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Part 2: Estimate of the Western Indians

 

       Lewis and Clark prepared these documents at Fort Clatsop and later, as rough equivalents of the "Estimate of the Eastern Indians" which was drawn up at Fort Mandan. However, the material here provides much less information than the earlier document, being largely confined to names, locations, and estimated numbers. The "Western Indians" are those located west of the Continental Divide, especially on the Columbia drainage and the Northwest Coast. Much of the information would have come from Indian informants, since it chiefly concerns tribes wholly unknown to whites, except for those on the coast and those met by the party on their route of travel. Some of these tribes the captains had never actually seen, and among those they had seen were many obscure bands, subdivisions of larger groups now long extinct or absorbed into others. Identification in a number of cases is problematical.

 

       The first item is in both Lewis's and Clark's hands and is found in Codex I. Lewis's part covers the Indian tribes the party encountered from the Rocky Mountains to the coast, Clark then follows with a list of the coastal Indians to the north and south of the mouth of the Columbia River. The next item, also from Codex I and in Clark's hand, names tribes from the coastal region east toward the Rocky Mountains and appears to supplement the other list and account for additional tribes. The numbers to the side of the Indian tribal names appear to represent an attempt to bring some order to the multiple lists. This may have been done in preparation for the final estimate, called a supplement by Clark at the end of the second document; the supplement is here printed as the third item. Perhaps as a precaution to losing Codex I and as a preliminary to the supplement, a final list was made and arranged under the numbering system. This list was placed in Voorhis No. 4, clearly a compilation of the lists in Codex I, but set up under the numbering system with adjustments in tribal populations. The combined version of Voorhis No. 4 may be the one referred to on June 13, 1806, or that reference may be to the supplement. Lewis's and Clark's lists from Codex I are printed here with footnotes explaining the differences in Voorhis No. 4.

 

       Two additional items are related to lists of Indians of this later period. Both are in Clark's hand and are loose sheets in the Voorhis Collection of the Missouri Historical Society (see Appendix C). One is titled "Indian Names" and appears to be a preliminary list of Indian tribal names but with no additional comments. Another, single sheet is titled, "A List of the Nations and tribs of Indians residing West of the Rocky Mountains &c." Clark there lists the following tribes, giving some marginal comments very similar to those in the lists below: Clat Sops, Chnnooks, Wau-ki-e-coms, Cath-lah-mahs, Skellutes, Cal-la-mah's, and Quath-lah-pottles.




[Lewis and Clark] [1]     
 

        

Estimate of the Western Indians

Name of Indian Nations and their Places of general residence
No of
Lodges
Probable
No. of
Souls
1
Oote-lash-schute residing in spring & summer on the
}
33
400
W. side of R. Mountains and winter and fall on the
Missouri on it's waters
2
Cho-pun-nish of the Kooskooske River
220
3600
3
Cho-pun-nish of Lewis's River above the entrance of
}
80
1200
the Kooskooske
4
Cho-pun-nish of Lewis's River below the entrance of
}
30 h. 10 t.
2300
the Kooskooske
5
Sokulk residing on the Columbia near the entrance
}
120
2400
of Lewis's R.  [2]
54
Cuts-sâh-nim in the same neighbourhd and up the

60

1200
Tapteete river
6
Chim'-nah-pum' residing at the forks of a large river
}
42
1860
which falls into the Columbia about 15 m. above
Lewis's R.
7
Wal-low wal-low from the entrance of Lewis's River
}
46
1000
down the Columbia to Musselshell rappid
8
Pish-quit-pahs on the Columbia from Musselshell rap-
}
71
1600  [3]
pid to the commencement of the high country
9
Wah-how-pum on the Columbia from the commence-
}

33

700
ment of the highlands to the neighbourhood of the
great falls
10
E-ne-shuh residing at the great falls of the Columbia
}
41
1200
11
E-che-lute residing at the upper part of the great nar-
}
21 h.
600  [4]
rows of the Columbia
12
Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw next below the narrows
}
56 h
1000  [5]
and extending down on the N. side of the Columbia
*
nearly to the River Labeach
14
Shah-ha-la residing at the grand rappid and extend-
}
62 h.
1300  [6]
ing down to Wappetoe Island
20
Skil-lutes commencing at the wappetoe Island and
}
50 h
1500  [7]
extending down to the marsey Islands Cow-e-lis-kee
river N
21
Wack-ki-a-cums on the North Side of the Columbia
}
11 h
100  [8]
opposite to the marshey Islands.
22
Cath-lâh-mâhs on the South side of the Columbia
}
9 h
200  [9]
opposite the lower part of the mashey Islands.
23
Chin-nooks on the North side of the Columbia to it's
}
28 h.
400
entrance and on Chinnook River
24
Clât-sops on the South side of the Columbia and a
}
14 h.
200
few miles along the S. E. Coast on both sides of Point
Adams.
25
Kil-la-mucks from the Clâtsops of the coast along the
}
50 h.
1000
S. E. Coast many miles
39
Kil-laxt-ho-kles from the Chinnooks along the N N W.
}
8 h.
100
Coast
39
Chiltz from the Chiltz North Westwardly along the
}
38 h.
700
same coast
39
Cla-moi-to-mich's from the Queneelt N. Westwardly
}
12
200  [10]
along the same coast
Total
24,760

