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[Lewis] 
Monday April 14th 1806.
 

       This morning at seven oCk. we were joined by Sergt. Pryor and the three hunters    they brought with them 4 deer which Drewyer had killed yesterday.    we took breakfast and departed.    at 9 A. M. the wind arrose and continued hard all day but not so violent as to prevent our proceeding.    we kept close along the N. shore all day.    the river from the rapids as high as the commencement of the narrows is from ½ to ¾ of a mile in width, and possesses scarcely any current.    the bed is principally rock except at the entrance of Labuish's river  [1] which heads in Mount hood and like the quicksand river brings down from thence vast bodies of sand.    the mountains through which the river pases nearly to the sepulchre rock,  [2] are high broken, rocky, partially covered with fir white cedar, and in many places exhibit very romantic seenes.    some handsome cascades are seen on either hand tumbling from the stupendious rocks of the mountains into the river.    near the border of the river I observed today the long leafed pine.  [3]    this pine increases in quantity as you ascend the river and about the sepulchre rock where the lower country commnces it superceedes the fir altogether.    throughout the whole course of this river from the rapids as high as the Chilluckkittequaws, we find the trunks of many large pine trees sanding erect as they grew at present in 30 feet water; they are much doated  [4] and none of them vegetating; at the lowest tide of the river many of these trees are in ten feet water.    certain it is that those large pine trees never grew in that position, nor can I account for this phenomenon except it be that the passage of the river through the narrow pass at the rapids has been obstructed by the rocks which have fallen from the hills into that channel within the last 20 years; the appearance of the hills at that place justify this opinion, they appear constantly to be falling in, and the apparent state of the decayed trees would seem to fix the era of their decline about the time mentioned.    at 1 P. M. we arrived at a large village situated in a narrow bottom on the N. side a little above the entrance of canoe creek.  [5]    their houses are reather detatched and extent for several miles.    they are about 20 in number. These people call themselves We-ock-sock, Wil-la-cum.  [6]    they differ but litte in appeance dress &c. from those of the rapids.    Their men have some leging and mockersons among them. these are in the stile of Chopunnish.    they have some good horses of which we saw ten or a douzen.    these are the fist horses we have met with since we left this neighbourhood last fall, in short the country below this place will not permit the uce of this valuable animal except in the Columbian vally and there the present inhabitants have no uce for them as they reside immediately on the river and the country is too thickly timbered to admit them to run the game with horses if they had them.    we halted at this village and dined.    purchased five dogs [one word erased] some roots, shappalell, filberds  [7] and dryed burries of the inhabitants.    here I observed several habitations entirely under grownd; they were sunk about 8 feet deep and covered with strong timber and several feet of earth in a conic form.    these habitations were evacuated at present.    they are about 16 feet in diameter, nearly circular, and are entered through a hole at the top which appears to answer the double purpose of a chimney and a door.    from this entrance you decend to the floor by a ladder.    the present habitations of these people were on the surface of the ground and do not differ from those of the tribes of the rapids.    their language is the same with that of the Chilluckkittesquaws.    these people appeared very friendly.    some of them informed us that they had lately returned from a war excurtion against the snake indians who inhabit the upper part of the Multnomah river to the S. E. of them.    they call them To-wan-nah'-hi'-ooks.  [8]    that they had been fortunate in their expedition and had taken from their enimies most of the horses which we saw in their possession.    after dinner we pursued our voyage; Capt. Clark walked on shore with Charbono. I ascended the river about six miles at which place the river washed the base of high clifts on the Lard. side, here we halted a few minutes and were joined by Capt. C. and Charbono and proceeded on to the entrance of a small run  [9] on N. side a little below a large village on the same side opposite the sepulchre rock.    this village can raise about an hundred fighting men they call themselves [NB: Smack-shops.]  [10]    they do not differ in any rispect from the village below.    many of them visited our camp this evening and remained with us untill we went to bed.    they then left us and retired to their quarters.—




