Dunlay. The line following appears to have been added later. (Return to text.)

 

7. Thwaites (LC), 3:209 n. 1, considers this present Tenasillahe Island. That island may have been formed out of the "Mashey Islands" shown on Atlas map 82. Clark's curve of the river at this point is exaggerated. It is shown more properly on Atlas map 89. (Return to text.)

 

8. A Wahkiakum village near present Skamokawa, Wahkiakum County. This is the village of "7 Houses" on Atlas map 81, which may correspond to the Wahkiakum villages of Chahulklilhum or Tlashgenemaki. Curtis, 8:182; Boas (KT), 6; cf. Spier, 22. Archaeological work has been reported at two Wahkiakum settlements in this area. The Skamokawa site was occupied as early as 2,300 years ago but was apparently abandoned some time before historic contact. Minor (SS); Minor (FSS). The inhabitants may have relocated slightly downstream to the Bay View site which appears to have been occupied in the early historic period. Gehr. In addition to their villages along the north shore of the Columbia River, the Wahkiakums also occupied seasonal camps on islands in the river. One of these was on Tenasillahe Island and was famous as a fishing site. Ray (LCEN), 39. (Return to text.)

 

9. They were opposite Pillar Rock, between Brookfield and Dahlia and west of Jim Crow Point in Wahkiakum County. Its height varies with the tide but may have risen seventy to one hundred feet above the water before the top was removed in later years for the installation of light and navigational aids. The rock is composed of a resistant block of basalt of the middle Miocene Pomona Basalt flow. It is shown as "rock" on Atlas maps 82, 89, opposite the camp of this day. The landmark figures prominently in the only surviving Wahkiakum myth, which exists in three versions. Martin, 43. (Return to text.)

 

10. They were actually looking at the Columbia estuary, not the ocean. (Return to text.)

 

11.  A space of two blank lines occurs before the final sentence. (Return to text.)

 

12. A Wahkiakum Indian village in Wahkiakum County, Washington (Return to text.)

 

13. This same garment also attracted the attention of the captains and prompted Lewis's detailed description of January 19, 1806, apparently copied by Clark under the present date, November 7, 1805, presumably because this was where they first noticed this style. (Return to text.)

 

14. Gass's and Whitehouse's placement of the camp on the "south side" is misleading. The camp was in fact on the north side, opposite Pillar Rock, Wahkiakum County, between Brookfield and Dahlia. (Return to text.)

 

15. This entry begins the material that comes exclusively from Whitehouse's fair copy. It continues through April 2, 1806, the end of his known journal writing. (Return to text.)












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