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[Lewis] 
Saturday February 15th 1806.
 

       Drewyer and Whitehouse set out this morning on a hunting excurtion towards the praries of Point Adams.    we have heard our hunters over the Netul fire several shot today, but have had no account from them as yet.    about 3 P. M. Bratton arrived from the salt works and informed us that Sergt. Pryor and party were on their way with Gibson who is so much reduced that he cannot stand alone and that they are obliged to carry him in a litter. Bratton himself appears much reduced with his late indisposition but is now recovering fast. Bratton informed that the cause of Sergt. Pryor's delay was attributeable to the winds which had been so violent for several days as to render it impossible to get a canoe up the creek  [1] to the point where it was necessary to pass with Gibson.    the S. W. winds are frequently very violent on the coast when we are but little sensible of them at Fort Clatsop.    in consequence of the lofty and thickly timbered fir country which surrounds us on that quarter from the South to the North East.—

 

       after dark Sergt. Pryor arrived with Gibson.    we are much pleased in finding him by no means as ill as we had expected.    we do no conceive him in danger by any means, tho' he has yet a fever and is much reduced.    we beleive his disorder to have orriginated in a violent cold which he contracted in hunting and pursuing Elk and other game through the swams and marshes about the salt works.    he is nearly free from pain tho' a gooddeel reduced and very languid.    we gave him broken dozes of diluted nitre and made him drink plentifully of sage tea, had his feet bathed in warm water and at 9 P. M. gave him 35 drops of laudanum.  [2]

 

       The quadrupeds of this country from the Rocky Mountains to the pacific Ocean are 1st the domestic animals, consisting of the horse and the dog only; 2cdly the native wild animals,  [3] consisting of the Brown white or grizly bear, (which I beleive to be the same family with a mearly accedental difference in point of colour) the black bear, the common red deer, the black tailed fallow deer, the Mule deer, Elk, the large brown wolf, the small woolf of the plains, the large wolf of the plains, the tiger cat, the common red fox, black fox or fisher, silver fox, large red fox of the plains, small fox of the plains or kit fox, Antelope, sheep, beaver, common otter, sea Otter, mink, spuck, seal, racoon, large grey squirrel, small brown squirrel, small grey squirrel, ground squirrel, sewelel, Braro, rat, mouse, mole, Panther, hare, rabbit, and polecat or skunk.    all of which shall be severally noticed in the order in which they occur as well as shuch others as I learn do exist and which not been here recapitulated. The horse is confined principally to the nations inhabiting the great plains of Columbia extending from Latitude 40° to 50° N. and occuping the tract of country lying between the rocky mountains and a range of Mountains which pass the columbia river about the great falls or from Longitude 116 to 121 West.    in this extesive tract of principally untimbered country so far as we have leant the following nations reside (viz) the Sosone or snake Indians, the Chopunnish, sokulks, Cutssahnims, Chymnapums, Ehelutes, Eneshuh & Chilluckkittequaws.    all of whom enjoy the bennefit of that docile, generous and valuable anamal the horse, and all of them except the three last have immence numbers of them. Their horses appear to be of an excellent race; they are lofty eligantly formed active and durable; in short many of them look like the fine English coarsers and would make a figure in any country.    some of those horses are pided [pied] with large spots of white irregularly scattered and intermixed with the black brown bey or some other dark colour,  [4] but much the larger portion are of an uniform colour with stars snips and white feet, or in this rispect marked much like our best blooded horses in virginia, which they resemble as well in fleetness and bottom as in form and colours.    the natives suffer them to run at large in the plains, the grass of which furnishes them with their only subsistence their masters taking no trouble to lay in a winters store for them, but they even keep fat if not much used on the dry grass of the plains during the winter.    no rain scarcely ever falls in these plains and the grass is short and but thin. The natives [WC?: except those near the R. monts] appear to take no pains in scelecting their male horses from which they breed, in short those of that discription which I have noticed appeared much the most indifferent.    whether the horse was orrigeonally a native of this country or not it is out of my power to determine as we can not understand the language of the natives sufficiently to ask the question.    at all events the country and climate appears well adapted to this anamal.    horses are said to be found wild in many parts of this extensive plain country.    the several tribes of Sosones who reside towards Mexico on the waters of Clark's [NB: Multnomah]  [5] river or particularly one of them called Shâ-bo-bO with acute lowercase symbol-ah  [6] have also a great number of mules, which among the Indians I find are much more highly prized than horses.    an eligant horse may be purchased of the natives in this country for a lew peads [few beads] or other paltry trinkets which in the U' States would not cost more than one or two dollars. This abundance and cheapness of horses will be extremely advantageous to those who may hereafter attemt the fir trade to the East Indies by way of the Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean.—    the mules in the possession of the Indians are principally stolen from the Spaniards of Mexeco;  [7] they appear to be large and fine such as we have seen. Among the Sosones of the upper part of the S. E. fork of the Columbia we saw several horses with spanish brands on them which we supposed had been stolen from the inhabitants of Mexeco.—




