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The morning being disagreeably cold we remained and took breakfast. at 7 A. M. we set out and continued our rout along the South Coast of the river against the wind and a strong current, our progress was of course but slow. at noon we halted and dined. here some Clatsops came to us in a canoe loaded with dryed anchovies, which they call Olthen', Wappetoe and Sturgeon.  they informed us that they had been up on a trading voyage to the Skillutes.—  I observe that the green bryer  which I have previously mentioned as being common on this river below tide water retains it's leaves all winter.— the red willow  and seven bark  begin to pur fourth their leaves.— after dinner we passed the river to a large Island  2 and continued our rout allong the side of the same about a mile when we arrived at a Cathlahmah fishing cam of one lodge; here we found 3 men 2 women and a couple of boys, who from appearances had remained here some time for the purpose of taking sturgeon, which they do by trolling. they had ten or douzen very fine sturgeon which had not been long taken.  we offered to purchase some of their fish but they asked us such an extravegant price that we declined purchase. one of the men purchased a sea Otterskin at this lodge, for which he gave a dressed Elkskin and an handkercheif. near this lodge we met some Cathlahmahs who had been up the river on a fishing excurtion. they had a good stock of fish on board, but did not seem disposed to sell them. we remained at this place about half an hour and then continued our rout up the Island to it's head and passed to the south side. the wind in the evening was very hard. it was with some difficulty that we could find a spot proper for an encampment, the shore being a swamp for several miles back; at length late in the evening opposite to the place we had encamped on the 6th of November last; we found the entrance of a small creek which afforded us a safe harbour from the wind and encamped.  the ground was low and moist tho' we obtained a tolerable encampment. here we found another party of Cathlahmahs about 10 in number who had established a temperary residence for the purpose of fishing and taking seal. they had taken a fine parcel of sturgeon and some seal. they gave us some of the fleese of the seal which I found a great improvement to the poor Elk. here we found Drewyer and the Feildses who had been seperated from us since morning; they had passed on the North side of the large Island which was much nearer. the bottom lands are covered with cottonwood, the growth with a broad leaf which resembles ash except the leaf.  the underbrush red willow, broad leafed willow,  sevenbark, goosburry,  green bryer & the larged leafed thorn;  the latter is now in bloom; the natives inform us that it bears a freut about an inch in diameter which is good to eat.—
Last night and this morning are cool wend hard a head and tide going out, after an early brackfast we proceeded on about 4 miles and came too on the south side to worm and dry our Selves a little. Soon after we had landed two Indians Came from a War kia cum village on the opposite Side with 2 dogs and a fiew Wappato to Sell neither of which we bought. Som Clatsops passed down in a Canoe loaded with fish and Wappato. as the wind was hard a head and tide against us we Concluded to delay untill the return of the tide which we expected at 1 oClock, at which hour we Set out met two Canoes of Clatsops loaded with dried anchovies and Sturgion which they had taken and purchased above we crossed over to an Island on which was a Cath lahmah fishing Camp of one Lodge; here we found 〈one〉 3 man two woman and a couple of boys who must have for Some time for the purpose of taking Sturgeon which they do by trolling. they had 10 or 12 very fine Sturgeon which had not been long taken; we wished to purchase some of their fish but they asked Such extravegent prices that we declined purchaseing. one of our Party purchased a Sea otter Skin at this Lodge for which he gave a dressed Elk Skin & a Handkerchief. we remained at this place about half an hour and then Continued our rout. the winds in the evening was verry hard, it was with Some dificuelty that we Could find a Spot proper for an encampment, the Shore being a Swamp for Several miles back; at length late in the evening opposit to the place we had encamped on the 6th of Novr. last; we fouond the enterance of a Small Creek which offered us a Safe harbour from the Winds and Encamped. the Ground was low and moist tho' we obtained a tolerable encampment. here we found another party of Cathlahmahs about 10 in number, who had established a temporary residence for the purpose of fishing and takeing Seal. they had taken about 12 Sturgeon and Some Seal. they gave us Some of the flesh of the Seal which I found a great improvement to the poor Elk. here we found Drewyer and the 2 Fields' who had been Seperated from us Since Morning; they had passed on the North Side of the large Island which was much nearest. the bottom lands are Covered with a Species of Arspine, the Growth with a broad leaf which resembles ash except the leaf. the under brush red willow, broad leafed Willow, Seven bark, Goose berry, Green bryor, and the larged leaf thorn; the latter is Now in blume, the nativs inform us that it bears a 〈leaf〉 fruit about an Inch in diamieter which is a good to eate. the red willow and 7 bark begin to put foth their leaves. The green bryor which I have before mentioned retains leaves all winter. made 15 Miles.
