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[Lewis] 
Saturday March 1st 1806.
 

       This morning Sergt. Gass and a party set out in quest of the Elk which had been killed by the hunters the day before yesterday.    they returned with the flesh of three of them late in the evening. Thompson was left with the hunters  [1] in order to jurk and take care of the flesh of the remaining two. Kuskelar and wife left us about noon. he had a good looking boy of about 10 years of age with him who he informed us was his slave.    this boy had been taken prisoner by the Killamucks from some nation on the Coast to the S. East of them at a great distance.    like other Indian nations they adopt their slaves in their families and treat them very much as their own children.  [2] Reubin Fields and Collins who have been absent since yesterday morning returned without having killed any game. The birds of the Western side of the Rocky Mountain to the Pacific Ocean, for convenience I shall divide into two classes, which I shal designate from the habits of the birds, Terrestrial and Aquatic.

 

       The Grouse or Prarie hen  [3] is peculiarly the inhabitant of the Grait Plains of Columbia    they do not differ from those of the upper portion of the Missouri, the tail of which is pointed or the feathers in it's center much longer than those on the sides.    this Species differs essentially in the construction of this part of their plumage from those of the Illinois  [4] which have their tails composed of fathers of equal length.    in the winter season this bird is booted even to the first joint of it's toes.    the toes are also curiously bordered on their lower edges with narrow hard scales which are placed very close to each other and extend horizontally about ⅛ of an inch on each side of the toes thus adding to the width of the tread which nature seems bountifully to have furnished them at this season for passing over the snow with more ease.    in the summer season those scales fall off. They have four toes on each foot. Their colour is a mixture of dark brown redish and yellowish brown and white confusedly mixed in which the redish brown prevails most on the upper parts of the body wings and tail and the white underneath the belley and lower parts of the breast and tail.    they associate in large flocks in autumn & winter and are frequently found in flocks of from five to six even in summer. They feed on grass, insects, the leaves of various shrubs in the plains and on the seeds of several species of spelts  [5] and wild rye  [6] which grow in the richer parts of the plains.    in winter their food is the buds of the willow & Cottonwood also the most of the native berries furnish them with food.— The Indians of this neighbourhood eat the root of the Cattail or Cooper's flag.  [7]    it is pleasantly taisted and appears to be very nutricious.    the inner part of the root which is eaten without any previous preperation is composed of a number of capillary white flexable strong fibers among which is a mealy or starch like substance which readily desolves in the mouth and separate from the fibers which are then rejected.    it appears to me that this substance would make excellent starch; nothing can be of a purer white than it is.—




[Clark] 
Saturday March the 1st 1806
 

       This morning we despatched Sergt. Gass with 12 men in two Canoes in quest of the Elk which had been killed by the hunters the day before yesterday.    they returned with the flesh of three of them late in the evening. Thompson was left with the hunters in order to jurk and take care of the flesh of the remaining two. Kuskalar &c. left us about noon. The boy which this Indian offered to Sell to me is about 10 years of age.    this boy had been taken prisoner by the Kil a mox from Some Nation on the Coast to the S. East of them at a great distance.    like other Indian nations they adopt their Slaves in their famelies and treat them very much like their own Children. Reuben Field and Collins who had been absent Since yesterday morning returned without killing any thing.

 

       The birds on the western Side of the Rocky Mountain's to the Pacific Ocian for Convenience I Shall devide into from the habit of the birds, Terrestrial and Aquatic.    i e Fowls of the air, and fowls of the water.

 

       The Prarie Hen sometimes called the Grouse is peculiarly the inhabitent of the Great Plains of Columbia.    they do not differ from those of the upper portion of the Missouri, the tails of which is pointed or the feathers in its center much longer than those on the Sides.    this Species differ assentially in the construction of this part of their plumage from those of the Illinois which have their tail composed of feathers of equal length.    in the winter Season this berd is booted even to the first joint of it's toes.    the toes are also curiously bordered on their lower edges with narrow hard scales which are placed very close to each other and extend horizontally about ⅛ of an inch on each Side of the toe, thus adding to the width of the tread which nature Seams bountifully to have furnished them with at this Season for passing over the Snow with more ease.    in the Summer Season those Scales fall off.    they have four toes on each foot.    their colour is a mixture of dark brown redish and yellowish brown and white confusedly mixed in which the redish brown prevails most on the upper parts of the body wings and tail.    and the white underneath the belley and lower parts of the breast and tail.    they associate in large flocks in autumn & winter and are frequently found in flocks of from five to Six even in Summer. They feed on grass, insects, the leaves of various Shrubs in the Praries, and on the Seeds of Several Species of Spelts and wild rye which grow in the richer parts of the Plains.    in the winter their food is the buds of the willow and Cottonwood also the most of the native berries furnish them with food.    they cohabit in flock & the Cocks fight verry much at those Seasons.




