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[Clark] 
November 21st Thursday 1805
 

       a Cloudy morning    most of the Indians left us, The nation on the opposit Side is Small & Called Clap-sott,  [1] Their great chief name Stil-la-sha—The nation liveing to the North is Called Chieltz.  [2]    The chief is name Malaugh    not large nation and wore 〈their〉 his beards as informed by the Inds.    In my absence the hunters Kild. 7 Deer, 4 brants & a Crane.

 

       Great numbers of the dark brant passing Southerley, the white yet Stationary, no gees & Swan to be Seen. The wind blew hard from the S. E. which with the addition of the flood tide raised emence Swells & waves which almost entered our Encampment    morng. dark & Disagreeable, a Supriseing Climent. We have not had One cold day Since we passed below the last falls or great Shute & Some time before    the Climent is temperate, and the only change we have experienced is from fair weather to rainey windey weather—    I made a chief & gave a medel    this man is name Tow-wâll and appears to have Some influence with the nation and tells me he lives at the great Shute—  [3]    we gave the Squar a Coate of Blue Cloth for the belt of Blue Beeds we gave for the Sea otter Skins purchased of an Indian.    at 12 oClock it began to rain, and continued moderately all day, Some wind from the S. E., waves too high for us to proceed on our homeward bound journey. Latitude of this place is 46° 19' 11 1/10" North    Several Indians and Squars came this evening I beleave for the purpose of gratifying the passions of our men, Those people appear to View 〈horedom〉 Sensuality as a necessary evile, and do not appear to abhore this as Crime in the unmarried females. The young women Sport openly with our men, and appear to receive the approbation of their friends & relations for So doing    maney of the women are handsom. They are all low both men and women, I saw the name of J. Bowmon marked or picked on a young Squars left arm. The women of this nation Pick their legs in different figures as an orniment.    the[y] were their hair loose, Some trinkets in their ears, none in the nose as those above, their Dress is as follows, i,e the men, were a roabe of either the skins of [blank] a Small fured animal, & which is most common, or the Skins of the Sea orter, Loon, Swan, Beaver,  [4] Deer, Elk, or blanketes either red, blu, or white, which roabes cover the sholders arms & body, all other parts are nakd.

 

       The women were a Short peticoat of the iner bark of the white Ceder or Arber Vita, which hang down loose in Strings nearly as low as the knee, with a Short Robe which fall half way down the Thigh.    no other part is Covered. The orniments are beeds, Blue principally, large Brass wire around their rists Som rings, and maney men have Salors Clothes, many have good fusees & Ball & Powder—    The women ware a String of Something curious tied tight above the anckle, all have large Swelled legs & thighs    The men Small legs & thighs and Generally badly made—  [5] They live on Elk Deer fowls, but principally fish and roots of 3 Kinds, Lickorish, Wapto &c. The women have more privaleges than is Common amongst Indians—    Pocks & Venerial [X: venereous] is Common amongst them  [6]    I Saw one man & one woman who appeared to be all in Scabs, & Several men with the venereal, their other Disorders and the remides for them I could not lern    we divided Some ribin between the men of our party to bestow on their favourite Lasses, this plan to Save the knives & more valuable articles.

 

       Those people gave me Sturgion Salmon & wapto roots, & we bought roots, 〈high bush Cranberies,〉 Some mats &c. &c. for which we were obliged to give emence prices—    we also purchased a kind of Cranberry  [7] which the Indians Say the geather in the low lands, off of Small either vines or bushes just abov the ground—    we also purchased hats made of Grass &c.  [8] of those Indians, Some very handsom mats made of flags—  [9]    Some fiew curious baskets made of a Strong weed & willow or [blank] Splits—  [10], also a Sweet Soft black root,  [11] about th Sise & Shape of a Carrot, this root they Value verry highly—    The Wapto root is Scerce, and highly valued by those people, this root they roste in hot ashes like a potato and the outer Skin peals off, tho this is a trouble they Seldom perform.




