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[Lewis]†
Wednesday March 5th 1806.

†††††† This morning we were visited by two parties of Clatsops. †† they brought some fish a hat and some skins for sale most of which we purchased. they returned to their village in the evening. †† late in the evening the hunters returned from the kil-haw-‚-nack-kle River which discharges itself into the head of the bay. They had neither killed nor seen any Elk. †† they informed us that the Elk had all gone off to the mountains a considerable distance from us. †† this is unwelcome information and reather allarming we have only 2 days provision on hand, and that nearly spoiled. †† we made up a small assortment of articles to trade with the Indians and directed Sergt. Pryor to set out early in the morning in a canoe with 2 men, to ascend the Columbia to the resort of the Indian fishermen and purchase some fish; we also directed two parties of hunters to renew the Chase tomorrow early. †† the one up the Netul and the other towards Point Adams. †† if we find that the Elk have left us, we have determined to ascend the river slowly and indeavour to procure subsistence on the way, consuming the Month of March in the woody country. †† earlyer than April we conceive it a folly to attempt the open plains where we know there is no fuel except a few small dry shrubs. †† we shall not leave our quarters at fort Clatsop untill the first of April, as we intended unless the want of subsistance compels us to that measure. The common snipe of the marshes and the small sand snipe are the same of those common to the Atlantic Coast tho' the former are by no means as abundant here.[1] the prarrow[2] of the woody country is also similar to ours but not abundant. †† those of the plains of Columbia are the same with those of the Missouri, tho' they are by no means so abundant. I have not seen the little singing lark[3] or the large brown Curloo[4] so common to the plains of the Missouri, but I beleive that the latter is an inhabitant of this country during summer from Indian information. I have no doubt but what many species of birds found here in Autumn and Summer had departed before our arrival.




[Clark]†
Wednesday March 5th 1806.

†††††† This morning we were visited by two parties of Clatsops †† they brought Some fish, a hat and Some Skins for Sale most of which we purchased, they returned to their Village in the evening with the returning tide. late in the evening the Hunters returned from the Kil-haw-‚ nack-kle River which discharges itself into the head of the Bay. They had neither killed nor Seen any Elk. †† they informed us that the Elk had all gorn off to the mountains a considerable distance from us. †† this is unwelcom information and reather alarming. †† we have only two days provisions on hand and that nearly Spoiled. †† we made up a Small assortment of Articles to trade with the Indians, and directed Sergt Natl. Pryor to Set out early in the morning in a canoe with two men, to assend the Columbia to the resort of the Indians fishermen and purchase Some fish; we also derected two parties of hunters to renew the chase tomorrow early. †† the one up the Netul, and the other towards point Adams. If we find that the Elk have left us, we have determined to assend the river slowly and endeaver to precure Subsistance on the way, Consumeing the month of March in the woody Country, earlyer than april we conceive it a folly to attempt the Open plains where we know there is no fuel except a fiew Small dry Shrubs. †† we Shall not leave our quarters at Fort Clatsop untill the 1st of April as we intended, unless the want of Subsistance compels us to that measure.


†††††† The common Snipe of the marshes and the Small sand snipe are the same of those Common to the atlantic coast tho the former are by no means as abundant here.


†††††† The Sparrow of the woody country is also Similar to ours but not abundant. †† those of the plains of Columbia are the Same with those of the Missouri. †† tho' they are by no means So Abundant. I have not Seen the little Singing lark or the large brown Curloe So Common to the Plains of the Missouri. †† but believe the Curloe is an inhabitent of this Countrey dureing Summer from Indian information and their attempts to mimick the notes of this fowl. I have no doubt but what maney Species of birds found here in autumn and Summer had departed before our arrival.


