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[Lewis] 
Wednesday March 26th 1806.
 

       The wind blew so hard this morning that we delayed untill 8 A. M. we gave a medal of small size to a man by the name of Wal-lal'-le,  [1] a principal man among the Cathlahmahs, he appeared very thankfull for the honour conferred on him and presented us a large sturgeon.    we continued our rout up the river to an old village on the Stard. side where we halted for dinner.  [2]    we met on the way the principal Cheif of the Cathlahmahs, Sâh-hâh-wôh-cap,  [3] who had been up the river on a trading voyage.    he gave us some Wappetoe and fish; we also purchased some of the latter.    soon after we halted for dinner the two Wackiacums who have been pursuing us since yesterday morning with two dogs for sale, arrived.    they wish tobacco in exchange for their dogs which we are not disposed to give as our stock is now reduced to a very few carrots.  [4]    our men who have been accustomed to the use of this article Tobaco and to whom we are now obliged to deny the uce of this article appear to suffer much for the want of it.    they substitute the bark of the wild crab which they chew; it is very bitter, and they assure me they find it a good substitute for tobacco. the smokers substitute the inner bark of the red willow and the sacacommis.  [5]    here our hunters joined us having killed three Eagles and a large goose. I had now an oportunity of comparing the bald with the grey Eagle;  [6] I found that the greay Eagle was about ¼ larger, it's legs and feet were dark while those of the bald Eagle wer of a fine orrange yellow; the iris of the eye is also of a dark yellowish brown while that of the other is of a bright silvery colour with a slight admixture of yellow.    after dinner we proceeded on and passed an Elegant and extensive bottom on the South side and an island near it's upper point which we call Fanny's Island and bottom.  [7]    the greater part of the bottom is a high dry prarie.    near the river towards the upper point we saw a fine grove of whiteoak trees;  [8] we saw some deer and Elk at a distance in the prarie, but did not delay for the purpose of hunting them.    we continued our rout after dinner untill late in the evening and encamped on the next island above fanny's Island.  [9]    we found it difficult to obtain as much wood as answered our purposes.    the hunters  [10] who had proceeded on before us after dinner did not join us this evening.    some indians visited us after dark, but did not remain long.    agreeably to our estimate as we decended the river, we came 16 m. 23rd, 16 m. the 24th, 15 the 25th, and 18 m. the 26th, tho' I now think that our estimate in decending the river was too short.




[Clark] 
Wednesday March 26th 1806
 

       The wind blew So hard untill 8 A M. that we detained, we gave a Medal to a Man by the name of Wal-lal-le a principal man among the Cath lah mahs, he appeared very thankfull for the honor Confured on him and presented us with a large Sturgion.    we Continued our rout up the river to an old Village on the South Side where we halted for dinner.    we met on the way the principal Chief of the Cathlahmahs, Sâh-hâh-wâh-cop, who had been up the river on a trading voyage, he gave us some Wappato and fish, we also purchased Some Wappato Soon after halted for dinner at an Old Village 〈at〉 on the South point opposit the lower pt. of Fannys Island. The two Warkiacums who had been pursueing us Since yester day morning with two dogs for Sale, arrived.    they wish Tobacco in exchange for their dogs which we are not disposed to give, as our Stock is now reduced to 3 carrots.    our men who have been acustomed to the use of this article, and to Whome we are now obliged to deny the use of this article appear to Suffer Much for the want of it.    they Substitute the bark of the wild Crab which they Chew; it is very bitter and they assure me they find it a good Substitute for tobacco.    the Smokers Substitute the iner bark of the redwillow and the saccommis.

 

       here our hunters joined us haveing killed 3 Eagles and a large Wild goose. I had now an oppertunity of Comparing the bald 〈and〉 with the grey Eagle; I found the grey Eagle about ¼ largest, its legs and feet were dark which those of the bald eagle were of a fine orrange yellow; the iris of the eye is also of a dark yellowish brown, while that of the Grey is of a light Silvery colour with a Slight admixture of yellow.    after dinner I walked on Shore through an eligant bottom on the South Side opposit to Fannys Island.