[Clark] 
Thursday November 21st 1805
 

       a cloudy morning    most of the Chinnooks leave our Camp and return home, great numbers of the dark brant passing to the South, the white Brant have not yet commenced their flight. The wind blew hard from the S. E. which with the addition of the flood tide raised verry high waves which broke with great violence against the Shore throwing water into our Camp—    the fore part of this day Cloudy    at 12 oClock it began to rain and Continued all day moderately, Several Indians Visit us to day of different nations or Bands Some of the Chiltz Nation who reside on the Sea Coast near Point Lewis, Several of the Clotsops who reside on the opposit Side of the Columbia imediately opposit to us, and a Chief from the Grand rapid to whome we gave a Medal.

 

       An old woman & wife to a Cheif of the Chinnooks  [12] came and made a Camp near ours    She brought with her 6 young Squars [NB: her daughters & nieces] I believe for the purpose of gratifying the passions of the men of our party and receving for those indulgiences Such Small as She (the old woman) thought proper to accept of, Those people appear to view Sensuality as a Necessary evel, and do not appear to abhor it as a Crime in the unmarried State—    The young females are fond of the attention of our men and appear to meet the sincere approbation of their friends and connections, for thus obtaining their favours; the womin of the Chinnook Nation have handsom faces low and badly made with large legs & thighs which are generally Swelled from a Stopage of the circulation in the feet (which are Small) by maney Strands of Beeds or curious Strings which are drawn tight around the leg above the anckle, their leges are also picked with different figures, I Saw on the left arm of a Squar the following letters J. Bowmon, all those are Considered by the natives of this quarter as handsom deckerations, and a woman without those deckorations is Considered as among the lower Class    they ware their hair lose hanging over their back and Sholders maney have blue beeds 〈in〉 threaded & hung from different parts of their ears and about their neck and around their wrists, their dress other wise is prosisely like that of the Nation of Wa ci a cum as already discribed.    a Short roab, and tissue or kind of peticoat of the bark of Cedar which fall down in Strings as low as the knee behind and not So low before    maney of the men have blankets of red blue or Spotted Cloth or the common three & 2½ point blankets,  [13] and Salors old clothes which they appear to prise highly, they also have robes of Sea Otter, Beaver, Elk, Deer, fox and Cat  [14] common to this countrey, which I have never Seen in the U States. They also precure a roabe from the nativs above, which is made of the Skins of a Small animal  [15] about the Size of a Cat, which is light and dureable and highly prized by those people—    the greater numbers of the men of the Chinnoks have Guns and powder and Ball—    The Men are low homely and badly made, Small Crooked legs 〈and Small thighs〉 large feet, and all of both Sects have flattened heads—    The food of this nation is principally fish & roots    the fish they precure from the river by the means of nets and gigs, and the Salmon which run up the Small branches together with what they collect drifted up on the Shores of the Sea coast near to where they live—

 

       The roots which they use are Several different kinds, the Wappato which they precure from the nativs above, a black root which they call Shaw-na tâh que  [16] & the wild licquorish is the most Common, they also kill a fiew Elk Deer & fowl—    maney of the Chinnooks appear to have venerious and pustelus disorders.    one woman whome I saw at the beech appeared all over in Scabs and ulsers &c.

 

       we gave to the men each a pece of ribin    We purchased Cramberies Mats verry netely made of flags and rushes, Some roots, Salmon and I purchased a hat made of Splits & Strong grass, which is made in the fashion which was common in the U States two years ago also Small baskets to hold Water made of Split and Straw, for those articles we gave high prices—.  [17]




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 21st Nov. 1805.    a cloudy and a little rain    The Latitude of Hailys bay or at our Incampment at the point above is 46° 19' 11 7/10" Min North.    the Natives value their Sea otter Skins verry high.    our officers being anxious to purchase a robe made of two of those animels, they offered great prices in cloaths trinkets &C. but they would not take any thing except blue beeds.    at length they purchasd the Robe for a beeded belt which our Intrepters Squaw had    these animels are Scarse & hard to kill.




