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[Lewis] 
Thursday March 13th 1806.
 

       This morning Drewyer Jos Feilds and Frazier returned; they had killed two Elk and two deer.    visited by two Cathlahmahs who left us in the evening.    we sent Drewyer down to the Clatsop village to purchase a couple of their canoes if possible. Sergt. Pryor and a party made another surch for the lost peroge but was unsuccessfull; while engaged in surching for the perogue Collins one of his party killed two Elk near the Netul below us.    we sent Sergt. Ordway and a party for the flesh of one of the Elk beyond the bay with which they returned in the evening.    the other Elk and two deer were at some distance. R. Fields and Thompson who set out yesterday morning on a hunting excurtion towards point Adams have not yet returned. The horns of some of the Elk have not yet fallen off, and those of others have shotten out to the length of six inches.  [1]    the latter are in the best order, from which it would seem that the poor Elk retain their horns longest.

 

        

Observed Equal Altitudes of the Sun symbol with Sextant.

A. M. 8   6   16       P. M. 2 45 10
}
Altitude given by Sext.
at time of Obsert.
48° 26' 45"
  "   8     6     " 47   3    
  " 10     " 48 54    
Chronometer too slow on Mean Time—

 

       The Porpus  [2] is common on this coast and as far up the river as the water is brackish.    the Indians sometimes gig them and always eat the flesh of this fish when they can procure it; to me the flavor is disagreeable.    the Skaite  [3] is also common to the salt water, we have seen several of them that had perished and were thrown out on the beach by the tide. The flounder  [4] is also an inhabitant of the salt water, we have seen them also on the beach where they had been left by the tide.    the Indians eat the latter and esteem it very fine.    these several speceis are the same with those of the Atlantic coast.    the common Salmon  [5] and red Charr are the inhabitants of both the sea and rivers.    the former is usually largest and weighs from 5 to 15 lbs.    it is this speceis that extends itself into all the rivers and little creeks on this side of the Continent, and to which the natives are so much indebted for their subsistence.    the body of this fish is from 2½ to 3 feet long and proportionably broad.    it is covered with imbricated scales of a moderate size and is variagated with irregular black spots on it's sides and gills.    the eye is large and the iris of a silvery colour the pupil black.    the rostrum or nose extends beyond the under jaw, and both the upper and lower jaws are armed with a single series of long teeth which are subulate and infleted near the extremities of the jaws where they are also more closely arranged.    they have some sharp teeth of smaller size and same shape placed on the tongue which is thick and fleshey.    the fins of the back are two; the first is plaised nearer the head than the ventral fins and has [blank] rays, the second is placed far back near the tail is small and has no rays.    the flesh of this fish is when in order of a deep flesh coloured red and every shade from that to an orrange yellow, and when very meager almost white.    the roes of this fish are much esteemed by the natives who dry them in the sun and preserve them for a great length of time.    they are about the size of a small pea nearly transparent and of a redish yellow colour.    they resemble very much at a little distance the common currants of our gardens but are more yellow.    this fish is sometimes red along the sides and belley near the gills particularly the male. The red Charr  [6] are reather broader in proportion to their length than the common salmon, the skales are also imbricated but reather large.    the nostrum exceeds the lower jaw more and the teeth are neither as large nor so numerous as those of the salmon. some of them are almost entirely red on the belley and sides; others are much more white than the salmon and none of them are variagated with the dark spots which make the body of the other.    their flesh roes and every other particular with rispect to their form is that of the Salmon. this fish we did not see untill we decended below the grat falls of the Columbia; but whether they are exclusively confined to this portion of the river or not at all seasons, I am unable to determine.—




[Clark] 
Thursday March 13th 1806.
 

       This morning Drewyer Jos. Fields and Frazer returned; they had killed two Elk and two deer. Visited by two Cath-lah-mars who left us in the evening.    we Sent Drewyer down to the Clatsop Village to purchase a couple of their canoes if possible. Sergt. Pryor and a party made another Serch for the lost Canoe but was unsucksessfull; while engaged in Serching for the Canoe, Collins one of this party killed two Elk near the Netul below us.    we Sent Sergt. Ordway and a party for the flesh of one of the Elk beyond the Bay with which they returned in the evening; the other Elk and 2 Deer were at Some distance—R. Field and Thompson who Set out on a hunting excursion yesterday morning towards point Adams have not yet returned.    took equal altitudes to day this being the only fair day for Sometime past.

 

       The Porpus is common on this coast and as far up the river as the water is brackish.    the Indians Sometimes gig them and always eat the flesh of this fish when they Can precure it; to me the flavour is disagreeable.    the Skaite is also common to the Salt water, I have Seen Several of them that had perished and were thrown out on the beach by the tide. The flounder is also an enhabitent of the Salt water.    we have Seen them also on the beach where they had been left by the tide.    the nativs eate the latter and esteem it very fine.    these Several Species are the Same of those of the atlantic Coasts. The Common Salmon and red charr are the inhabitents of both the Sea and river.    the former is usially largest and weighs from 5 to 15 lbs.    it is this Species that extends itself into all the rivers and little creek on this Side of the Continent, and to which the nativs are So much indebted for their Subsistence.    the body of this fish is from 2½ to 3 feet long and perpotionably broad.    it is covered with imbricated scales of a moderate Size and is varigated with errigular black Spots on its Side and gills.    the eye is large and the iris of a Silvery colour the pupil black.    the rostrum or nose extend beyond the under jaws, and both the upper and the lower jaw are armed with a Single Series of long teeth which are Subulate and infleted near the extremities of the jaws where they are more closely arranged.    they have Some Sharp teeth of Smaller Size and Same Shape on the tongue which is thick and fleshey. the fins of the back are two; the first is placed nearer the head than the Venteral fins and has [blank] rays, the Second is placed far back near the tail is small and has no rays. The flesh of this fish when in order of a deep flesh coloured red and every Shade from that to an orrange yellow, and when very meager almost white.    the Roe of this fish are much esteemed by the nativs, who dry them in the Sun and preserve them for a great length of time.    they are about the Size of a Small pea nearly transparent and of a redish yellow colour.    they resemble very much at a little distance the Common Current of our gardens but are more yellow.    this fish is Sometimes red along the Sides and belly near the gills; particularly the male of this Species.