 

       Febr. 8th 1805

 

       Note—    there are several other nations residing on the Columbia below the grand rappids and on some streams which discharge themselves into the same whose names we have learnt but have not any proper data from which to calculate ther probable number; therefor omitted

 

        

40 Potoash's reside North westerly of the S of the
}
10 h.
200
Cla moi to mich on the Sea Coast
40 Qun-ni-ites from the potoashs North westwardly
60
1000
along the Same Coast
40 Qui eet so from the qunaniite North westerly
}
18 h.
250
along the Sea coast
41 Chil-lâte from the quieetso N Westerly along the
}
8 h.
150
Same Coast
41 Co-lâst-ho-cle from the Chillate N. Westerly
}
10 h.
200
along the same coast
41 Quin-ne-chart verry noumerous resideng from
}
2000
the Calasthocle's N Westerly along the Same
Coast and on the Slashes and Creeks off the
Coast
40 Pailsh reside between the potoash and quineles
}
10
200
[Qun-ni-ites?] on the Sea Cost
26 Luck-ton Tribe reside to S. E. E. of the Kil-â-
}
Indians informs
us that this
nation is not
noumerous
200
  mox on the Sea Coast and Speak the Kil-a-mox
Language
27 Ka-hun-kle Nation on the Same Coast to the
}
Noumerous
400
S. S. E. & Speake or understand the Same
Language

 

        

28 Lic-â-wis Nation do    do    do
     large town
800
29 Youck-cone    do    do    do    do large houses do 700
30 Neck-ę-to    do    do    do    do
     large Town
700
31 Ul-se-âh    do    do    do    do
     Small Town
150
32 You-itts Tribe            do    do    do
     do    do
150
33 Shi-â-stuck-kle Nation do    do    do
     large    do
900
34 Kil-la-wats    do    do    do    do
     do
500

 

       The following Nations resid on the Same Coast to the S. W. of the abov and Speake differant Languages.

 

        

35 1st    Cook-koo-oose Nation    I saw Several prisones from this na-
tion with the Clatsops and Kilamox, they are much fairer than
the common Indians of this quarter, and do not flatten their
heads
1500
36 2 Shal-la-lah Nation are Said to be noumerous
1200
37 Luck-kar-So Nation       do    do    do
1200
38 Han-na-kal-lal Nation    do    do
  600
13,000

 

      Extent Indian information





[Clark] [11]     
 

      

Estimate of Western Indians

 

        

