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[Lewis] 
Thursday February 6th 1806.
 

       Sent Sergts. Gass and Ordway this morning with R. Fields and a party of men  [1] to bring in the Elk which Field had killed. Late in the evening Sergt. Pryor returned with the flesh of about 2 Elk and 4 skins the Indians having purloined the ballance of seven Elk which Drewyer killed the other day. I find that there are 2 vilages of Indians living on the N. side of the Columbia near the Marshy Islands who call themselves Wâck-ki-á-cum.    these I have hertofore Considered as Cath-lâh-mâhs.    they speak the same language and are the same in every other rispect.

 

       No. 3  [2] A species of fir which one of my men informs me is precisely the same with that called the balsam fir of Canada.    it grows here to considerable size, being from 2½ to 4 feet in diameter and rises to the hight of eighty or an hundred feet.    it's stem is simple branching, ascending and proliferous.    it's leaves are sessile, acerose, one ⅛ of an inch in 1/16th of an inch in width, thickly scattered on all sides of the twigs as far as the growth of four preceeding years and rispect the three undersides only the uper side being neglected and the under side but thinly furnished; gibbous, a little declining, obtusely pointed, soft flexible, and the upper disk longitudinally marked with a slight channel; this disk is of a glossy deep gre[e]n, the under one green tho' paler and not glossy.    this tree affords considerable quantities of a fine clear arromatic balsam in appearance and taste like the Canadian balsam.    smal pustules filled with this balsam rise with a blister like appearance on the body of the tree and it's branches; the bark which covers these pustules is soft thin smoth and easily punctured.    the bark of the tree generally is thin of a dark brown colour and reather smooth tho' not as much so as the white pine of our county.    the wood is white and soft.—    (No. 4)  [3] is a species of fir which in point of size is much that of No. 2.    the stem simple branching ascending and proliferous; the bark of a redish dark brown and thicker than that of No. 3.    it is divided with small longitudinal interstices, but these are not so much ramifyed as in species No. 2.    the leaves with rispect to their position in regard to each other is the same with the balsam fir, as is the leaf in every other rispect except that it not more than ⅔ds the width and little more than half the length of the other, nor is it's upper disk of so deep a green nor so glossey.    it affords no balsam and but little rosin. the wood also white soft and reather porus tho' tough.—

 

       No 5.  [4] is a species of fir which arrives to the size of Nos. 2 and 4, the stem simple branching, diffuse and proliferous.    the bark thin, dark brown, much divided with small longitudinal interstices and sometimes scaleing off in thin rolling flakes.    it affords but little rosin and the wood is redish white ⅔ds of the diameter in the center, the ballance white, somewhat porus and tough.    the twigs are much longer and more slender than in either of the other species.    the leaves are acerose, 1/20th of an inch in width, and an inch in length, sessile, inserted on all sides of the bough, streight, their extremities pointing obliquely toward the extremities of the bough and more thickly placed than in either of the other species; gibbous and flexeable but more stif than any except No. 1 and more blontly pointed than either of the other species; the upper disk has a small longitudinal channel and is of a deep green tho' not so glossy as the balsam fir, the under disk is of a pale green.—    No. 6  [5] the white pine; or what is usually so called in Virginia. I see no difference between this and that of the mountains in Virginia; unless it be the uncommon length of cone of this found here, which are sometimes 16 or 18 inches in length and about 4 inches in circumpherence. I do not recollect those of virginia perfectly but it strikes me that they are not so long.    this species is not common I have only seen it but in one instance since I have been in this neighbourhood which was on the border of Haley's bay  [6] on the N. side of the Columbia near the Ocean.




[Clark] 
Thursday February 6th 1806
 

       Sent Serjt. Gass and party this morning with Ru Field to bring in the Elk which Field had killed.    late in the evening Serjt. Pryor returned with the flsh of about 2 Elk and four skins the Indians haveing taken the ballance of Seven Elk which Drewyer killed the other day. I find that those people will all Steal.

 

       No. 3 a Species of fir, which one of my men inform me is presisely the Same with that called the balsam fir of Canada.    it grows here to considerable Size, being from 2½ to 4 feet in diameeter and rises to the hight of 100 or 120 feet.    it's Stem is Simple branching assending and proliferous—.    it's leaves are cessile, acerose, ⅛ of an inch in length and 1/16 of an inch in width, thickly scattered on all Sides of the twigs as far as the groth of four proceeding years, and respects the three undersides only, the upper Side being neglected and the under Side but thinly furnished; gibbous a little declineing, obtusely pointed, Soft flexable, and the upper disk longitudinally marked wth a Slight Channel; this disk is of a glossy deep green, the under one green tho paler and not glossy. This tree affords a considerable quantity of a fine Clear arromatic Balsom in appearance and taste like the Canadian balsom. Small pustuls filled with the balsom rise with a blister like appearance on the body of the tree and it's branches; the bark which covers these pustules is Soft thin Smothe and easily punctured.    the bark of the [tree] is generally thin of a dark brown colour and reather Smooth tho' not as much so as the white pine of the U. States the wood is white and Soft.