 

       The Red Charr are reather broader in proportion to their length than the Common Salmon, the Skales are also embricated but reather large.    the nostrum exceeds the lower jaw more and the teeth are neither So numerous or large as those of the Salmon. Some of them are almost entirely red on the belly and Sides; others are much more white than the Salmon, and none of them are varigated with the dark Spots which mark the body of the other.    their flesh roe and every other particular with respect to their is that of the Salmon.    this fish we did not See untill we had decended below the Great falls of the Columbia; but whether they are exclusively confined to this portion of the river or not at all Seasons, I am unable to determine.

 

       The Salmon Trout  [7] are Seldom more than two feet in length, they are narrow in purportion to their length, at least much more So than the Salmon & red charr.    their jaws are nearly of the Same length, and are furnished with a Single Series of Subulate Streight teeth, not so long or so large as those of the Salmon, the mouth is wide, and the tongue is also furnished with Some teeth.    the fins are placed much like those of the Salmon.    at the Great Falls are met with this fish of a Silvery white colour on the belly and Sides, and a blueish light brown on the back and head.    in this neighbourhood we have met with another Species  [8] which does not differ from the other in any particular except in point of Colour.    this last is of a dark colour on the back, and its Sides and belley are yellow with transverse Stripes of dark brown.    Sometimes a little red is intermixed with these Colours on the belly and Sides towards the head.    the flesh & roe is like those described of the Salmon.    the white Species which we found below the falls were in excellent order when he Salmon were entirely out of Season and not fit for use. The Species which we found here early in november on our arival in this quarter had declined considerably, reather more so than the Red charr with which we found them asociated in the little riverlets and creeks.    I think it may be Safely asserted that the Red Charr and both Species of the Salmon trout remain in Season longer in the fall of the year than the common Salmon;  [9] but I have my doubt whether of the Species of the Salmon trout ever pass the Great falls of the Columbia. The Indians tell us that the Salmon begin to run early in the next month; it will be unfortunate for us if they do not, for they must form our principal dependance for food in assending the Columbia above the Falls and it's S. E. branch Lewis's river to the Mountains.

 

       The Speckled or Mountain Trout are found in the waters of the Columbia within the Rocky mountains.    they are the same of those found in the upper part of the Missouri, but are not So abundent in the Columbian Waters as in that river. The bottle nose is also found on the waters of the Columbia within the mountains.




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 13th March 1806.    a fair cold morning.    high winds.    our three hunters returned to the fort.    had killed two Elk and two deer. Drewyer Sent to the Clatsop village in order to purchase a canoe. I went with Six more of the party after the meat of an Elk. Sergt. Pryor and 2 men went to look again for the lost canoe.    in the evening all returned to the fort. Collins who went with Sergt. Pryor had killed two doe Elk and wounded 1 or 2 more




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 13th.    The morning was fine, and two more hunters went out early. about ten, the hunters who had gone across the bay returned, and had killed 2 elk and 2 deer.

 

       I this day took an account of the number of pairs of mockasons each man in the party had; and found the whole to be 338 pair. This stock was not provided without great labour, as the most of them are made of the skins of elk. Each man has also a sufficient quantity of patch-leather. Some of the men went out to look for the lost canoe, and killed two elk.  [10]




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday March 13th    A Clear cold morning, I was ordered to go up to the Cath-le-mah Village, in Order to purchase fish &ca.    I took two Men & a canoe with me, & proceeded on but a short distance; when the wind blew so hard that I was forced to return with them to the fort.    The three hunters  [11] that were out returned to the fort.    They had killed 2 Elk & 2 Deer, Two others of our party went out hunting.    Some of our Men  [12] went out & brought into the Fort the meat of One Elk, Our Officers sent one of our party  [13] to the Clatsop Village, in order to purchase a Canoe from the Natives.    In the Evening one of our hunters returned that went out this morning; he had killed 2 Elk & wounded 2 more of them, which he mention'd was by a Short distance from the fort, across the River.—




 

1. Perhaps it was Biddle who drew a red vertical line through this sentence. (Return to text.)

 

2. Perhaps the harbor, or common, porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. Hall, 2:897. Another red vertical line runs through several sentences. (Return to text.)

 

3. Probably the big skate. (Return to text.)

 

4. The starry flounder. (Return to text.)

 

5. Presumably Lewis called it thus because it was the one he encountered most often; it is the king (or Chinook) salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, still of great economic importance to the Pacific Northwest. Burroughs, 261–62; Cutright (LCPN), 269–70. (Return to text.)

 

6. The sockeye salmon. (Return to text.)

 

7. Steelhead trout, a new species. Burroughs, 263; Cutright (LCPN), 426. (Return to text.)

 

8. Apparently also steelhead trout. Thwaites (LC), 4:167 n. 1; Burroughs, 263. (Return to text.)

 

9. On the salmon runs, see Cutright (LCPN), 269–70. (Return to text.)

 

10. The party was led by Pryor; Collins killed the elk. See the captains' entries for the date. (Return to text.)

 

11. Drouillard, Joseph Field, and Frazer. (Return to text.)

 

12. Led by Ordway, as Ordway relates. (Return to text.)

 

13. Drouillard. (Return to text.)












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