[Clark] 
Monday April 14th 1806
 

       This morning at 7 oClock we were joined by Sgt. Pryor and they three hunters    they brought with them 4 deer which drewyer had killed yesterday.    we took brackfast and departed at 9 A. M.    the wind rose and 〈proceeded on〉 Continued to blow hard all day but not so violent as to prevent our proceeding.    we kept Close allong the N. Shore all day.    the river from the rapids to the Commencement of the narrows is from ½ to ¾ of a Mile in wedth, and possesses but little Current.    the bead is rock except at the enterence of Labiech's river which heads in Mt. Hood and like the quick Sand River brings down from thence Vast bodies of Sand    the Mountains through which the river passes nearly to Cataract River  [11] are high broken rocky, particularly Covered with fir and white Cedar, and in maney places very romantic scences. Some handsom Cascades are Seen on either Side tumbling from the Stupendious rocks of the mountains into the river. I observe near the river the long leafed Pine which increas as we assend and Superseeds the fir altogether about the Sepulchre rock. We find the trunks of maney large pine trees Standing erect as they grew, at present in 30 feet water; they are much doated and none of them vegitateing.    at the lowest water of the river maney of those trees are in 10 feet water.    the Cause I have attempted to account for as I decended.    at 1 P M. we arrived at a large village Situated in a narrow 〈village〉 bottom on the N. Side a little above the enterance of Canoe Creek.    their houses are reather detached, and extend for Several Miles.    they are about 20 in number.    those people Call themselves Wil-la-cum.    they differ but little in appearance dress &c. from those of the rapids.    their men have Some legins and mockersons among them.    those are in the Stile of Chopunnish.    they have Some good horss of which we Saw 10 or 12    these are the first horses we have met with Since we left this neighbourhood last fall    in Short the Country below this place will not permit the use of this valuable animal except in the Columbian vally, and there the present inhabitents have no use for them as they reside imediately on the river and the Country is too thickly timbd. We halted at this village Dined and purchased five dogs, Some roots Chappalell, Philberds and dried berries of the inhabitents.    here I observed Several habitations under ground; they were Sunk about 8 feet deep and covered with Strong timber and Several feet of earth in a conic form.    those habitations are avacuated at present.  [12]    they are about 16 feet diamieter, nearly Circular, and are entered through a hole at top which appears to answer the double purpose of a Chimney and a dore.    from this enterance you decend to the flore by a ladder.    the present habitations of those people were on the Surface of the ground and do not differ from those of the tribes about the Rapids.    their language is the Same with the Che luck kit te quaws.    these people appeared very friendly. Some of them informed us that they had latterly returned from the War excurtion against the Snake Indians who inhabit the upper part of the Multnomah river to the S. E. of them    they Call them To wan nah hi ooks.    that they had been fortunate in the expidition and had taken from their enimies most of the horses which we Saw in their possession.    after dinner we proceeded on our voyage. I walked on Shore with Shabono on the N. Side through a handsom bottom.    met Several parties of women and boys in Serch of herbs & roots to Subsist on    maney of them had parcels of the Stems of the Sun flower.  [13] I joined Capt Lewis and the party at 6 miles, at which place the river washed the bottom of high Clifts on the N. Side. Several Canoes over take us with families moveing up.    we passed 3 encampments and came too in the mouth of a Small Creek on the N. Side imediately below a village and opposit the Sepulchar rock.    this village Consists of about 100 fighting men of Several tibres from the plains to the North Collected here waiting for the Salmon.    they do not differ in any respect from those below.    many of them visited our Camp this evening and remaind. with us untill we went to bead.    they then left us and returned to their quarters.    made [blank] miles.




[Ordway] 
 

       Monday 14th of April 1806. Sergt. Pryor & men returned with Drewyer & the two Fields    they had killed 4 deer.    we then departed and proceed on verry well    passed Labuche River  [14] on N. Side    about noon the wind rose so high from the N. W. that we came too at a village  [15] on the N. Side where we Saw 25 or 30 horses which are in tollarable good order.    we bought a number of dogs from the natives.    they gave us Such as they had to eat which was pounded Salmon thistle  [16] roots & wild onions & other kinds of roots all of which they had Sweeted & are Sweet.    they are makeing Shappalell &C but they had but little to eat at this time but are Scattered along the River expecting the Salmon Soon &C. Mount Hood appears near the River on the South Side which is covd. thick with Snow & very white    the wind high    we delayed about 2 hours and proceed. on    passed Several Small villages on the N. Side Scatered along the narrow bottoms near the River. Saw a number of horses at each village    the wind continued aft and high So we run fast. Camped  [17] at dark at a village on the N. S.




[Gass] 
 

       Monday 14th.    The morning was fine with some fog. Abut 9 o'clock our 3 hunters,  [18] who had gone ahead and proceeded up Crusatte's river some distance returned, having killed 4 deer. At 10 o'clock we continued our voyage, and at 1 came to a new settlement of the natives on the north side, where we saw some horses, the first we have seen since October last. These horses appeared in good case. The wind blew hard from the southwest and the weather was clear and cool, but there has been no frost lately, except on the tops of the high hills. We stayed here three hours, and then proceeded on; passed several Indian camps, and halted at a small creek on the north side, where there are a number of Indian lodges.