 

       No. 4 a Species of fir which in point of Size is much that of No 2,—. the Stem Simple branching assending and proliferous; the bark of a redish dark brown and thicker than that of No. 3.    it is devided with Small longitudinal interstices, but these are not So much ramefied as in the Specis No. 2.    the leaves with respect to their possition in reguard to each other is the Same with the balsam fir, as is the leaf in every other respect than that, it is not more than ⅔ds the width and little more than half the length of the other, nor is it's upper disk of so deep a green nor glossy.    it affords no balsam, and but little rosin.    the wood also white Soft and reather porus tho' tough—.—    No. 5 is a species of fir which arives to the Size of No. 2, and No. 4.    the Stem Simple branching, diffuse and proliferous.    the bark thin dark brown, much divided with Small longitudinal interstices scaleing off in thin rolling flakes.    it affords but little rosin and the wood is redish white 2/3ds of the diamieter in the Center the ballance white Somewhat porus and tough.    the twigs are much longer and more slender than in either of the other speceies.    the leaves are acerose 1/20 of an inch in width, and an inch in length, sessile, inserted on all Sides of the bough, Streight, their extremities pointing obliquely towards the extremities of the bough and more thickly placed than in either of the other Species; gibbous and flexable but more stiff than any except No. 1 and more blontly pointed than either of the other Species; the upper disk has a Small longitudinal Channel and is of a deep green tho' not so Glossy as the balsam fir, the under disk is of a pail green. No. 6 the White pine; or what is usially So Called in Virginia. I see no difference between this and that of the mountains in Virginia; unless it be the uncommon length of the cone of this found here, which are Sometimes 16 or 18 inches in length and about 4 inches in Surcumfrance. I do not recollect tose of Virginia, but it Strikes me that they are not So long.    this Species is not common I have Seen it only in three instances since I have been in this neighbourhood, I saw a few on Haleys bay on the North Side of the Columbia River, a fiew scattering on the Sea coast to the North on one of which I engraved by name—and Some on the S S E Side of E co la Creek near the Kil â mox nation, at which place I Saw the white & red Cedar—




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 6th Feby. 1806. I went with nine more of the party  [7] after the Elk meat.    we went out to the Elk and butchred them this evening & packed Some together & Camped.    found 2 of the Elk in good order.—




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 6th.    We had a cool fair morning. Ten of us started with a canoe to bring in the meat of the elk, killed yesterday; and had to encamp out all night, but, with the assistance of the elk skins and our blankets, we lodged pretty comfortable, though the snow as 4 or 5 inches deep.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday Febry 6th    This morning we had pleasant weather, Our Officers sent Ten Men of our party from the fort, in order to bring in the Meat of the Elks which the hunters had killed.    they found them about 2½ Miles from the fort, & the way very bad.    they cut up 5 of the Elk this evening, & packed some of it together; two of these Elk were in very good order.    They formed a camp close to where the meat lay.—    Nothing material happened at the Fort.    the Men that remained there were employed in dressing Skins &c.—




 

1. Including Peter Weiser; see below, February 7, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

2. Grand fir, another new species. Cutright (LCPN), 260, 400. (Return to text.)

 

3. Based on the description of the needle length compared to the "balsam fir" or grand fir, this may be a depauperate form of grand fir. The only other possibility is Pacific silver fir, Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes, which indeed has smaller needles as described, but has a gray to nearly white bark, unlike that described. Pacific silver fir is also found at higher elevations in the Cascade Range, although there is a small coastal population. Hitchcock et al., 1:115; Little (CIH), 1-W. The first few lines of this passage have a red vertical line through them, perhaps penned by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

4. Douglas fir. This species is an important sub-dominant tree of the Sitka spruce vegetation zone. Franklin & Dyrness, 53–61. (Return to text.)

 

5. Western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., a new species and today a valuable lumber tree. It is currently not document as occurring at the mouth of the Columbia River. Both western white pine and Pacific silver fir occur near sea level in forested swamps in the Sitka spruce zone, together with western redcedar, western hemlock, and red alder. Hitchcock et al., 1:129; Little (CIH), 62-W; Franklin & Dyrness, 68; Cutright (LCPN), 274, 414. (Return to text.)

 

6. Baker Bay, Pacific County, Washington. Atlas map 91. (Return to text.)

 

7. Including Gass, Reubin Field, and Weiser; see Lewis for February 6 and 7. (Return to text.)












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