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[Lewis] 
Thursday February 20th 1806.
 

       Permited Collins to hunt this morning    he returned in the evening unsuccessfull as to the chase but brought with him some cranberries for the sick. Gibson is on the recovery fast; Bratton has an obstenate cough and pain in his back and still appears to be geting weaker. McNeal from his inattention to his disorder has become worse.  [1]

 

       This forenoon we were visited by Tâh-cum  [2] a principal Chief of the Chinnooks and 25 men of his nation.    we had never seen this cheif before he is a good looking man of about 50 years of age reather larger in statue than most of his nation; as he came on a friendly visit we gave himself and party some thing to eat and plyed them plentifully with smoke. we gave this cheif a small medal with which he semed much gratifyed.    in the evening at sunset we desired them to depart as is our custom and closed our gates.    we never suffer parties of such number to remain within the fort all night; for notwithstanding their apparent friendly disposition, their great averice and hope of plunder might induce them to be treacherous.    at all events we determined allways to be on our guard as much as the nature of our situation will permit us, and never place our selves at the mercy of any savages.    we well know, that the treachery of the aborigenes of America and the too great confidence of our countrymen in their sincerity and friendship, has caused the distruction of many hundreds of us.    so long have our men been accustomed to a friendly intercourse with the natives, that we find it difficult to impress on their minds the necessity of always being on their guard with rispect to them.    this confidence on our part, we know to be the effect of a series of uninterupted friendly intercouse, but the well known treachery of the natives by no means entitle them to such confidence, and we must check it's growth in our own minds, as well as those of our men, by recollecting ourselves, and repeating to our men, that our preservation depends on never loosing sight of this trait in their character, and being always prepared to meet it in whatever shape it may present itself.—  [3]

 

       The Mule deer are the same with those of the plains of the Missouri so frequently mentioned.    we met with them under the Rocky mountains in the Neighbourhood of the Chopunnish nation on the Kooskooske river, but have not seen them since nor do we know whether they exist in the interior of the great plains of Columbia or on their lower border near the mountains which pass the river aout the great falls. The Elk is the same with that found in much the greatest portion of North America, they are common to every part of this country, as well the timbered lands as the plains, but are much more abundant in the former than the latter    The large brown woolf  [4] is like that of the Atlantic States and are found only in the woody country on the Pacific Ocean imbracing the mountains which pass the Columbia between the great falls and rapids of the same.    the large and small woolves  [5] of the plains are the inhabitants principally of the open country and the woodlands on their borders and resemble in their habits and appearance those of the plains of the Missouri precisely.    they are not abundant in the plains of Columbia because there is but little game onwhich for them to subsist.—




[Clark] 
Thursday February 20th 1806.
 

       Permited Collins to hunt this morning    he returned in the evening unsucksessfull as to the chase, but brought with him Some Cramberries for the Sick. Gibson is on the recovery fast; Bratten has an obstinate Cough and pain in his back and Still appears to be getting weaker. H. McNeal from his inattention to his disorder has become worse.    Willard has a high fever and complains of the pain in his head and want of appetite.

 

       The forenoon we were visited by Tâh-cum a principal chief of the Chinnooks and 25 men of his nation.    we had never Seen this Chief before    he is a good looking man of about 50 years of age reather larger in Statue than most of his nation; as he came on a friendly visit we gave himself and party something to eate and plyed them plenty fully with Smoke.    we gave this chief a small Medal with which he Seamed much pleased.    in the evening at Sunset we desired them to depart as is our custom and Close our gates.    we never Suffer parties of Such numbers to remain within the Fort all night; for not withstanding their apparent friendly disposition, their great averis and hope of plunder might induce them to be treacherous.    at all events we are determined always to be on our guard, as much as the nature of our Situation will permit us, and never place our selves at the mercy of any Savages.    we well know, that the treachery of the Aborigenes of America and the too great confidence of our country men in their friendship and fadility has caused the distruction of maney hundreds of us.    so long has our men been accustomed to a friendly intercourse with the nativs, that we find it dificult to impress on their minds the necessity of always being on their Guard with respect to them.    this confidence on our part we know to be the effect of a serious of a friendly and unintorupted intercourse.    but the well Known treachery of the natives by no means entitle them to Such confidence, and we must check it's groth in our own minds as well as those of our men, by recollecting our selves, and repeating to our men, that our preservation depends on our never loseing Sight of this trate in their character, and being always prepared to meet it in whatever Shape it may present itself.—.

 

       The Mule Deer are the Same with those of the Plains of the Missouri So frequently mentioned.    we met with them under the rocky mountains in the neighbourhood of the Chopunnish Nation on the Koskooske river, but have not Seen them Since nor do we know whether they exist in the interiors of the great Plains of Columbia, or on the lower border near the mountains which pass the river about the great falls. The Elk is the Same with that found in much the greater portion of North America, they are common to every part of this Country, as well the timbered lands as the plains.    but are much more abundant in the former than the latter




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 20th Feby. 1806.    the wind continued verry high from the S. W.    we Set out eairly and proced. on along the coast faceing the wind    the Sand cut our faces    waided a creek    rapid curret    about noon we arived to the Salt works and bought a little Ecoley  [6] and oil &C from the natives.    the waves roles verry high and white froth flying &C.




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 20th.    This was a cloudy morning. A number of the Chinook Indians  [7] came to the fort with hats to trade. They are made of the cedar bark and silk grass, look handsome and keep out the rain. But little rain fell to day, and in the evening, we turned out the natives as usual, and they all went home.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday Febry 20th    The wind still continued very high, blowing from the South West.—    the party that had gone to the Salt works continued on their way.    the Wind fell a little.    they had to wade through another Creek, & came to where some Indians were living,  [8] from whom that party brought some E-co-ley or whale meat & Oil.—    The party left at the Fort were employed in dressing Skins &ca.




 

1. Chuinard (OOMD), 350, suggests that Lewis was expecting McNeal to medicate himself for syphilis with mercury ointment, but that the private had either neglected the treatment or had reinfected himself. (Return to text.)

 

2. Tahcum, or Taucum (T with comma above uppercase symbolawkum), was known to traders by 1794, and was later acquainted with the Astorians and the North West Company. At one time he was at odds with Comcomly and Shelathwel (or Shillarlawit) which might account for his not having visited the fort with those chiefs. Ruby & Brown (CITC), 63, 69–70, 73, 104, 157. He is the chief called "Stock-home" in an undated entry placed at January 1, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

3. The first few lines of the next paragraph have a vertical line running through them, perhaps done by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

4. A subspecies of the gray wolf. (Return to text.)

 

5. The first is the gray wolf; the second the coyote. (Return to text.)

 

6. That is, some whale meat. (Return to text.)

 

7. Including Chief Tahcum; see the captains' entries. (Return to text.)

 

8. Clatsop Indians living at present Seaside, Clatsop County, Oregon, where the saltmaking camp was located. (Return to text.)












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