[Clark] 
Saturday February 15th 1806
 

       Drewyer and Whitehouse Set out on a hunting excurtion towards the mountains Southwest of us.    we have heard our hunters over the Netul fire Several Shot today, but have had no account of them as yet. 3 P. M. Bratten arived from the Saltworks, and informed us that Serjt. Pryor and party were on their way with gibson in a litter.    he is verry bad and much reduced with his present indisposition. Wm. Bratten appears much reduced, and is yet verry unwell.    he informs that the Cause of Sergt. Pryor's delay was attributiable to the winds which had been so violent for Several days as to render it impossible to get a Canoe up the Creek to the point where it was necessary to pass with Gibson.    the S. W. winds are frequently very violent on the coast when we are but little Sensible of them at Fort Clatsop.    in Consequence of the lofty and thickly timbered fir country which Surrounds us from that quarter, from the South to the N. East.—. After Dark Sergt. Pryor arrived with Gibson.    we are much pleased in findeing him by no means as ill as we had expected.    we do not conceive him in danger by no means as ill as we had expected.    we do not conceive him in danger by any means, tho' he has yet a fever and is much reduced.    we believe his disorder to have originated in a violent Cold which he contracted in hunting and prosueing Elk and other game through the Swams and marshes about the salt works.    he is nearly free from pain tho' a good deel reduced and very languid.    we gave him double doses of diluted niter and made him drink plentifully of Sage tea, had his feat bathed in worm water and at 9 P. M. gave him 35 drops of laudanum.

 

       The quadrupeds of this countrey from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocian are first the Domestic Animals, consisting of the Horses and Dogs only; 2ndly the Native Wild Animals, consisting of the White, brown, or Grizly bear (which I believe to be the same family with a mearly accidentail difference in point of Colour) The Black Bear, the Elk, the Common red Deer, the Mule deer, the black tailed fallow Deer, the large brown wolf, the Small wolf of the Plains, the large wolf of the Plains, Panther, the tiger cat, the common red fox, the black fox or fisher, the Silver fox, large red fox of the plains, Small fox of the plains or kit fox, Antelope, Sheep, beaver, Common Otter, Sea Otter, minks, Seals racoons, large Grey Squerrel, Small brown Squirrel, Small grey Squirrel, Ground Squirrel, Sewelel, Braror, rat, mouse, mole, hare, rabbet, and pole Cat or Skunk.    all of which Shall be Severally noticed in the order in which they occur as well as Such others as I learn do exist, and which not been here recapitulated.—

 

       The Horse is principally Confined to the Nations inhabiting the great Plains of Columbia extending from Latitude 40° to 50° N. and occupying the tract of Countrey lying between the Rocky Mountains and a rang of mountains which pass the Columbia River about the Great Falls or from Longitude 116° to 121° West in this extensive tract of Principally untimbered countrey So far as we have lernt the following nations reside (viz) The Sosone, or Snake Indians inhabiting the South fork or [blank] River, the Chopunnish, Sokulk's, Cutssahnims, Chym na pum, Ehelutes, Eneshuh & Chilluckkittequaws.    all of whome enjoy the benifit of that docile generous and valueable Animal the Horse, and all of them except the three last have emence numbers of them.    their horses appear to be of an excellent race; they are lofty eligantly formed active and durable; in Short maney of them look like the fine English coursers and would make a figure in any country. Some of those horses in pided with large spots of white irrigularly scattered and intermixed with black, brown, Bey or Some other dark colour, but much the larger portion are of a uniform Colour with Stars, snips, and white feet, or in this respect marked much like our best blooded horses in the U, States, which they resemble as well in fleetness and bottom as in form and Colour.    the nativs Suffer them to run at large in the plains, the Grass of which furnish them with their only Subsistance, their owners takeing no trouble to lay in a winters Store for them, but they keep fat if not much used on the dry grass of the plains dureing the winter.    rain scercely ever falls in those plains and the Grass is Short and but thin.    the nativs appear to take no pains in Selecting their male horses from which they bread, in Short those of that discription which I have noticed appear much the most indifferent.    whether the horses was originally a native of this Country or not, it is out of my power to determine as we cannot understand the language of the nativs Sufficiently to ask the question.    at all events the Country and Climate appears well adapted to this Animal. Horses are Said to be found wild in maney parts of this extensive plain Country—. The Several tribes of Sosones who reside near Mexico on the waters of Clark's river, or particularly one of them called Shâ-bo-bO with acute lowercase symbol-ah have also a great number of Mules, which among the Inds. I find are much more highly prized than horses. an eligant horse may be purchased of the nativs in this Country for a fiew beeds or other paltry trinkits which in the United States would not cost more than one or two dollars. This abundance and Cheepness of horses will be extremely advantagious to those who may hereafter attempt the fir trade to the East Indies by way of the Columbia and the Pacific Ocian.—. The mules in the possession of the Inds. are principally Stolen from the Spaniards of New Mexico; Such as we have Seen appear to be large with Spanish brands.    among the Sosones of the upper part of Lewis's river we Saw Several horses with Spanish brands on them which the natives informed us Came from the South most probably from the Settlement in New Mexico, on the heads of the North river or waters of the Bay of California.