Tuesday 25th of March 1806. we met a canoe of the Clatsops going down with their canoe loaded with fish and wa pa toes. the winds hard a head and tide against us So we delayd untill 1 oClock P. M. at which time we set out met 2 canoes of the Clotsops loaded with dried fish and wa pa toes &C & Sturgeon which they had purchased above. we crossed over to an Island  on which was a fishing Camp of the Cath le mahs. they had a vast Site of Sturgeon one of the men purchased a Sea otter Skin, the price of which was a dressed Elk Skin and a Silk hankerchief. we proceeded on from thence the after part of the day the wind rose high after dark we arived at another fishing Camp of the Cath le mahs where we Camped  for the night.
Tuesday 25th. We set out after breakfast and had a fair morning; proceeded on to 12 o'clock, when we again halted, the wind and tide being both against us. When the tide began to rise we went on again, saw some of the natives  in canoes descending the river, and in the afternoon passed an Indian lodge,  where one of the men purchased an otter skin.— At this time the wind rose and blew very hard accompanied with rain; notwithstanding we proceeded on till night, when we came to the mouth of a small creek,  which formed a good harbour for our canoes. Here we found several of the natives  encamped and catching sturgeon, of which they had taken 14 large ones.
Tuesday March 25th This morning early a Canoe with some of the Natives of the Clatsop Tribe came to where our Canoes lay, their Canoe was loaded with fish & Wapatoes roots. the wind & tide being against us, We had to delay at our encampment, until 1 o'clock P. M. at which time we proceeded on our voyage, and met two Canoes with Indians, who were descending the River. We continued on, & crossed over to an Island, on which we found a fishing Camp of the Cath-le-mah Indians, These Indians had a great number of Sturgeon laying tied at the Edge of the water, which were fastened to Stakes drove into the ground. One of our party purchased a Sea otter Skin from these Natives. the price he gave for it was a dressed Elk skin, & an old silk handkerchief. We proceeded on. the remainder of the day proved Stormy. we continued on till after dark, & came to another Indian fishing Camp, laying on the South side of the River; where we encamped for the night
1. "Ol-then'," is Chinookan ú-an, "dried eulachon." The "anchovies" are actually eulachon, or candle fish, Thaleichthys pacificus. See Lewis's description at February 24, 1806. The sturgeon may be the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Lee et al., 42, 126. The Clatsops are discussed at November 21, 1805. (Return to text.)
4. Red osier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (or C. stolonifera Michx.). Hitchcock et al., 3:588–90. (Return to text.)
7. A vertical line runs through several lines to this point, perhaps done by Biddle. (Return to text.)
8. In Columbia County, Oregon, below one of the mouths of the Clatskanie River, opposite the point called Cape Horn on the Washington shore. The exact position relates to identifying "Sturgeon Isd." on Atlas map 81 as modern Wallace Island; see November 6, 1805. (Return to text.)
9. The cottonwood is black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa T. & G. Curiously, in Clark's entry for this day he calls it a "Species of Arspine [aspen]." The tree which resembles an ash is bigleaf maple, Acer macrophyllum Pursh. The confusion between the Oregon ash, Fraxinus latifolia Benth., and the bigleaf maple is clarified at February 10, 1806. See also November 4, 1805. Little (CIH), 153-W, 95-W; Franklin & Dyrness, 72. (Return to text.)
10. Lewis is probably here using the term broad-leaved willow species with wide leaves, including the area's abundant peach-leaved willow, Salix amygdaloides Anderss., also Pacific willow, S. lasiandra Benth., yellow willow, S. lutea Nutt., and perhaps northwest willow, S. sessilifolia Nutt. The broad-leaved willow of the Missouri River, however, was either peach-leaved willow or diamond willow, S. rigida Muhl. Little (MWH), 173-W, 180; Franklin & Dryness, 125. (Return to text.)
11. Possibly canyon gooseberry, Ribes menziesii Pursh, or more probably straggly gooseberry, R. divaricatum Dougl., which is found at lower levels on the west side of the Cascades and up the Columbia Gorge to Klickitat County, Washington. Both were new to science, while the former was a plant collected by the party. Hitchcock et al., 3:71–73, 78–79; Cutright (LCPN), 289–90, 373, 417. (Return to text.)
12. The "thorn" is likely salmonberry, Rubus spectabilis Pursh, as indicated by fruit size and flowering time. Lewis collected the type specimen two days later near the mouth of the Cowlitz River. However, Lewis may have been seeing some other species of Rubus this day. See also December 1, 1805, and April 8, 1806. Hitchcock et al., 3:182; Cutright (LCPN), 278, 289–90, 418. (Return to text.)
13. Puget Island, Wahkiakum County, Washington. (Return to text.)
14. Below the mouth of the Clatskanie River, Columbia County, Oregon; see the captains' entries for this day. (Return to text.)
15. Clatsops, say the captains. (Return to text.)
16. A Cathlamet lodge on Puget Island, Wahkiakum County, Washington. (Return to text.)
17. In Columbia County, Oregon, below one of the mouths of the Clatskanie River, opposite Cape Horn on the Washington shore; see the captains' entries for the day. (Return to text.)
18. Cathlamets. (Return to text.)
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