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[Lewis] 
Friday April 25th 1806.
 

       This morning we collected our horses and set out at 9 A. M. and proceeded on 11 ms. to the Village of the Pish-quit-pahs  [1] of 51 mat lodges where we arrived at 2 P. M. purchased five dogs and some wood from them and took dinner.    this village contains about 7 hundred souls. most of those people were in the plains at a distance from the river as we passed down last fall, they had now therefore the gratification of beholding whitemen for the first time.    while here they flocked arround us in great numbers tho' treated us with much rispect.    we gave two medals of the small size to their two principal Cheifs who were pointed out to us by our Chopunnish fellow traveller and were acknowledged by the nation.    we exposed a few old clothes my dirk  [2] and Capt. C's swoard to barter for horses but were unsuccessfull    these articles constitute at present our principal stock in trade.    the Pish-quit-pahs insisted much on our remaining with them all night, but sudry reasons conspired to urge our noncomplyance with their wishes.    we passed one house or reather lodge of the Metcowwees about a mile above our encampment of the [blank]th of October last.  [3]    the Pish-quit-pahs, may be considered hunters as well as fishermen as they spend the fall and winter months in that occupation.    they are generally pleasently featured of statue and well proportioned.    both women and men ride extreemly well.    their bridle is usually a hair rope tyed with both ends to the under jaw of the horse, and their saddle consists of a pad of dressed skin stuffed with goats hair with wooden stirups.    almost all the horses which I have seen in possession of the Indians have soar backs.    the Pishquitpah women for the most part dress with short shirts which reach to their knees long legings and mockersons, they also use large robes; some of them weare only the truss and robe they brade their hair as before discribed but the heads of neither male nor female of this tribe are so much flattened as the nations lower down on this river.    at 4 P. M. we set out accompanyed by eighteen or twenty of their young men on horseback.    we continued our rout about nine miles where finding as many willows as would answer our purposes for fuel we encamped for the evening.  [4]    the country we passed through was much as that of yesterday.    the river hills are about 250 feet high and generally abrupt and craggey in many places faced with a perpendicular and solid rock.    this rock is black and hard.  [5]    leve plains extend themselves from the tops of the river hills to a great distance on either side of the river.    the soil is not as fertile as about the falls, tho' it produces a low grass on which the horses feed very conveniently.    it astonished me to seed the order of their horses at this season of the year when I knew that they had wintered on the dry grass of the plains and at the same time road with greater severity than is common among ourselves. I did not see a single horses which could be deemed poor and many of them were as fat as seals.    their horses are generally good.    this evining after we had encamped, we traded for two horses with nearly the same articles we had offered at the village; these nags Capt. C. and myself intend riding ourselves; haveing now a sufficiency to transport with ease all our baggage and the packs of the men.—    we killed six ducks in the course of the day; one of them was of a speceis  [6] which I had never before seen I therefore had the most material parts of it reserved as a specimine, the leggs are yellow and feet webbed as those of the duckandmallard.    saw many common lizzards,  [7] several rattlesnakes killed by the party, they are the same as those common to the U' States.  [8]    the horned Lizzard  [9] is also common.—    had the fiddle played at the request of the natives and some of the men danced.    we passed five lodges of the Wallâh wollâhs  [10] at the distance of 4 miles above the Pishquitpahs.—




[Clark] 
Friday 25th of April 1806
 

       This morning we Collected our horses very conveniently and Set out at 9 A M and proceeded on to a village of Pish-quit-pahs  [11] of 52 mat Lodges 11 miles    this village Contains about 700 Soles    here we turned out our horses and bought 5 dogs & some wood and dined    here we met with a Chief and gave him a Medal of the Small Size.    we passed a house a little above the place we encamped on the 20th of Octr. 1805.    we offered to purchase with what articles we had Such as old Clothes &c.    emence numbers of those Indians flocked about us and behaved with distant respect towards us.    we attempted to purchase Some horses without Suckcess.    at 4 P. M Set out. I 〈had not〉 was in the rear and had not proceeded verry far before one of the horses which we had hired of the Chopunnish, was taken from Hall who I had directed to ride.    he had fallen behind out of my sight at the time.    we proceeded on about 9 miles through a Country Similar to that of yesterday and encamped below the mouth of a Small Creek    we passed at 4 miles a Village of 5 Mat Lodges of the War-war-wa Tribe.  [12] We made a Chief and gave a metal to a Chief of each of those two tribes.    great numbers of the nativs accompanied us to our encampmt. The Curloos are abundant in those plains & are now laying their eggs. Saw the Kildee the brown Lizzard, and a moonax which the nativs had petted.    the Winds which Set from mount hood or in a westwardly direction are much more cold than those from any other quarter.    there are no dews in these plains, and from the appearance of the earth there appears to have been no rain for Several Weeks. The pish-quit pahs may be considered as hunters as well as fishermen as they Spend the fall & winter months in that occupation.    they are generally pleasently featured of good Statue and well proportiond both women and men ride extreamly well.    their bridle is usially a hair rope tied with both ends to the under Jaw of the horse, and their Saddles Consist of a pad of dressed Skin Stuffed with goats hair with wooden Sturreps.    almost all the horses I have Seen in the possession of the Indians have Sore backs.

