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[Lewis] 
Friday March 28th 1806.
 

       This morning we set out very early and at 9 A. M. arrived at the old Indian Village on Lard side of Deer Island  [1] where we found our hunters had halted and left one man with the two canoes at their camp; they had arrived last evening at this place and six of them turned out to hunt very early this morning; by 10 A. M. they all returned to camp having killed seven deer.    these were all of the common fallow deer with the long tail.  [2] I measured the tail of one of these bucks which was upwards of 17 Inches long; they are very poor, tho' they are better than the black tailed fallow deer of the coast.  [3]    these are two very distinct speceis of deer.    the Indians call this large Island E-lal-lar or deer island which is a very appropriate name.    the hunters informed us that they had seen upwards of a hundred deer this morning on this island.    the interior part of the island is praries and ponds, with a heavy growth of Cottonwood ash and willow near the river.    we have seen more waterfowl on this island than we have previously seen since we left Fort Clatsop, consisting of geese, ducks, large swan, and Sandhill crains. I saw a few of the Canvisback duck.  [4]    the duckinmallard are the most abundant.    one of the hunters killed a duck which appeared to be the male,  [5] it was a size less than the duckinmallard.    the head neck as low as the croop, and back tail and covert of the wings were of a fine black with a small addmixture of perple about the head and neck, the belley & breast were white; some long feathers which lie underneath the wings and cover the thye were of a pale dove colour with fine black specks; the large feathers of the wings of the wings are of a dove colour.    the legs are dark, the feet are composed of 4 toes each of which there are three in front connected by a web, the 4th is short flat and placed high on the heel behind the leg.    the tail is composed of 14 short pointed feathers.    the beak of this duck is remarkably wide, and is 2 inches in length, the upper chap exceeds the under one in both length and width, insomuch that when the beak is closed the under is entirly concealed by the upper chap.    the tongue, indenture of the margin of the chaps &c. are like those of the mallard.    the nostrils are large longitudinal and connected.    a narrow strip of white garnishes the upper part or base of the upper chap; this is succeeded by a pale skye blue colour which occupys about one inch of the chap, is again succeeded by a transverse stripe of white and the extremity is of a pure black.    the eye is moderately large the puple black and iris of a fine orrange yellow.    the feathers on the crown of the head are longer than those on the upper part of neck and other parts of the head; these feathers give it the appearance of being crested.    at ½ after ten A. M. it became fair, and we had the canoes which wanted repairing halled out and with the assistance of fires which we had kindled for the purpose dryed them sufficiently to receive the pitch which was immediately put on them; at 3 in the evening we had them compleat and again launched and reloaded.    we should have set out, but as some of the party whom we had permitted to hunt since we arrived have not yet returned we determined to remain this evening and dry our beding baggage &c. the weather being fair. Since we landed here we were visited by a large canoe with ten natives of the quathlahpahtle nation  [6] who are numerous and reside about seventeen miles above us on the lard. side of the Columbia, at the entrance of a small river.    they do not differ much in their dress from those lower down and speak nearly the same language, it is in fact the same with a small difference of accent.    we saw a great number of snakes on this island they were about the size and much the form of the common garter snake of the Atlantic coast and like that snake are not poisonous.  [7]    they have 160 scuta on the abdomen and 71 on the tail.    the abdomen near the head, and jaws as high as the eyes, are of a blueish white, which as it receedes from the head becomes of a dark brown.    the field of the back and sides is black.    a narrow stripe of a light yellow runs along the center of the back, on each side of this stripe there is a range of small transverse oblong spots of a pale brick ret which gradually deminish as they receede from the head and disappear at the commencement of the tail.    the puple of the eye is black, with a narrow ring of white bordering it's edge; the ballance of the iris is of a dark yellowish brown.—    the men who had been sent after the deer returned and brought in the remnent which the Vultures  [8] and Eagles had left us; these birds had devoured 4 deer in the course of a few hours.    the party killed and brought in three other deer a goose some ducks and an Eagle. Drewyer also killed a tiger cat.  [9] Joseph Fields informed me that the Vultures had draged a large buck which he had killed about 30 yards, had skined it and broken the back bone.    we came five miles only today.—