Name of Indian nations and their Places of General residence
No. of
Lodges or
Houses
Probable
No. of
Souls
Cal-la-Mak's Tribe reside on a Creek which falls
}
10
200
into the Columbia on the North Side at the lower
part of the Columbia vally〉
18 Quath-lah-poh-tle Nation reside on the N. Side of
}
14
300  [12]
the Columbia above the enterance of Cah-wah-
na-hi-oots river and opposit the lower point of the
Wappatoe Island
Clan-nar-min-a-mon on S W Side of the
}
12
280
Wappato Island
Cath-lah-cum-up's on the South Side of the
}
6
150  [13]
Columbia opposit Wappato Isd.
Clan-in-na-tas on Wappato Island above the
}
5
100  [14]
Cathlahcumups on S. Side
19 Cath-lah-nah-quiah on Wappato Island above the
}
6
150  [15]
Chaninnatas on the S. Side
19 Clack-Star Nation on a Small river which falls in on
}
20
350  [16]
the South Side of Wappeto Island
19 Cath-lah com-mah-tup on the main Shore South of
}
3
70  [17]
the Wappato Island
17 Ne-mal-quin-ner Tribe reside on the Multnomah
}
4
100  [18]
river on the N E Side above the wappato Island
17 Mult-no-mah Nation imediately below the enterance
}
6
200  [19]
of the Multnomah river into the Columbia on
Wappato Island and on S. Side of Columbia
17 Clan-nah-queh Tribe on Multnomahs on the S. Side
}
4
130
of Columbia or on Wappato island a fiew miles
below the Multnomah
16 Shotos Nation on the N. Side of the Columbia back
}
8
160  [20]
of a pond and nearly opposit to the Clan nah quihs
˝ me. from R.
14 Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe on the S. Side of the Columbia
}
2
40  [21]
above the Multnomah river this is a tribe of the
Sha-a-lah Nation
15th Ne-cha-co-kee Nation on the S. Side of the Columbia
}
large
opposit to the Dimond Isld.
    1
    100
101
〈2330〉
41 Clark-a-mus Nation noums.    reside on a river of
}
Houses
800  [22]
the Same name which heads in Mt. Jefferson and
falls into the Multnomah on its N E Side about
40 miles up it
42 Cush-hooks on the N. E. Side of the Multnomah
}
do
250  [23]
imediately below the falls 60 ms. up.
43 Char-cow-ah N. on the S. W. Side of the Multnomah
}
do
200
imediately above the falls of that river
44 Cal-lah-po-e-wahs Nation very noumerous and
}
2000
inhabid the Country on both Sides of the
Multnomah above the Charcowah's
52 Skâd-dâts Nation reside on the Catteract river
}
200
about 25 miles North of the Falls of the
Columbia    live by hunting
52 Squân-nar-oos tribe on the Catteract river
120
52 Shal-lât'tos    do    on the Catteract river
100
53 Shan-wap-poms N. on    do    and Tap-teut Riv
400
Soles
6400
To-war-nâh-hi-ooks or Snake Indians reside on a
}
1000
river high up the Same name which discharges
itself into the Columbia imediately above the falls〉
7200
48 Wil-le-let-po Nation reside North of the S W.
}
250
mountains on the heads of We-au-cum river which
discharges itself into Lewis's river on the S W Side
above Kooskooske river
49 Wil-le-wah's on a river of the Same name which
}
500
discharges itself into Lewis's river above
Kooskooske on the S. W. and on the Lower Side of
that river
50 Sho-Sho-ne's on the South fork of Lewis's river as
}
3000
high up as the falls of that river, and on the Nemo,
Watshlem, Shallett, Shust pellanimmo, She-com-
shink, Timmooenumlarwas & the Cop coppahark
rivers branches of the Said South Branch of
Lewis's river
51 Sho-Sho ne's of the East branch of Lewis's river near
}
60
800
the head of Jeffersons river in the mountains
46 Sho-bar-boo-be-er a band of Shoshonies or Snake
}
1000  [24]
Indians reside on the S W Side of the Multnomah
river high up the Said river
45 Sho-Sho-nes or Snake Indians resideing in winter
}
3000
and fall on the Multnomah river Southwardly of
the S W. mounts. and in Spring and Summer on
the heads of Wallar wallar, youmatolam, R. LaPage
and the To-war-ne-hi ooks rivers and at the falls of
the latter for the purpose of fishing for the Salmon
on those river &c. not known
8550
47 Sho-Sho-nes on the Multnomah and its waters the
}
6000
residence of whome is not particularly known
57 Whe-el-po Nation on both Side of Clarks river of
}
2500
the great falls and down to the enterance of
Lastaro river
58 Hi-high-e-nim-mo from the forks to the enterance
}
800  [25]
of the Lastaro river on both Sides
59 Lar-ti-e-lo's at the falls of the Las-taro R. below the
}
600
great Lake Waytom on both Sides of the Said river
60 Sket-so-mish's on a river of the Same name which
}
2000
falls into Las-taro River below the falls of that river
around Waytom Lake and on 2 Islands in Lake
61 Mick-suck-seal-toms Tribe on Clarks River above the
}
300
falls of that river
61 Ho-hil-po's Tribe on Clarks river above the
}
300
Micksuckscaltoms abve falls
61 Tus kip âh Nation or Tush-she-pâh a Northerly
}
430
branch of Clarks river and on Clarks river
occasionally.    Sometimes pass over to the Missouri
to kill Buffalow
61  [26] Oat-lash-schute tribe as mentioned on the other side
}
of the next leaf    a part of the Tush he pah Nation
includes the Tush-she-pah Ho-hil-po's & Misk-Suck-
Seal-tom Tribes    all of them rove on Clark's river
and occasionally cross over to the Missouri for the
purpose of makeing robes and dried meat &c.
55 La-hân-na Nation reside on both sides of Columbia
}
2000
above Clarks river and as far up the Columbia as is
known by the Chopunnish & other nations which
we have Seen on the Columbian waters
56 Coos-pel-lars Nation reside on a large fork of the
}
600  [27]
Columbia which discharges itself into that river on
it's East Side above the enterance of Clarks river,
and heads with the waters of Hudsons bay
13* Smack-shop Nation reside on the Columbia either
}
800
Side below the Chil luck kit quaw nation and
extending down to near the grand rapids
16,330