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 21st.    A cloudy morning. About 8 o'clock, all the natives left us. The wind blew so violent to day, and the waves ran so high, that we could not set out on our return, which it is our intention to do as soon as the weather and water will permit. The season being so far advanced, we wish to establish our winter quarters as soon as possible. One of the natives here had a robe of sea-otter skins, of the finest fur I ever saw; which the Commanding Officers wanted very much, and offered two blankets for it, which the owner refused, and said he would not take five. He wanted beads of a blue colour, of which we had none, but some that were on a belt belonging to our interpreter's squaw; so they gave him the belt for the skins. In the evening more of the natives came to our camp, and the night was very wet and disagreeable.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday Novemr 23d  [18]    A Cloudy morning, and a light sprinkling of rain fell.    The Indians all left our Camp.    Two of our hunters left the Camp to go out ahunting.    The Swell in the River ran so high that it detain'd us, at our Camp from going up the River again, to look out for Winter Quarters, which our officers intended as soon as the Weather would permit, and the Season of the Year advancing made it absolutely necessary that it should be the case.—    The Season of the Year, is generally cold at this place, but at the present time it was very pleasant.    We are now convinced that the wide part of the River, or bay we entered into a few days past; is a bay only, and is called Haleys bay    the Latitude is as follows of the point above the said Bay, & Bay; both these lying in the same Latitude which is 46° 19' 7S North.    The Indians here, set a high value on the Sea Otter skins.    Our officers were very anxious to purchase 〈an〉 a Robe made out of the Skins of two of these animals.    They offered the Indians a great price in Cloths & trinkets for it; but they refused their offer, & would take nothing but beads for them.    They at last offered to let them have it for 5 New blankets, which our Officers would not give them.    They at last purchas'd it from them for a Belt which had a number of beads on it, which our officers procured from the Indian woman our Interpreter, which we got at the Mandan Nation, as Interpreter to the Snake nation; who is still with us.    I mention this in Order to show the high value that they set on these Skins, which were very beautiful.—

 

       I also mention this circumstance, in order, to show the very high value, they also set on Beads.    The Sea Otter is plenty, between this and the great falls of the Columbia River; but are very difficult to be got.    They are rarely to be caught in traps, & when shot they sink immediately, which makes the procuring of them so difficult.    The evening was rainey & a number of Indians both Male & female came to our Camp this evening.—




 

1. The Clatsops, for whom the party's winter quarters on the coast were named, occupied the south bank of the Columbia River from Point Adams at the river's mouth and upstream as far as Tongue Point, and south along the Oregon coast to Tillamook Head, all in Clatsop County, Oregon. Atlas map 82; Hodge, 1:305; Berreman, 15; Taylor (CkI); Hajda, 102–4. Their name derives from Chinookan łac'ǝp or łak'ílak (two dialectical variants), "those who have pounded salmon," whie one of their main villages on Point Adams was called łiak'ílaki(x), "where there is pounded salmon." Silverstein. The Clatsops and the Chinooks across the river spoke dialects which were practically identical and which together comprise the Lower Chinook language. These languages were distinct from the related but mutually unintelligible Upper Chinook language spoken by Chinookan peoples upriver. Although they possessed many skills which the newcomers admired, many aspects of their culture aroused negative reactions in Anglo-Americans and British. The ambivalence of the captains was far from unique. The chief's name as given here does not appear again. The name is not recorded on the undated list placed with entries of January 1, 1806. Perhaps it was an error in communication. (Return to text.)

 

2. The Chehalis, or more precisely the Lower Chehalis, were a Salish-speaking people living in Grays Harbor and Pacific counties on the southern Washington coast. Their term is apparently c̓x̣i'ls, from Chinookan giłac̓x̣i'ls, "Lower Chehalis Salish people." Their Salish name is ʦũ'ǝx̣il'ǝs, "sand," for a large and important village at Westport on Grays Harbor. Lower Chehalis territory centered around Grays Harbor and extended southward to Willapa Bay, where the north shore was claimed by both the Lower Chehalis and the Chinooks proper. Hodge, 1:241; Spier, 29–31; Ray (LCEN), 36; Swanton, 415–16; Taylor (CsI); Hajda, 96; Silverstein. "Ma-laugh" may be the same as "Mar-lock-ke" in an undated entry at January 1, 1806. His name is not identifiable linguistically. (Return to text.)

