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[Lewis] 
Friday March 7th 1806.
 

       The wind was so high that Comowol did not leave us untill late this evening. Labuish and Drewyer returned at sunset having killed one Elk only.    they report that there are some scattering male Elk in the neighbourhood of the place they killed this one or about 5 miles up the Netul on this side.— Bratton is much wose today, he complains of a violent pain in the small of his back and is unable in consequence to set up.    we gave him one of our flanel shirts, applyed a bandage of flannel to the part and bathed and rubed it well with some vollatile linniment which I prepared with sperits of wine,  [1] camphor, castile soap  [2] and a little laudinum.    he felt himself better in the evening.—    the large blue and brown herons, or Crains as they are usually called in the U' States are found on this river below tidewater.    they are the same with those of the U' States.    the fishing hawk with the crown of the head White and back of a mealy white, and the blue crested or King fisher are found on every part of the Columbia and it's waters and are the same with those of the U' States.    the fishing hawk  [3] is not abundant particularly in the mountains.    there are four speceis of larus or gull on this coast and river, 1st a small speceis about the size of a pigeon; white except some black spots about the head and a little brown on the but of the wings, 2nd a speceis somewhat larger of a light brown colour with a whitish or mealy coloured back.    3rd the large grey gull, or white larus with a greyish 〈black〉 brown back and a light grey belley and breast, about the size of a well grown pullet or reather larger.    the wings are remarkably long in proportion to the size of the body and it's under chap towards the extremity is more gibbous and protuberant than in either of the other speceis.    4th a white gull about the size of the second with a remarkable beak; adjoining the head and at the base of the uper Chap there is an elivated orning of the same substance with the beak which forms the nostrils; it is some what in this form.  [4]    the feet are webbed and the legs and feet of a yellow colour.    the form of the wings body &c are much that of the seond species.    the large grey gull is found on the river as high as the entrance of the Kooskooske and in common with other speceis on the coast; the others appear to be confined to tidewater; and the fourth speceis not so common as either of the others. The cormorant is a large black duck which feeds on fish; I perceive no difference between it and those found in the Potomac and other rivers on the Atlantic Coast.    tho' I do not recollect seeing those on the atlantic so high up the rivers as those are found here.    we first met with them on the Kooskooske at the entrance of Chopunnish river.    they increased in quantity as we decended, and formed much the greatest portion of the waterfowl which we saw on the Columbia untill we reached tidewater where they also abound but do not bear a similar proportion to the other fowls found in this quarter.—

 

      

click to enlarge


Head of a White Gull
(northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis),
March 7, 1806, Codex J, p. 115
 
(American Philosophical Society library, used with permission.)

 

       There are two speceis of loons.    1st the Speckled loon  [5] found on every part of the rivers of this country.    they are the same size colours and form with those of the Atlantic coast.    the second speceis  [6] we first met with at the great falls of the Columbia and from thence down.    this bird is not more than half the size of the speckled loon, it's neck is long, slender and white in front.    the Colour of the body and back of the neck and head are of a dun or ash colour, the breast and belley are white.    the beak is like that of the speckled loon and like them it cannot fly but flutters along on the top of the warter or dives for security when pursued.—




[Clark] 
Friday March 7th 1806
 

       The wind was So high that Comowol did not leave us untill late this evening. Drewyer & Labiesh returned at Sunset haveing killed one Elk only.    they report that there are Some Scattering mail Elk in the neighbourhood of the place they killed this one or about 5 miles up the Netul river on the west Side—. Bratten is much worst to day he complains of a violent pain in the Small of his back, and is unable in consequence of it to Set up.    we gave him one of our flanel Shirts. I applied a bandage of flanel to the part and rubed it well with Some volatile linniment which was prepared with Sperits of wine, camphire, Sastile Soap, and a little laudinum.    he felt himself better in the evening at which time I repeated the linnement and bathed his beet [feet], to restore circulation which he complaind of in that part.

 

       There are two Species of Loons.    1st the Speckled loon found on every part of the rivers of this quarter, they are the Same Size Colour and form with those of the Ohio, and atlantic coasts.    the 2d Species we first met with at the great falls of the Columbia and from thence down.    this bird is not more than half the Size of the Speckled loon, it's neck is long, Slender and white in front.    the colour of the body and back of the neck and hear are of a dun or ash Colour, the breast and belly are white.    the back is like that of the Speckled loon, and like them it cannot fly, but flutters along on the top of the water or Dives for Security when pursued.

 

       John Shields Reubin Fields & Robert frasure measured 2 trees of the fur kind    one 37 feet around, appears sound, has but fiew limbs for 200 feet    it is East of the Netul    abt 280 feet high.




[Ordway] 
 

       Friday 7th March 1806.    a little hail last night and Showers of hail and rain this morning. Sergt. Gass and one man went at repairing the canoes.    towards evening 2 hunters  [7] returned    had killed one Elk and Seen a number more.—




[Gass] 
 

       Friday 7th.    This was a wet morning, and some showers fell occasionally during the day. Among our other difficulties we now experience the want of tobacco and out of 33 persons composing our party, there are but 7 who do not make use of it; we use crab-tree  [8] bark as a substitute. In the evening one of our hunters came in and had killed an elk a considerable distance off.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Friday March 7th    A Rainey wet morning.    Serjeant Gass & one of our Men were employed in repairing our Canoes.    towards evening our Two hunters returned & had killed One Elk.—




 

1. Alcohol. (Return to text.)

 

2. Soap made from olive oil and sodium hydroxide. (Return to text.)

 

3. A red vertical starts at "the large blue" and runs to about here, perhaps done by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

4. A sketch of the northern fulmar's head (fig. 46) in Lewis's Codex J, p. 115. (Return to text.)

 

5. Perhaps the arctic loon, Gavia arctica [AOU, 10], specifically the western subspecies, Pacific loon, G. a. pacifica. Or it may be the same as "those of the Atlantic coast," that is, the common loon, G. immer [AOU, 7]. Burroughs, 177; Coues (HLC), 3:811 n. 85; Holmgren, 32. (Return to text.)

 

6. The western grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis [AOU, 1]. Burroughs, 178–79; Coues (HLC), 3:882 n. 86. Holmgren, 32, considers it to be either the arctic loon or the red-throated loon, Gavia stellata [AOU, 11]. With both this and the loon, Lewis was mistaken about their ability to fly. (Return to text.)

 

7. Drouillard and Labiche, say the captains. (Return to text.)

 

8. Presumably Oregon crabapple, Malus diversifolia (Bong.) Roem. (Return to text.)












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