 

       The estimate of the Nations and tribes West of the Rocky Mountains may be Seen More Correctly States in a Supplement accompanying these Books    WC    80,000 Soles  [28]

 

      

69,040





[Clark] [29]     
 

        

Estimate of Western Indians

Names of Indian Nations and their places of General Residence
No of
Houses or
Lodges
Probable
No. of
Souls
1 Sho-sho-ne Nation reside in Spring and Summer on
}
60
800
the East fork of Lewis's river a branch of the
Columbia, and winter and fall on the Missouri
2 Oate-lash-schute Tribe of the Tush-she-pah Nation
}
33
400
reside in Spring and Summer in the Rocky
Mountains on Clarks river, and winter and fall
on the Missouri and its waters
3 Choppunnish Nation residing on the Kooskooske
}
large
Lodges
2,000
river below the forks and on Colters Creek &c. and
who Sometimes pass over to the Missouri
4 Pel-lote-pal-lah [X: Pel-loat-pal-lah] Band of
}
do
1,600
Chopunnish reside on the Kooskooske above the
forks and on the Small Streams which fall into that
river west of the rocky mountains, & chopunnish
river and Sometimes pass over to the Missouri
5 Ki-moo-e-nim Band of Chopunnish N. reside on
}
do
800
Lewis'es river above the enterance of the
Kooskooske as high up that river as the forks
6 Y-e-let po Band of Choponish  [30] reside under the
}
do
250
S W. Mountains on a Small river which falls into
Lewis's river above the entrance of the Kooskooke
which they call we-are-cum
7 Wil-le-wah Band Choponish  [31] on a river of the same
}
do
500
name which discharges itself into Lewis's river on
the S W Side below the forks of that river
8. So-yen-now Band (of Choponiesh[)] on the N Side
}
do
400
of the E fork of Lewis's river from it's junction to
the rocky mountains and on La-mal-tar Creek
9 Chopunnish of Lewis's river below the entrance of
}
 h      Ld
30    10
2,300
Kooskooske on either Side of that river to it's
junction with the Columbia
10. Sokulk Nation reside on the Columbia above the
}
120
2,400
entrance of Lewis's river as high up as the
enterance of Clarks river
11 Chim-nah-pum on the N W side of the Columbia
}
42
1,860
both above and below the enterance of Lewis's
river and on the Tapteel R which falls into the
Columbia 15 M. above Lewis's R.
[12?] Wal-low-wallow Nation on both Sides of the
}
46
1,600
Columbia from the enterance of Lewis's river as
low as the Muscle shell rapid and in winter pass
over to the waters of the Tapteel river
13 Pish-quit-pah's Nation reside from the Muscle rapid
}
71
2600
& on the the N. side of the Columbia to the
Commencement of the high Country    this
N. winter on the waters of the Tapteel river
14 Wah-how-pum Nation reside on the N. bank of
}
33
700
th Columbia in different Bands from the
pishquitpahs as low as River Lapage    the differt.
bands of the nation winter on the waters of
Tapteel & Columbia Rvs.
15. E-ne-chur Nation reside at the Great falls of
}
41
1,200
Columbia on either Side    are Stationary
16. E-shel-lute Nation reside at the upper part of the
}
h
21
1,000
Great Narrows of Columbia on the N. Side (is the
great mart for all the Country)
17 Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw N. residing next below the