[Clark] 
Friday March 28th 1806
 

       This morning we Set out verry early and at 9 A. M. arived at an old Indian Village on the N E side of Deer island where we found our hunters had halted and left one man with the Canoes at their Camp, they arrived last evening at this place, and Six of them turned out very early to hunt, at 10 A. M. they all returned to camp haveing killed Seven Deer, those were all of the Common fallow Deer with a long tail. I measured the tail of one of these bucks which was upwards of 17 inches long; they are very poor, tho' they are better than the black tail Species of the Sea coast.    those are two very distinct Species of Deer.    the Indians call this large Island E-lal-lar, or Deer Island which is a very appropriate name.    the hunters informed us that they had Seen upwards of a hundred Deer this morning on this island.    the interior of this Island is a prarie & ponds, with a heavy growth of Cotton wood, ash & willow near the river.    we have Seen more water fowl on this island than we have previously Seen Since we left Fort Clatsop, Consisting of Geese, Ducks, large Swan & Sand Hill crains. I saw a fiew of the Canvis back duck as I believe.    at ½ after 10 A. M. it became fair and we had the Canoes which wanted repareing hauled out and with the assistance of fires which we had kindled for the purpose dryed them Sufficiently to receve the pitch which was imedeately put on them; at 3 in the evening we had them Compleated and lanced and reloaded.    we should have Set out but some of the party whome we had permitid to hunt Since we arrived heve not yet returned.    we determined to remain here this evening and dry our bedding &c. the weather being fair. Since we landed here we were visited by a large Canoe with ten nativs of the Quathlahpohtle nation who are numerous and reside about fourteen Miles above us on the N E. Side of the Columbia above the Enterance of a Small river which the Indians call Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks.  [10]    we saw a great number of Snakes on this island; they were about the Size and much the form of the garter snake of the U. S.    the back and Sides are black with a narrow Stripe of light yellow along the Center of the back, with small red spots on each Side    they have [blank] scuta on the abdomin & [blank] on the tail and are not poisonous. The men who had been Sent after the deer returned with four only, the other 4 haveing been eaten entirely by the Voulturs except the Skin. The men we had been permitted to hunt this evening killed 3 deer 4 Eagles & a Duck.    the deer are remarkably pore. Some rain in the after part of the day.    we only made 5 miles to day—.




[Ordway] 
 

       Friday 28th March 1806.    rained the greater part of last night.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on to deer Island at the Camp of our hunters.    about 11 oClock the hunters joined us    had killed 7 deer.    we drew out the Small canoes and repaired them.    the day proved Squawlley    high winds &C.    packed in the venison.    the Snakes are as thick as the Spears of Grass on this Island, of different kinds &C    Several of the hunters being out our officers concluded to Stay and we Camped  [11] for the night    one of the hunters killed a Small wild cat.    the grey Eagles are pleanty on this Island    they eat up three deer in a short time which our hunters had killed    some of the hunters killed Several of them. The game is pleanty about this place & the Soil rich &C




[Gass] 
 

       Friday 28th.    The morning was cloudy. We set out early, and at 10 o'clock came to Deer island; where those who had gone ahead in the small canoes had encamped, and all gone out to hunt except one. In a short time a hunter returned with a large deer, and we concluded to stay here all day and repair two of our canoes, that leaked. It rained at intervals during the day. Our hunters came in and had killed 7 deer in all. Some of the men went to bring in the meat, and others went out and killed some geese and ducks. At the last village we passed I took notice of a difference in the dress of the females, from that of those below, about the coast and Hailey's Bay. Instead of the short petticoat, they have a piece of thin dressed skin tied tight round their loins, with a narrow slip coming up between their thighs. On this island there are a greater number of snakes, than I had ever seen in any other place; they appeared almost as numerous as the blades of grass; and are a species of Garter snake. When our men went for the deer, they found that the fowls had devoured four of the carcases entirely, except the bones. So they brought in the other two; and we finished our canoes and put them in the water. The Columbia river is now very high, which makes it more difficult to ascend.




[Whitehouse] 
 

       Friday March 28th    It continued raining the greater part of last night.    We set out early this morning & proceeded on our way to Deer Island at which place we arrived & halted at the Camp of our hunters.    About 1 o'Clock A. M. the hunters joined us.    They had killed 7 deer.    We hawled up our small Canoes on the Island, and repaired them.    The remainder of this day was Squally & the wind high.    Several of our Men were sent out in order to bring the Vension to where our Canoes lay, & a number of our hunters went out a hunting.    Our officers concluded to stay on this Island 'till tomorrow, & we fixed our Encampment for the night.    We found innumerable quantities of Snakes on this Island of different kinds.    One of our hunters killed a wild Cat, & the others of our hunters killed several Eagles &ca.




 

1. Near the northern end of present Deer Island, Columbia County, Oregon. Atlas map 80. Later in the entry it is "E-lal-lar," for Chinookan ilálx with dot below lowercase symbol, "deer." See November 5, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

2. Columbia white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus leucura. See February 19, 1806. Lewis must have included the terminal hairs in his measurement of the tail. Burroughs, 126. A portion of this passage is marked through with a vertical line, perhaps by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

3. Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbiana. See February 19, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

4. Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis [AOU, 206], and canvasback, Aythya valisineria [AOU, 147]. A vertical line begins again here and other strikeouts occur at later passages about snakes and about other species at the end of the entry, all perhaps done by Biddle, the last apparently in red ink. (Return to text.)

 

5. A new species, the ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris [AOU, 150]. Cutright (LCPN), 279, 430; Holmgren, 29. (Return to text.)

 

6. For the Cathlapotles, see November 5, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

7. The Pacific red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus, a new subspecies. Burroughs, 277; Cutright (LCPN), 278 n. 7, 288, 429; Benson (HLCE), 90. (Return to text.)

 

8. Probably the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus [AOU, 324]. (Return to text.)

 

9. Oregon bobcat, Lynx rufus fasciatus. (Return to text.)

 

10. Lewis River, forming the boundary between Cowlitz and Clark counties, Washington. Atlas maps 79, 80. "Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks" is the Chinookan term [iSalish L with slash lowercase symbol-] symbolwanx with dot below lowercase symbola-yukS with caron lowercase symbol, "enemies." See October 22, 1805, and April 14, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

11. Near the upper end of Deer Island, Columbia County, Oregon. (Return to text.)












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