 

3. A vertical line runs through these words in the Elkskin-bound Journal, beginning with "I made a chief." Also in a passage below, from "otter skins" to "homeward bound journey." Tow-wâll (Túwal) is unknown. (Return to text.)

 

4. American beaver, Castor canadensis. (Return to text.)

 

5. One word is added interlinearly near here in the Elkskin-bound Journal but is difficult to read. It appears in the same hand and ink as "venereous" below and may be "Perstetus" for "prostitutes." (Return to text.)

 

6. The pox, or syphilis, and venereal disease. (Return to text.)

 

7. Wild cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos L., much used by the natives of the lower Columbia. The cranberry was plentiful in the Lower Chinook territory and was an item of trade. Hitchcock et al., 4:34–35; Gunther (EWW), 45; Ray (LCEN), 122; Swan (NC), 89. (Return to text.)

 

8. These hats were made of cedar bark and beargrass; see illustrations of the conical style in figs. 10, 11, 21, 22. Clark's brief notes here about the ethnobotany of the Lower Chinooks are treated more expansively by Lewis during the winter at Fort Clatsop. Cutright (LCPN), 264–69. (Return to text.)

 

9. Flags are again the common cat-tail, and woven mats of the plant were widely used by coastal Indians. Gunther (EWW), 21. (Return to text.)

 

10. Here Clark does not clearly distinguish between baskets for cooking, woven watertight of cedar bark and beargrass, and other baskets, less closely woven of the same materials or of rushes, grasses, and sedges. Split willow stems or willow bark, as well as split spruce roots, were often used with rushes for making baskets. Gunther (EWW), 17, 26–27; Ruby & Brown (CITC), 15; Cutright (LCPN), 267–68. See also Swan (ICF), as a source for the material culture of Northwest Coast Indians. (Return to text.)

 

11. Edible thistle, Cirsium edule Nutt., a species new to science. See below, January 21, 1806, for Lewis's description. Hitchcock et al., 5:137–38; Ray (LCEN), 120; Cutright (LCPN), 264, 274, 406. (Return to text.)

 

12. Evidently the wife of Delashelwilt. See below, March 15, 1806. Ruby & Brown (CITC), 106. (Return to text.)

 

13. A 2½ point blanket would be 5 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 3 inches; see August 20, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

14. Probably the Oregon bobcat, Lynx rufus fasciatus, a subspecies then unknown to science. See below, February 18 and 21, 1806. Burroughs, 92–93; Cutright (LCPN), 273, 387, 442; Hall, 2:1053. (Return to text.)

 

15. The mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa, Lewis and Clark's "sewelel." A rodent, not a beaver, it was then unknown to science. See below, February 26, 1806. Cutright (LCPN), 263, 271, 387, 439; Hall, 1:334–36. (Return to text.)

 

16. The term may be Lower Chinookan [i|a]S with caron lowercase symbolanáta(n)qi, "thistle" for the edible thistle above. Gibbs (AVC), 19. (Return to text.)

 

17. It is apparent that strong weed (of first entry), strong grass, and straw all refer to beargrass which was used to weave both watertight hats as well as baskets. Swan (NC), 162–63; Gunther (EWW), 23. There is a vertical line through the botany passage, perhaps done by Biddle but not in his red ink. The hat mentioned here is not the typical, conical style of hat worn by the natives (see below, December 29, 1805, and January 29, 30, 1806). It is probably one like that pictured in Gunther (ILNC), 185. The popular hat of the United States was simimilar to a top hat, but with a lower crown and a wider brim. See Lewis's entry, January 19, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

18. Again a misdate, this time for November 21. (Return to text.)












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