}
h
32
1,400
narrows and extending down on the N. Side of the
Columbia to River Labeech
18 Smock-Shop Nation Band of Chil luck kit-te quaw  [32]
}
24
800
reside on the Columbia on each Side from the
Enterance of River Labiech to the neighbourhood
of the Great Rapids of that river
22,610  [33]
[19?] Sha-ha-la Nation reside at the Grand rapids of the
}
62
2800
Columbia and extend down in different Villages
as low as the Multnomah river Consisting of
the following tribes viz: y-e-huh above the rapids,
〈Wah-clel-lah〉 Clah-clel-lah below the rapid, the
〈Chah-hal lah〉 Wah-clel-lah below all the rapids
and the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo 1 House 100 sole on the
S. side a few miles above the Multnomah R.
20 Wap-pa-to Indians  [34]
}
1
100
Ne-cha-co-kee Tribe reside on the S. Side of the
Columbia a fiew miles below quick Sand river &
opposit the dimond Island— (remains)—
Shoto Tribe resides on the N. Side of the Columbia
}
8
460
back of a pond and nearly opposit the enterance of
the multnomah river
Mult-no-mah Tribe reside on Wap-pa-tow Island in
}
6
800
the Mouth of the Multnomah, the remains of a
large nation
Clan-nah-quehs Tribe of Multnomah's on Wappato
Island below the Multnomars
4
130
Ne-mal-quin-ner's a Tribe of Multnom's reside on
the N E Side of the Multnomah River 2 ms. above
4
200
its mouth
Cath-lah-com-mah-tup's a Tribe of Multnoms South
3
170
Side of the Wappato Island on a slew of the Miltnr
Cath-lah-nah-qui-ah's Tribe of Multnomies reside on
6
400
the S W. side of Wappato Island
Clark Star N. resides on a Small river which
}
28
1,200
discharges itself on the S W. Side of Wappato
Island
Clan-in-na-ta's resides on the S W. Side of Wappato
5
200
Island
Cath-lah-cum-ups on the main Shore South West of
6
450
Wappato Island
Clan-nar-min-na-mun's on the S. W. side of the
12
280
Wappato Island
Quath-lah-poh-tle's N. reside on the S W. of the
}
14
900
Columbia above the Enterance of Cah-wah-na-
hi-ooks river opposit the Low pt. of Wappato Isd.
Cal-la-maks reside on a creek which falls into the
}
10
200
Columbia on the N. Side at the lower part of the
Columbia Valley N. Side
21 Skil-lute Nation resides on the Columbia on each
}
50
2500
Sides in different Villages from the lower part of
the Columbian Vally as low as the Sturgeon Island
and on either Side of the Coweliskee River
Hull-loo-et-tell on the Cow e lis kee 〈above〉  [35]
22 Wack-ki-a-cums reside on the N. Side of the
11
200
Columbia opposite the Marshey Islands
23 Cath-lâh-mâhs reside on the S. Side of the Columbia
9
300
opposite to the Seal Islands
24 Chin-nook's reside on the N. side of the Columbia to
28
400
its enterance & on Chinnook river
25 Clât Sops N. reside on the S. Side of the Columbia
}
14
200
and a few miles along the S. E. coast on both Sides
of point Adams
26 Kil-la-mucks N. from the Clât sops of the coast
50
1,000
along the S. E. coast for many ms.
27 Indian information those Nations Speak the Kil-a-
mucks Lg:  [36]
Luck-tons reside on the sea coast to the S. S E. of
the Kil-la-mucks 〈and speak their Lagg.〉
houses
200
Ka-hun-kle's
do       do       do

