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[Lewis] 
Thursday March 27th 1806.
 

       We set out early this morning and were shortly after joined by some of the Skillutes who came along side in a small canoe for the purpose of trading roots and fish.    at 10 A. M. we arrived at two houses of this nation on the Stard. side where we halted for breakfast.  [1]    here we overtook our hunters, they had killed nothing.    the natives appeared extreemly hospitable, gave us dryed Anchovies, Sturgeon, wappetoe, quamash, and a speceis of small white tuberous roots about 2 inches in length and as thick as a man's finger;  [2] these are eaten raw, are crisp, milkey, and agreeably flavored.    most of the party were served by the natives with as much as they could eat; they insisted on our remaining all day with them and hunting the Elk and deer which they informed us were very abundant in their neighbourhood.    but as the weather would not permit us to dry our canoes in order to pitch them we declined their friendly invitation, and resumed our voyage at 12 OCk.    the principal village of these Skillutes reside on the lower side of the Cow-e-lis'-kee river  [3] a few miles from it's entrance into the columbia.    these people are said to be numerous.    in their dress, habits, manners and language they differ but little from the Clatsops Chinnooks &c.    they have latterly been at war with Chinnooks but peace is said now to be restored between them, but their intercourse is not yet resumed.    no Chinnooks come above the marshey islands nor do the Skillutes visit the mouth of the Columbia.    the Clatsops, Cathlahmahs and Wackkiacums are the carriers between these nations being in alliance with both.—    The Coweliskee is 150 yards wide, is deep and from indian Information navigable a very considerable distance for canoes.    it discharges itself into the Columbia about three miles above a remarkable high rocky nole  [4] which is situated on the N. side of the river by which it is washed on the South side and is seperated from the Nothern hills of the river by a wide bottom of several miles to which it is united. I suspect that this river waters the country lying West of the range of mountains  [5] which pass the columbia between the great falls and rapids, and north of the same nearly to the low country which commences on the N. W. coast about Latitude [blank] North.    above the Skillutes on this river another nation by the name of the Hul-loo-et-tell  [6] reside, who are said also to be numerous.    at the distance of 2 m. above the village at which we breakfasted we passed the entrance of this river; we saw several fishing camps of the Skillutes on both sides of the Columbia, and were attended all the evening by parties of the natives in their canoes who visited us for the purpose of trading their fish and roots; we purchased as many as we wished on very moderate terms; they seemed perfectly satisfyed with the exchange and behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.    late in the evening we passed our camp of the 5th of November and encamped about 4½ above at the commencement of the bottom land on stard. below Deer Island.  [7]    we had scarcely landed before we were visited by a large canoe with eight men; from them we obtained a dryed fruit which resembled the raspburry  [8] and which I beeive to be the fruit of the large leafed thorn frequently mentioned.    it is reather ascid tho' pleasently flavored. I preserved a specemine of this fruit I fear that it has been baked in the process of drying and if so the seed will not vegitate.    saw the Cottonwood, sweet willow,  [9] oak, ash and the broad leafed ash, the growth which resembles the beach  [10] &c.    these form the growth of the bottom lands while the hills are covered almost exclusively with the various species of fir heretofore discribed.    the black Alder  [11] appears as well on some parts of the hills as the bottoms.    before we set out from the Skillute village we sent on Gibson's canoe and Drewyers with orders to proceed as fast as they could to Deer island and there to hunt and wait our arrival.    we wish to halt at that place to repair our canoes if possible.    the indians who visited us this evening remained but a short time, they passed the river to the oposite side and encamped.    the night as well as the day proved cold wet and excessively disagreeable.    we came 20 miles today.—




[Clark] 
Thursday March 27th 1806.
 