 

1. Hood River, Hood River County, Oregon. Atlas map 78. (Return to text.)

 

2. Lower Memaloose Island (as distinguished from Upper Memaloose Island above The Dalles), Wasco County, Oregon. See October 29, 1805. Atlas map 78. (Return to text.)

 

3. The first encounter noted going upriver with the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws. Here the party crosses an ecological and climatic transition zone between the Douglas fir-western redcedar zone (described on April 12, 1806) and the drier vegetation zone in the rain shadow in the Cascades, typified by the dominance of ponderosa pine. This major change in vegetation occurs at the town of Hood River. Due to the drier winds moving from the east, the ponderosa pine zone moves significantly westward in the Columbia Gorge. Franklin & Dyrness, 310–11; Little (CIH), 64-W. (Return to text.)

 

4. "Doted," meaning decayed or unsound. Criswell, 33. Lewis goes on to observe the presence of the drowned forest of the Columbia above the Cascades which was the result of the Cascade, or Bonneville, landslide. This landslide occurred along the north shore about 800 yards ago and created the rapids, the Cascades of the Columbia, below. (Return to text.)

 

5. White Salmon River, near present White Salmon, the boundary between Skamania and Klickitat counties, Washington. Atlas map 78. (Return to text.)

 

6. The people inhabiting the villages from just above the White Salmon River to the Klickitat River were an Upper Chinookan-language group referred to in later historical literature as the White Salmon people. They were closely related and spoke the same dialect as the Wishrams at The Dalles. The village may be iSalish L with slash lowercase symbolk'i'lak, "dried pulverized salmon," a mixed village of White Salmon people and Klickitats. The presence of circular semi-subterranean houses with conical roofs at this settlement is noteworthy, as this was the prevalent style for winter houses among peoples on the Columbia Plateau to the east. Spier & Sapir, 167, 173; Ray (CRP), 132–37; Ray (CDP), 174–78. The second form Wil-la-cum is the Chinookan term wílxam, "village." (Return to text.)

 

7. Hazelnut or beaked hazel, Corylus cornuta Marsh. var. californica (DC.) Sharp. Hitchcock et al., 2:83; Little (MWH), 54-NW. (Return to text.)

 

8. Here a name for "Snake" Indians up the Willamette River. The Chinookan term [iSalish L with slash lowercase symbol-] symbolwánx with dot below lowercase symbola-yukS with caron lowercase symbol, "enemies," was earlier applied to Indians (the Paiutes) who lived to the south on the Deschutes River. See October 22, 1805. It apparently still signifies that tribe. The term would also soon be adopted by the party as their name for the Deschutes River. (Return to text.)

 

9. Major Creek, in Klickitat County, Washington, above and opposite Mosier, Wasco County, Oregon; their camp for the night. Quaife (MLJO), 342 n. 1; Atlas map 78. (Return to text.)

 

10. Biddle added the word to a blank space. The Smackshops were an Upper Chinookan-speaking group, here indicated as being located at the mouth of the Klickitat (Cataract) River. However, on Atlas map 78 the "Smack Shop N." are placed on the Oregon side below Hood ("Labiche") River; the words appear to be an addition. They apparently had villages on each side of the Columbia from Hood River. Their villages were noted at Hood River on October 29, 1805, but the tribe was not named then. They were apparently a subdivision of the people Lewis and Clark identified as "the Chilluck-kittequaws" (spelled variously), now more commonly known as the White Salmon people; see n. 6 above. Archaeological testing at a site on the upstream side of the mouth of the Klickitat River produced evidence of occupation estimated to date sometime prior to 500 years ago. Berreman, 19; Cole. (Return to text.)

 

11. Klickitat River, in Klickitat County. Atlas map 78. (Return to text.)

 

12. Most of the sentence appears to have been substituted for erasures. (Return to text.)

 

13. It is unlikely that these are the green stems of the annual sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., because it is too early in the season for this species to be well developed. The "parcels" of stem could have been attached to the thickened roots of a perennial species of sunflower, such as H. cusickii Gary. More likely it is balsamroot, also called "sunflower," Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. Balsamroot blooms in the spring and would have been recognizable as a sunflower by this date. Hitchcock et al., 5:229, 99; Cutright (LCPN), 288–89, 326, 405. (Return to text.)

 

14. Hood River, Hood River County, Oregon. (Return to text.)

 

15. A village of the Chinookan-language White Salmon people above the White Salmon River, Klickitat County, Washington. (Return to text.)

 

16. Edible thistle, Cirsium edule Nutt. (Return to text.)

 

17. Major Creek, Klickitat County, above and opposite Mosier, Wasco County, Oregon. (Return to text.)

 

18. The captains say Pryor returned with the three hunters (Drouillard and the Field brothers). (Return to text.)












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