   S. S E of the Luck-tons
400
Lick-a-wis
do       do       do

   the S. S E large town
800
Yorick-cone's
do       do       do

   do    do    houses
700
Neck-ę-to's
do       do       do

   do       large town
700
Ul-se-âh's
do       do       do

   do       Small town
150
You-ilts
do       do       do

   do       do
150
She-a-stuck-kle's
do       do    do

   do       large town
900
Kil-la-wats
do       do       do

   do       do
500
39,140  [37]
28. Indian information  [38]    reside to the South of the
Killamox & Speak Dift Language
Cook-koo-oose Nation reside on the Sea Coast to the
South of the Kil-la-wats
hous
1500
Shal-la-lah Nation on the Same Course to the
1,200
South
Luck-kar-So Nation on the Same Course to the
1200
South &c
Han-na-kal-lal Nation on the Same Course to the
600
South &c
29. Information of different Indians   [39] on the N W
Coast
Kil-laxt-ho-kle's T. on the Sea coast from the
[8?]
100
Chinooks to the N N W.
Chiltz N. from the Killaxthokles along the N N. W
38
700
Coast
Cla-moc-to-mich's from the chiltz along the N N W.
12
260
Coast
Potoash's reside on the Same Coast N Westwarly of
10
200
the Clamochokle
Pailsh T. reside from the potash on the N W. coast
10
200
&c
Qui-ni-ilt's from the pailsh along the N W Coast &c
60
1,000
Qui-eet-so's from the quilniilts along the N W. Coast
18
250
&c
Chil-lâte's from the quieettso along the N W. coast
8
150
&c
Ca-last-ho-cle from the Chillâte N W. allong the
10
200
Same Coast
Quin-ne-chart N. reside on the Sea Coast & Creeks
2,000
N. & N W. of the Calasthocles
30 Clark-a-mus Nation reside on a large river of the
}
Houses
1,800
Same mame which heads in Mt. Jefferson and
discharges itself into the Multnomah 40 m. up that
river on its N. E. Side.    this N. has Several villages
on either Side
31 Cush-hooks N reside on the N E. bank of the
}
do
650
Multnomah imediately below the falls of that river
about 60 m. above its enterance into the Colm.
32 Char-cow-ah N. reside on the S W. bank of the
}
do
200
Multnomah imediately above the falls and take the
Salmon in that river
33 Cal-lah-po-e-wah Nation inhabit the Country on
}
2,000
both Sides of the Multnomah above the
Charcowahs for great extent
34 Sho-Sho-ne (or Snake indians) residing in winter
}
3,000
and fall on the Multnomah river Southerly of the
S. W. mountains, and in Spring and Summer on
the heads of the To-war-ne hi ooks, La Page, You-
ma-tol-am, and Wal-lar-wal-lar rivers, and more
abundantly at the falls of the Towarnehiooks, for
the purpose of fishing
35 Sho-Sho-ne's on the Multnomah and its waters, the
}
6,000
residence of them is not well known to us, or Inds.
of the Columbia    Say abt.
36 Sho-bar-boo-be-er Band of Shoshones reside on the S
}
1,600
W Side of the Multnomah river, high up the Said
river
37 Sho-Sho-ne's resideing on the S. fork of Lewis's river
}
3,000
and on the Nemo, Walshlemo, Shal-lett, Shushpel-
lanimmo, She com skink, Timmoonumlarwas, and
the Cop cop pahark rivers branches of the South
fork of Lewises river
[38?] We saw parts of those Tribes at the long narrows  [40]
200
Skâd-dâts N. reside on Cattaract river 25 m. N. of the
big narrow.    live by Hunting  [41] hunt deer &.
Squân-nar-oos    do    do    below the Skaddats
120
Skal-lât-tos    do    do    above    do
100
Shan-wap-pom's reside on the heads of Catteract
river & Tapteel river
400
67710  [42]
39 Cuts-sâh-nim Nation reside on both Sides of the
}
60
1,200
Columbia Above the Sokulks & on the Northerly
branches of the tapteel river and also on the
Wah-na-a-chee  [43] river
La-hân-na Nation reside on both Sides of the
}
120
2,000
Columbia above the enterance of Clarks river
Coos-pel-lar's Nation reside on a river which falls
}
30
1600
into the Columbia to the N. of Clarks river
Whe-le-po Nation reside on both Sides of Clarks
}
130
2,500
river from the enterance of the Lastaw to the
Great falls of Clarks R
Hi-high-e-nim-mo Nation from the enterance of the
}
45
1300
Lastaw into Clarks river on both Sides of the
Lestaw as high as the forks
Lar-ti-e-lo's Nation at the Falls of the Lastaw river
}
30
600
below the great Waytom Lake, on both Sides of the
river
Skeet-so-mish Nation resides on a Small river of the
}
120
2,000
Same name which discharges itself into the Lastaw
below the falls around the Wayton Lake and on
two islands within the Said Lake
Mick-suck-seal-tom Tribe of the Tushshepah reside on
}
25
300
Clark river above the great falls of that river, in the
rocky Mounts.
Ho-hil-pos    a tribe of do. on Clarks river above the
}
25
300
Micksuck-seal-toms in the Rocky mountains
Tush-She-pah's Nation reside on a N. fork of Clarks
}
35
430
river and rove on Clarks river in Spring and
Summer and the fall and winter on the Mis-
souri.    The Oat-lash-shut is a band of this nation
80,000

 

       West of the Rocky Mountains is 80,000  [44] Sol

 

      

IDENTIFICATION OF WESTERN INDIANS  [45]

 

        