       a rainey disagreeable night    rained the greater part of the night    we Set out this morning verry early and proceeded on to two houses of the Skil-lute Indians on the South Side here we found our hunters who had Seperated from us last evening.    the wind rose and the rain became very hard Soon after we landed    here we were very friendly receved by the natives who gave all our party as much fish as they Could eate, they also gave us Wappato and pashaquaw roots to eate prepared in their own way.    also a Species of Small white tuberous roots about 2 inches in length and as thick as a mans finger, these are eaten raw, or crips, milkey and agreeably flavoured; the nativs insists on our remaining all day with them and hunt the Elk and deer which they informed us was very abundant in this neighbourhood.    but as the weather would not permit our drying our Canoes in order to pitch them, we declined their friendly invertation, and resumed our voyage at 12 oClock. The principal village of the Skil-lutes is Situated on the lower Side of the Cow-e-lis kee river a fiew miles from it's enterance into the Columbia.    those people are Said to be noumerous, in their dress, habits, manners and Language they differ but little from the Clatsops, Chinnooks &c.    they have latterly been at war with the Chinnooks, but peace is Said to be now restored between them, but their inter Course is not yet restored.    〈but〉 no Chinnook Come above the Warkiacums, nor do the Skillutes visit the Mouth of the Columbia. The Clatsops, Cath lahmahs & War kia coms are the Carriers between those nations being in alliance with both—. The Cow e lis kee river is 150 yards wide, is deep and from Indian information navigable a very conslderable distance for canoes.    it discharges itself into the Columbia about 3 miles above a remarkable knob which is high and rocky and Situated on the North Side of the Columbia, and Seperated from the Northern hills of the river by a Wide bottom of Several Miles, to which it united. I Suspect that this river Waters the Country lying west of a range of Mountains which passes the Columbia between the Great falls and rapids, and North of the Same nearly to the low country which Commences on the N W. Coast about Latitude 4° [blank]  [12] North.    above the Skil lutes on this river another nation by the name of the Hul-loo-et-tell reside who are Said also the be numerous.    at the distance of 2 miles above the village at which we brackfast we passed the enterance of this river; we Saw Several fishing camps of the Skillutes on both Sides of the Columbia, and also on both Sides of this river.    we were attended all the evening by parties of the nativs in their Canoes who visited us for the purpose of tradeing their fish and roots; we purchased as maney as we wished on very moderate terms; they Seamed perfectly Satisfied with the exchange and behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.    late in the evening we passed the place we Camped the 5th of Novr. and Encamped about 4 miles above at the Commencement of the Columbian Vally on the Stard. Side below Deer Island.    we had Scercily landed before we were visited by a large Canoe with 8 men; from them we obtained a dried fruit which resembled the raspberry and which I beleave is the fruit of the large leafed thorn frequently mentioned.    it is reather ascide tho' pleasently flavored. Saw Cotton wood, Sweet Willow, w[hite] oake, ash and the broad leafed ash the Growth which resembles the bark &c.    these form the groth of the bottom lands, whilst the Hills are almost exclusively Covered with the various Species of fir heretofore discribed.    the black alder appears on Maney parts of the hills Sides as on the bottoms.    before we Set out from the 2 houses where we brackfast we Sent on two Canoes with the best hunters, with orders to pro ceed as fast as they Could to Deer island and there to hunt and wait our arrival.    we wish to halt at that place and repare 2 of our Canoes if possible.    the Indians that visited us this evining remained but a Short time, they passed over to an Island and encamped.    the night as well as the day proved Cold wet and excessively disagreeable.    we Came 20 miles in the Course of this day.




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 27th March 1806.    rain commenced this morning and continued thro the day.    we halted at a village of the Chilutes nation  [13]    they treated us in a friendly manner    Gave us Some wapa toes & anchoves to eat. Several Indians followed after us with Small canoes.    our officers purchased a large Sturgeon from them    we proceed on to the mo of a River named Calams River and Camped  [14] on the South Side little above Said River—    Six of our hunters Sent on this afternoon to deer Island  [15] with the Small canoes in order to hunt.




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 27th.    There was a cloudy wet morning. We embarked early and went about 6 miles, when we came to a small Indian village,  [16] where the natives received us very kindly. They belong to the Chil-ook nation,  [17] and differ something in their language from the Chin-ooks. We got some Wapto roots and fish from them and then proceeded on, though it rained very hard. Two small canoes went on ahead to Deer island, in order to kill some game by the time we should come up. We passed several Indian lodges where the natives  [18] were fishing for sturgeon, and got a large one out of a small canoe; a number of which followed us with 2 Indians in each of them. At night we encamped where we had plenty of good wood, oak and ash.  [19]




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Thursday March 27th    This morning early it commenced raining, which continued during the whole of this day.    At 7 o'clock A. M. we proceeded on, & crossed over to an Island, which lay on the North side of the River, where we halted.    We found on this Island, an Indian Village of the Chilutes Tribe  [20] it contained 7 Houses.—    These Indians treated us in a friendly manner.    At 10 o'Clock A. M. we left this Island and continued on & passed several Indian fishing Camps.    A number of Indians followed us with small Canoes.    Our Officers purchased from these Indians a large Sturgeon.    We continued on & passed the Mouth of a River called by the Natives Calamus,  [21] & encamped on the South side of the River a small distance above the said River.    Our officers sent 6 of our hunters in Canoes to go on a head, to an Island called Deer Island, in order to hunt, untill we came up with them—    These hunters left us this afternoon.    We have still hard rain this evening.    We encamped on the South side of the River, where we found plenty of Oak & Ash wood to make our fires with.—




 

1. In Columbia County, Oregon, in the vicinity of present Rainier, and opposite present Longview and Kelso, Cowlitz County, Washington, on the Cowlitz River. Symbols for the "houses" are shown near the west edge of Atlas map 80. (Return to text.)