†††††† The Aquatic Birds of this country or such as obtain their Subsistence from the water, are the large blue and brown heron, fishing Hawk,[5] blue crested fisher,[6] Gulls of Several Species of the Coast, the large grey Gull of the Columbia,[7] Comorant, loons of two Species,[8] white and the brown brant, Small and large Geese,[9] small and large Swans, the Duckinmallard, canvis back Duck, red headed fishing Duck,[10] black and white duck,[11] little brown Duck,[12] Black Duck, two Species of Divers,[13] blue winged teal,[14] and Some other Species of Ducks, two Species of Plevers.


†††††† The hunters who were out last informed me that they discovered a very Considerable fall in the Kil-haw-‚-nack-kle River[15] on its main western fork at which place it falls abt. 100 feet from the Side of a mountain[16] S. E. about 6 miles from Fort Clatsop and nearly 15 from its enterance into the bay by the Meanderings of this river


†††††† a high mountain[17] is Situated S 60į W. about 18 miles from Fort Clatsop on which there has been Snow Since Nov.




[Ordway]†

†††††† Wednesday 5th March 1806. †† a fair morning †† a number of the natives[18] came to the fort and brought us Some little fish and Sturgeon &C.




[Gass]†

†††††† Wednesday 5th— †† About twelve o'clock last night, the rain ceased, and we had a fine morning. A number of the natives visited us, and at night our hunters returned, but had killed nothing.




[Whitehouse]†

†††††† Wednesday March 5th †† A pleasant morning. †† a number of the Natives came in Canoes to the fort. †† they brought with them, some Sturgeon & some small fish to trade with us. †† Our officers purchased the whole of them. †† The Men at the fort were all employed in dressing Skins &ca.




1.†The common snipe, Gallinago gallinago [AOU, 230], and the spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia [AOU, 263]. Holmgren, 33. A dark vertical line through the previous sentence and a red vertical line through this passage may be Biddle's work.†(Return to text.)

2.†Probably the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia [AOU, 581]. Ibid.†(Return to text.)

3.†Probably Sprague's pipit, Anthus spragueii [AOU, 700]. Ibid., 31.†(Return to text.)

4.†The long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus [AOU, 264]. Burroughs, 226–27.†(Return to text.)

5.†The osprey, Pandion haliaetus [AOU, 364]. Ibid., 208.†(Return to text.)

6.†The belted kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon [AOU, 390]. Ibid., 237–38.†(Return to text.)

7.†Perhaps the western gull, Larus occidentalis [AOU, 49]; see below, March 6, 1806. Ibid., 230–31.†(Return to text.)

8.†See below, March 7, 1806.†(Return to text.)

9.†Different subspecies of the Canada goose.†(Return to text.)

10.†Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator [AOU, 130], or the common merganser, M. merganser [AOU, 129]; see above, June 21, 1805.†(Return to text.)

11.†The bufflehead; see below, March 9, 1806.†(Return to text.)

12.†Holmgren, 29, suggests one of several teals, Anas sp. See March 10, 1805.†(Return to text.)

13.†See the descriptions and identifications of these birds at March 10, 1806.†(Return to text.)

14.†The blue-winged teal, Anas discors [AOU, 140].†(Return to text.)

15.†Youngs River Falls on Youngs River in Clatsop County, Oregon, about ten miles south of Astoria and the bay. The fall (about seventy-five feet) is on the main western fork (Youngs River) as Clark indicates and may be the line crossing the river on Atlas map 84. The eastern fork would be today's Klaskanine River. See Thwaites (LC), 4:137 n. 1. Gass reports the discovery of the falls under March 1, 1806, and gets closer to its height, which he gives as sixty feet.†(Return to text.)

16.†Perhaps Lone Ridge in Clatsop County.†(Return to text.)

17.†Identified by Thwaites (LC), 4:137 n. 2, as Saddle Mountain (elevation 3,283 feet), in Clatsop County, but difficult to reconcile with the direction given by Clark, as is any likely peak in the area. If Clark meant east for west, Saddle Mountain would be a possibility. The distance and bearing as given would place one in the Pacific, some miles off the coast.†(Return to text.)

18.†Clatsops, say the captains.†(Return to text.)












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