Lewis and Clark's Name Modern Name
1. Sho-sho-ne Shoshones
2. Oate-lash-schute or Tush-she-pah Flatheads or Salish
3. Chopunnish Nez Perces
4. Pel-lote-pal-lah Nez Perces
5. Ki-moo-e-nim Nez Perces
6. Y-e-let po [Wil-le-let-po] Cayuses
7. Wil-le-wah Nez Perces?
8. So-yen-now Palouses?
9. Chopunnish Nez Perces and Palouses
10. Sokulk Wanapams
11. Chim-nah-pum Yakimas
12. Wal-low-wal-low Walulas or Walla Wallas
13. Pish-quit-pah's Yakimas
14. Wah-how-pum Teninos
15. E-ne-chur Teninos
16. E-skel-lute Wishram-Wascos
17. Chil-luck-kit-te-quaw Wishram-Wascos
18. Smock-Shop Wishram-Wascos
19. Sha-ha-la Watlala Chinookans
Y-e-huh Watlala Chinookans
Clah-clel-lah Watlala Chinookans
Wah-clel-lah Watlala Chinookans
Ne-er-cho-ki-oo Watlala Chinookans
20. Wap pa to Indians Chinookans of Sauvie Island
Ne-cha-co-kee Chinookans
Shoto Chinookans
Mult-no-mah Chinookans
Clan-nah-queh's Chinookans
Ne-mal-quin-ner's Chinookans
Cath-lah-com-mah-tups Chinookans
Cath-lah-nah-qui-ah's Chinookans
Clack Star Chinookans
Clan-in-na-ta's Chinookans
Cath-lah-cum-ups Chinookans
Clan-nar-min-na-mun's Katlaminimin Chinookans
Quath-lah-poh-tle's Cathlapotle Chinookans
Cal-la-maks Chinookans; perhaps Tillamooks
21. Skil-lute Watlala Chinookans
Hull-loo-et-tell Watlala Chinookans
22. Wack-ki-a-cums Wahkiakums
23. Cath-lâh-mâhs Cathlamets
24. Chin-nook's Chinooks
25. Clât-sop's Clatsops
26. Kil-la-mucks Tillamooks
27. Kil-a-mucks language Salishan language
Luck-tons Salishans; perhaps Nestuccas
Ka-hun-kle's Salishans
Lick-a-wis Yaquinas
Yorick-cone's Yaquinas
Neck-ę-to's Alseas
Ul-se-âh's Alseas
You-ilts Yahaches (Alseas)
She-a-stuck-kle's Siuslaws
Kil-la-wats Lower Umpquas
28. South of Killamox
Cook-koo-oose Coos
Shal-la-lah Nasomahs (Coquilles?)
Luck-kar-So Tututnis
Han-na-kal-lal Tututnis?
29. On the N. W. Coast
Kil-laxt-ho-kle's Athapascan Kwalhiokwas?
Chiltz Chehalis
Cla-moc-to-mick's Chinookans
Potoash's Salishans
Pailsh Copalis Salishans
Qui-ni-ilt's Quinaults
Qui-eet-so's Queets
Chil-lâte's Quileutes
Ca-last-ho-cle Hohs?
Quin-ne-chart Makahs
30. Clark-a-mus Clackamas Chinookans
31. Cush-hooks Clowwewalla Chinookans
32. Char-cow-ah Clowwewalla Chinookans
33. Cal-lah-po-e-wah Calapooyas
34. Sho-sho-ne . . . on the
Multnomah river
Northern Paiutes?
35. Sho-sho-ne's on the Multnomah Northern Paiutes?
36. Sho-bar-boo-be-er Mono-Paviotso division of
Shoshones
37. Sho-sho-ne's . . . on the S. fork of
Lewis's river
Shoshones
38. At the long narrows
Skâddâts Pisquows or Kittitas
Squân-nar-oos Pisquows or Kittitas
Shal-lât-tos Pisquows or Kittitas
Shan-wap-pom's Pisquows or Kittitas
39. Cuts-sâh-nim Yakimas
La-han-na Pend d'Oreilles?
Coos-pel-lar's Kalispels
Whe-el-po Colvilles
Hi-high-e-nim-mo Sanpoils or Spokanes
Lar-ti-e-to's Spokanes
Skeet-so-mish Skitswishes or Coeur d'Alenes
Mick-suck-seal-tom Flatheads or Salish?
Ho-hil-pos Flatheads or Salish
Tush-she-pah's Flatheads or Salish




 

1. This first estimate is from Codex I, pp. 147–49, reading backwards. See also the note at January 29, 1806, for how this material fits into Codex I. Lewis wrote the first part (pp. 148–49) through the "Note," then Clark completed the list (p. 147) from the Potoash to the Han-na-kal-lal. The numbers to the side may represent a later addition in order to arrange the tribes for the final list, here printed as the last document in this part. There is a red vertical line running through these three pages. (Return to text.)

 

2. Voorhis No. 4 adds "and up the [Taptarle?] River." (Return to text.)

 

3. Voorhis No. 4 has "91" lodges, and "2600" people. (Return to text.)

 

4. Voorhis No. 4 has "20" and "1000." (Return to text.)

 

5. Voorhis No. 4 has "1400." The asterisk at this entry probably relates to the one at the end of Clark's entry for the "Smack-shop Nation," which is listed as number 13. (Return to text.)

 

6. Voorhis No. 4 has "1800." (Return to text.)

 

7. Voorhis No. 4 has "2500." To this side of this entry is a symbol that resembles a circle with a cross through it; its purpose is unknown. "Cow-e-lis-kee river" appears to be a substitution for erasures. (Return to text.)

 

8. Voorhis No. 4 has "200." (Return to text.)

 

9. Voorhis No. 4 has "300." (Return to text.)

 

10. Voorhis No. 4 has "260." (Return to text.)

 

11. This item in Clark's hand is from Codex I, pp. 150–51, 153–55, reading backwards; it is interrupted by a map of the Cape Disappointment area (fig. 1). The numbering system is continued from the previous document (see note there) and the list itself appears to name additional tribes not accounted for on the previous list. Again red vertical lines run through these pages. (Return to text.)