 

       This bottom we also Call fannys bottom    it is extensive and an open leavel plain except near the river bank which is high dry rich oak land. I saw Some deer & Elk at a distance in the Prarie.    we continued untill late in the evening and encamped on a Small Island near the Middle of the river haveing made 18 Miles.    2 Indians Visited us this evining




[Ordway] 
 

       Wednesday 26th March 1806.    the wind ran high last night and the tide rose higher than common and came in under my blankets before I awoke and obledged me to move twise    Several more of the party camps were routed also.—    our officers gave one of the Cath lih mahs a meddel.    he gave them in return a large Sturgeon.    we proceeded on our way and halted on fanneys Island to dine then proceed. on as usal    Camped on an Island in thick brush &C.—




[Gass] 
 

       Wednesday 26th.    After a disagreeable night's rain, and wind, we continued our voyage. As we passed along, I saw a great many flowers full blown of different colours; and grass and other herbage growing fast: I saw nettles  [11] two feet high of this spring's growth.  [12]




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Wednesday March 26th    The wind & tide rose very high during last night.    the water raised so much that it obliged several of our party to move their Camps.    Our Officers gave one of the Indians, who belonged to the fishing Camp near us, A. Medal, & the Indian in return, gave them a large Sturgeon.    At 8 o'Clock A. M. we proceeded on ascending the Columbia River, & halted at an Island called by our Officers Fannys Island to dine.    We continued on our way at 2 o'Clock P. M. and towards evening we halted at an Island & encamped for the night in a Thicket of Woods on the same.




 

1. A Jefferson medal, probably of 55mm. Wal-lal'-le, a Cathlamet personal name, is Waláli. (Return to text.)

 

2. Noted as "old V" on Atlas map 81, near the west end of "Fannys Isd.," present Crims Island, Columbia County, Oregon. It is opposite Oak Point, with the dividing line of Cowlitz and Wahkiakum counties, Washington, just to the west. The village was mentioned by many later travelers, including Alexander Ross, Robert Stuart, and Gabriel Franchère. Ross, 113; Spaulding, 44; Franchère (JV), 78. (Return to text.)

 

3. Sâh-hâh-wôh-cap, another Cathlamet name, is Sax with dot below lowercase symbolawaq with comma above lowercase symbolap. (Return to text.)

 

4. Tobacco was stored and transported in long twists called "carrots" for their shape; see August 19, 1804. Beginning here, a vertical line runs nearly to the end of the entry, perhaps Biddle's work. (Return to text.)

 

5. The wild crab is Oregon crabapple, Malus diversifolia (Bong.) Roem., also given as Pyrus fusca Raf. and more recently as M. fusca (Raf.) Schneid. See Lewis's description at January 28, 1806. Saccacommis was the traditional smoking mixture of the plains Indians and the French engagés, consisting of the dried leaves of bearberry or kinnikinnick, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng, and of the dried inner bark or phloem tissue of red osier dogwood (Lewis's red willow). (Return to text.)

 

6. The bald eagle is Haliaeetus leucocephalus [AOU, 352]; the "grey" eagle is the golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos [AOU, 349]. The bald is actually larger than the golden. Lewis may have compared a female bald eagle to a male golden. Burroughs, 204–8, 325 n. 7. (Return to text.)

 

7. Supposedly named for Clark's youngest sister, Frances; later Crims Island. "Fanny's bottom" became "Fanny's Valley" on Atlas map 81, perhaps because Clark had second thoughts. Coues (HLC), 3:909 n. 11. (Return to text.)

 

8. Oregon white, or Garry, oak, Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook. Lewis also collected a specimen of the plant this day. Hitchcock et al., 2:85; Little (CIH), 166-W; Cutright (LCPN), 290. (Return to text.)

 

9. On one of the small islands below present Longview, Cowlitz Country, Washington, in Columbia County, Oregon. The possibilities include Walker and Dibblee (formerly Lord) islands; see November 6, 1805. Atlas map 81; cf. Thwaites (LC), 4:204 n. 1. (Return to text.)

 

10. Drouillard and the Field brothers. (Return to text.)

 

11. Stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis (Ait.) Seland. (Return to text.)

 

12. They camped on one of the small islands, including Walker and Dibblee islands, below Longview, Cowlitz County, Washington, in Columbia County, Oregon. (Return to text.)












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