[Ordway] 
 

       Saturday the 1st March 1806.    a fair morning.    twelve men  [8] Set out after the Elk meat.    the day Showery and wet.    in the evening the party returned except four  [9] who Stayed out to hunt & brought in the meat.    the Indian Name of the River they went up is Kil how-a-nàk-kle  [10] and this River which we are on Ne-tul.  [11]




[Gass] 
 

       Saturday 1st March, 1806.    We had a cloudy wet morning. I set out with 8 men and 4 hunters to bring the meat of the elk that had been killed, which was at a greater distance from the fort than any we had yet brought in. There is a large river that flows into the southeast part of Hayley's Bay;  [12] upon which, about 20 miles from its mouth, our hunters discovered falls,  [13] which had about 60 feet of a perpendicular pitch.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       March 1st Saturday    A pleasant morning, Twelve Men left the fort to go after the Elk meat.    About noon the two hunters that were out returned to the fort, & had not killed any kind of game.    The afternoon proved Showery & wet.    In the evening, the party that went after the Elk meat returned, & brought the meat with them.    Four of our Men went out hunting.    they went up a River called by the Natives Ir-rum-mack-hill, & the River that our Fort lay near, is called by the Natives Ne-tul.  [14]    These hunters staid out all night—




 

1. Shields, Joseph Field, and Shannon; see above, February 28, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

2. Slaves were one of the most important articles of commerce in the trade networks of the Northwest Coast and interior. The Columbia River was the great artery of this trade, and the Chinooks, the great traders at the river's mouth, were said to have more slaves per capita than any other tribe. Treatment of slaves could be harsher than Lewis indiates; they might be sacrificed at their master's death to accompany him to the next world. Unlike contemporary Anglo-American practices, Northwest slaves sometimes owned their own slaves and might fight at their master's command. Slaves could not deform the heads of their children, a practice reserved for the elite. Ruby & Brown (CITC), 10, 21–22; Ruby & Brown (IPN), 29, 58, 61–62. (Return to text.)

 

3. A new species, the Columbian sharp-tailed grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus, a subspecies of those on the upper Missouri, T. phasianellus [AOU, 308]. Burroughs, 213; Cutright (LCPN), 81, 244, 387, 436. Beginning with the previous sentence, a red vertical line continues through the first several lines of this paragraph, perhaps done by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

4. Perhaps a reference to the greater prarie-chicken, Tympanuchus cupido [AOU, 305]. Burroughs, 211. (Return to text.)

 

5. A term for wheat, Triticum sp., which is not native to America. Here the term probably refers to the native species, bluebunch wheatgrass, Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & Smith, which is a dominant species in the Columbia basin. Hitchcock et al., 1:459–61; Franklin & Dyrness, 216. (Return to text.)

 

6. Basin wildrye, Elymus cinereus Scribn. & Merrill. Hitchcock et al., 1:561. (Return to text.)

 

7. Common cat-tail, here called cooper's flag, referring to the plant's long leaves which were placed between barrel staves by coopers to make barrels watertight. (Return to text.)

 

8. Led by Gass, as he himself relates. (Return to text.)

 

9. Thompson joined the three from the previous day. (Return to text.)

 

10. Youngs River, Clatsop County, Oregon; see notes at Clark's entry of November 30, 1805. The term is Chinookan, giławanax̣ł. (Return to text.)

 

11. The Chinookan ní'tul; it is Lewis and Clark River. (Return to text.)

 

12. Youngs River, the party's Kilhow-a-nah-kle River, which actually flows into Youngs Bay, their Meriwether's Bay, Clatsop County, Oregon. Gass obviously considered Baker (Haley's) Bay to extend across the Columbia from the north side. (Return to text.)

 

13. Youngs River Falls, about seventy-five feet high, Clatsop County, about ten miles south of Astoria. See Clark's entry for March 5. (Return to text.)

 

14. Youngs River, in Clatsop County, Oregon, which the captains called Kilhow-a-nah-kle River. This party discovered Youngs River Falls. The term is Chinookan, giławanax̣ł. (Return to text.)












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