 

2. "Quamash" is camas, Camassia quamash (Pursh) Greene. Hitchcock et al., 1:780–82. Clark calls it "pashaquaw" in his entry for this day. The first term comes from Nez Perce qé'mes, while the second is Shoshone pasigoo, both signifying the camas. See September 20, 1805. The identity of the small edible root is unknown. (Return to text.)

 

3. On the upriver trip the captains applied the name Skillute (variously spelled) to two separate groups. One group was here at the entrance of the Cowlitz ("Cow-e-lis'-kee") River, in Cowlitz County. Atlas maps 80, 81. The other group they noted on April 16, 1806; see note there. For the Skillutes, a Chinookan people, see November 4, 1805, and March 25, 1806. "Cow-e-lis'-kee," qawilick-i[x], "where the Cowlitz (people) are," was evidently borrowed into the Lower Chinook language from Salish káwlicq, "language, people of the Cowlitz River." Hajda (SCS), 516. The final "ee" of Lewis and Clark probably represents the Chinookan locative suffix "-i[x]". (Return to text.)

 

4. Mount Coffin, in Cowlitz County; see November 6, 1805. Atlas map 80. (Return to text.)

 

5. The Cascade Range. Atlas map 79. (Return to text.)

 

6. These people were a group of Salish-speaking Cowlitz. Ray (HCI); Hajda (SOLC), 107. The term is a Chinookan ethnonym, x with dot below lowercase symbolluit íl, "strange country." Silverstein, 545. According to Lewis they lived on the Cowlitz River, but on March 29 both an interlineation and Clark's entry have them living on Lewis River. They were identified incorrectly as Watlala Chinookans in the Estimate of Western Indians. (Return to text.)

 

7. In Columbia County, Oregon, in the vicinity of Goble, and roughly opposite present Kalama, Cowlitz County, Washington. Deer Island, in Columbia County, retains that name today. (Return to text.)

 

8. Probably the party purchased either dried salmonberries or Pacific blackberries. Lewis believed the berries had come from the shrub he called "large leafed thorn." See April 8, 1806, for a discussion of the confusion concerning these species. (Return to text.)

 

9. Probably the Pacific willow, although a number of other willow species are possible. Lewis mentions the sweet willow as an important species in entries of April 2 and 30, 1806. The Pacific willow continues to be an important riparian species along the lower Columbia River. (Return to text.)

 

10. Probably the red, or Oregon, alder, Alnus rubra Bong. See October 30, 1805. Hitchcock et al., 2:74. (Return to text.)

 

11. This alder species is not identifiable with certainty. Apparently, it is a plant separate from "the growth which resembles the beach." It is possible that Lewis's black alder refers to the red alder, and that the "beach" may refer to the white alder, Alnus rhombifolia Nutt., which is a riparian species found in the Willamette Valley and along the Columbia River on the east side of the Cascades. Ibid.; Little (MWH), 13; Franklin & Dyrness, 126. (Return to text.)

 

12. A space perhaps for some latitude between 40° and 50° North. (Return to text.)

 

13. The name is given as Skillute or a variant in Lewis and Clark. See Lewis's and Clark's entries for November 4, 1805, March 25 and 27, and April 16, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

14. In the vicinity of Goble, Columbia County, Oregon, with the Kalama River on the opposite side in Cowlitz County, Washington. (Return to text.)

 

15. Still Deer Island, Columbia County. (Return to text.)

 

16. A "Skillute" village near Rainier, Columbia County, Oregon. See the captains' entries for March 25 and 27, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

17. That is, they spoke a Lower Chinookan dialect. (Return to text.)

 

18. More "Skillutes"; see above. (Return to text.)

 

19. The oak is probably Oregon white oak and the ash may be Oregon ash. (Return to text.)

 

20. A Skillute village, say the captains' entries for March 25 and 27, 1806. The captains say it contained only two houses; the copyist may have misread the numeral in the original. They also place it on the starboard side, near present Rainier, Columbia County, Oregon, which is hard to reconcile with Whitehouse's island on the "North side." (Return to text.)

 

21. The Kalama River in Cowlitz County, Washington. (Return to text.)












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