 

12. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "900." (Return to text.)

 

13. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "450." (Return to text.)

 

14. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "200." (Return to text.)

 

15. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "400." (Return to text.)

 

16. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "28" and "1200." (Return to text.)

 

17. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "170." (Return to text.)

 

18. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "200." (Return to text.)

 

19. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "800." (Return to text.)

 

20. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "460." (Return to text.)

 

21. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "140." (Return to text.)

 

22. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "1800." (Return to text.)

 

23. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "650." (Return to text.)

 

24. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "1600." (Return to text.)

 

25. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "1300." (Return to text.)

 

26. To the side of this entry Clark has written, "See next sheet." The reference is to p. 149 of Codex I, the "next sheet" reading backward from here on p. 151. See the first entry in the previous document here. (Return to text.)

 

27. Voorhis No. 4 gives it as "1600." (Return to text.)

 

28. This paragraph is written in red ink. The supplement is the next document as printed here. The "80,000" represents the total given in the next document. (Return to text.)

 

29. This table is from a separate document at the American Philosophical Society and called a "Supplement" by Clark in the previous document. It is in Clark's hand and written on four sheets of letter paper together with a map of Bonhomme Island; the map appears in volume 8 of this edition. (See also Appendix C.) This table probably postdates the Fort Clatsop period and may have been made as late as June 1806, or even later. Lewis on June 13, 1806, wrote, "we made a digest of the Indian Nations West of the Rocky Mountains which we have seen and of whom we have been repeated[ly] been informed by those with whom we were conversent." That digest may be this supplement or it may be the list in Voorhis No. 4, which is a compilation of the lists in Codex I. If the map of Bonhomme Island in present Bon Homme County, South Dakota, and Knox County, Nebraska, relates to the timing of the supplement then it could have been written as late as September 1, 1806, when they passed the island. The former date is more plausible. It is placed here because of its close association with the Fort Clatsop lists of western Indian tribes. There are small check marks next to many of the numbers that list the tribes. Following the list of tribes, on the final sheet are these figures (the longer set struck out and difficult to read):
 

12230       〈22010
29520 ??140
41750 ?1770
  29520〉
 (Return to text.)

 

30. The words "of Choponish" are an interlineation in red. (Return to text.)

 

31. "Choponish" is an interlineation written in red. (Return to text.)

 

32. "Band of Chil luck kit-te quaw" is an interlineation in red. (Return to text.)

 

33. This subtotal is given in red. (Return to text.)

 

34. This subheading is in the left margin of the document, outside a brace enclosing all the tribes under the number 20. (Return to text.)

 

35. Above this line in red is the number "32,890," perhaps a subtotal to this point. One word follows the deleted word "above" but is not legible. (Return to text.)

 

36. Another marginal subheading, including all the tribes under number 27. (Return to text.)

 

37. This subtotal is given in red. (Return to text.)

 

38. Another marginal subheading, including all the tribes under number 28. The remainder of the sentence is in red. (Return to text.)

 

39. Another marginal subheading, including all the tribes under number 29. The remainder of the sentence is in red. (Return to text.)

 

40. Another marginal subheading, including all the tribes under number 38. (Return to text.)

 

41. The words "live by Hunting" are in red. (Return to text.)

 

42. This subtotal is written in red. (Return to text.)

 

43. This word appears to be an addition to a blank space and written by Lewis. (Return to text.)

 

44. The number "80,000" is given in red. (Return to text.)

 

45. Modern and exact identification of many of these Indian groups is impossible because these people had often disappeared or had been absorbed into other tribes by the time systematic investigation of the native peoples of the area was undertaken. Many of them may have been only distant bands or small village units of larger cultural groupings and the explorers, moving quickly through the area, were not able to make the subtle distinctions and associations that would provide positive identification today. Moreover, many of these people were never seen by Lewis and Clark and their existence was based solely on Indian information, which may have been garbled. In fact, some groups may never have existed as separate or actual units. In some instances Lewis and Clark were the first and the last to note a band, village, or tribe. Later writers took the captains at their word and simply used the explorer's terminology to identify the Indians, putting us back to where we began. We have tried to correct this circle of confusion by identifying Lewis and Clark's more obscure western Indians by linguistic, geographic, and cultural relations where possible, "Chinookan" being a frequent designation. Some of the groups, particularly the more dominant ones, were discussed in the captains' daily entries and are identified in notes at those points, along with their certain identification here. Readers may wish to turn to those entries to obtain more complete information. For identification we have relied on such entry notes and on sources and consultants listed in the present volume. (Return to text.)












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