[Ordway] 
 

       Saturday 15th Feby. 1806.    a fair day.    in the evening the party returned    Bratton came by land Sick    they brought Gibson in a blankt up from the canoe.    he is very Sick, and low.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Saturday Febry 15th    A clear morning.    In the Evening the party returned from the Salt works.    they brought with them the 2 Sick Men, One  [8] of which they were forced to bring in a blanket, to & from the boat; the other Man  [9] came with one of the party by land.    the Man who was brought in a blankett was very sick.    These Men were taken good care of, & supplied with every necessary that we had in the fort.    Two of our Men  [10] were sent out from the fort a hunting this day.—




 

1. Presumably the Skipanon River and its tributary, Cullaby Creek, in Clatsop County, Oregon. Atlas maps 82, 84. The next two sentences have a dark vertical line through them, perhaps drawn by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

2. "Diluted nitre" is potassium nitrate (saltpeter), used to increase the flow of perspiration and urine and to reduce fevers. Laudanum is tincture of opium, which would help Gibson relax. Cutright (LCPN), 64; Chuinard (OOMD), 156. (Return to text.)

 

3. The following species can be identified as: brown, white, or grizzly bear, Ursus horribilus; black bear; common red deer, Columbian white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus leucura; black tailed fallow deer, Columbian black-tailed deer; mule deer; elk; large brown wolf, Canis lupus fuscus; small wolf of the plains, coyote, C. latrans; large wolf of the plains, C. lupus nubilus; tiger cat, Oregon bobcat; red fox; black fox or fisher, Martes pennanti; silver fox and large red fox of the plains, red fox; small fox of the plains or kit fox, swift fox, Vulpes velox; antelope, pronghorn, Antilocapra americana; sheep, mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus; beaver; otter; sea otter; mink, Mustela vison; spuck, young sea otter; harbor seal; raccoon; large gray squirrel, western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus; small brown squirrel, Douglas's squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii; small gray squirrel, Richarson's red squirrel; ground squirrel, probably Townsend's chipmunk, Eutamias townsendii; "sewelel," mountain beaver; "Braro," badger; uncertain rat, mouse, and mole; "Panther," mountain lion; hare, white-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus townsendii; rabbit, either eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus, or Nuttall's cottontail, S. nuttallii; polecat or striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis. Hall, 2:1093, 930–31, 1:446–47, 300–307; Burroughs, 90–92, 168–71, 73–75, 96–98. Many of these species are described in detail elsewhere in this volume. This material has a dark vertical line running through it, perhaps penned by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

4. The spotted Appaloosa, of which the Nez Perces and some other northwestern tribes were particularly fond. (Return to text.)

 

5. Besides his emendation, Biddle also underscored the word "Clark's" in red ink. (Return to text.)

 

6. Presumably the group given in the captains' Estimate of Western Indians (see Fort Clatsop Miscellany) as the "Sho-bar-boo-be-er," said to live "on the S W Side of the Multnomah river high up the Said river," numbering 1,600. Hodge, 2:553, considers them unidentifiable but locates them in the territory of the Mono-Paviotso dialect of the Shoshonean-language family. There were no speakers of this language residing in the upper Willamette (Multnomah) River Valley. Since Lewis and Clark did not have first-hand familiarity with this group, it is likely that they were mistaken about their location. If in place of the Multnomah the Towahnahiooks, that is, the Deschutes River, was meant instead, the reference to a native people with horses and mules could apply to one or more of the Paviotso bands occupying the upper Deschutes watershed at the time of historic contact. The word is Chinookan S with caron lowercase symbolumax with dot below lowercase symbolmuix, but the meaning is unknown and therefore no help in determining the reference. (Return to text.)

 

7. Probably New Mexico. (Return to text.)

 

8. Gibson, say Lewis, Clark, and Ordway. (Return to text.)

 

9. Bratton, according to the captains and Ordway. (Return to text.)

 

10. Drouillard and Whitehouse, report the captains. (Return to text.)












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