 

       The pishquitpahs women for the most part dress with Short Shirts which reach to their knees long legins, and mockersons, they also use long robes; Some of them weare only the truss and robe, they brade their hair as before discribed but the heads of neither the male nor female of this tribe are So much flattend as the nativs lower down on this river.    we were accompd. by 18 or 20 young men on horsback.    we Continued our rout about 9 miles, where finding as maney Willows as would answer our purpose for fuel we encamped for the night.    the Country we passed through was Sandy indifferent rocky and hills on the left.    proceeded up on the North Side    the river hills are about 250 feet high & generally abrupt and Craggey in maney places faced with a pirpendicular and Solid rock.    this rock is black and hard.    leavel plains extend themselves from the top of the river hills to a great distance on either Side of the river.    the Soil is not as fertile as about the falls tho it produces low grass on which the horses feed very Conveniently.    it astonished me to See the order of their horses at this Season of the year when I know they had wintered on dry grass of the plains and at the Same time rode with greater Severity than is Common among ourselves. I did not See a Single horse which Could be deemed pore, and maney of them were verry fat.    their horses are generally good.    this evening after we had encamped we traded for two horses with nearly the Same articles we had offered at the Village.    these Nags Capt. L—s and myself intend rideing ourselves; haveing now a Sufficency to transport with ease all our baggage and the packs of the men.—    we killed 6 ducks in the course of the day; one of them were of a Species I had never before Seen.    the legs yellow and feet wibbed as those of the duckinmallard. Saw great numbers of Common Lizzard. Several rattle Snakes, killed by the party, they are the Same as those Common to the U. States.    the Horned Lizzard is also Common.—    a Chief over took us.    we had the fiddle played by the request of the nativs and Some of the men danced. I think those plains are much more Sandy than any which I have Seen and the road is a bed of loose Sand.    made 20 miles.




[Ordway] 
 

       Friday 25th of April 1806.    a clear cool morning.    we got up our horses. Set out    proceeded on verry well over a pleasant plain, about 10 miles and halted at a large village of the pas-qute-pu tribe  [13] who are verry numerous and have a great number of good horses.    we bought 5 dogs.    our officers gave 2 meddles to 2 of their princepal men. Stayed to purchase horses but they do not incline to Sell any.    one Indian brought back broken glasses which he purchased from us last fall & as they broke he wanted other glass in place &C.    we dined and proced on    a number of Indians followed us.    in the evening we Camped  [14] at the Commencement of a low Country on this Side.    our officers purchased two horses from the Indians who followed us, as they wished to hear the fiddle    we played & danced a little to please them.    one of the party killed Several ducks to day.




[Gass] 
 

       Friday 25th.    The morning was pleasant, and we set out early. At 10 o'clock we met a great many of the natives on horseback, who turned back with us. At noon, we came to a very large band of the Wal-a-waltz nation,  [15] the most numerous we had seen on the Columbia; I suppose it consisted of 500 persons, men, women, and children; and all of them tolerably well clothed children with robes of the skins of the deer, the ibex or big-horned animal and buffaloe. They have a great many horses, and lately came to the river to fish for salmon. We halted here two hours and then went on. The men in general complain of their feet being sore; and the officers have to go on foot to permit some of them to ride. We went 13 miles and encamped at a small grove of willows. There being no other wood for a considerable distance.




 

1. Following James Mooney, Hodge suggests that these Indians were a band of the Yakimas, the Pisquows, who were Salishan speakers. But he also states that they were Shahaptian speakers based on their location. Ray notes that the name for them is definitely Shahaptian and concludes that identifying them with the Salishan Pishquows is erroneous. Their location suggests that they were a Shahaptian people, and their villages were well within the historic territory of the Umatillas. Hodge, 2:262–63; Ray et al., 389–90; Ray (NVCB). Lewis's word may be Shahaptian pS with caron lowercase symbolx with dot below lowercase symbolúwitpa, "at/near the sagebrush area/zone." They were identified as Yakimas in the Estimate of Western Indians. Lewis and Clark found them living near the Klickitat-Benton county line, Washington, in the area of Crow Butte State Park, Benton County, and upriver to the area of Plymouth, Benton County, according to Clark's maps. Fifty-two lodges (as Clark counts them) are shown on fig. 19. The party passed this area on October 19, 1805, noticing, but not naming, the Indians of these villages. (Return to text.)

 

2. A dirk was a long, straight-bladed knife of a type carried by Scottish highlanders, or a short sword used by naval midshipmen. Lewis had obtained a naval dirk for use on the expedition but inadvertantly left it behind and declined to have it forwarded by Jefferson. The party was equipped with some sort of long knife made at Harpers Ferry, of which no specimens are now known; this may be what he refers to here. Lewis to Jefferson, July 22, 1803, Jackson (LLC), 1:111–12; Russell (FTT), 168, 197–98. (Return to text.)

 

3. In Klickitat County, on October 20, 1805. The lodge is not shown on Atlas map 76. (Return to text.)

 

4. Clark says they "encamped below the mouth of a Small Creek" and that they made twenty miles that day. The lack of geographic reference points and the impoundment of water by Lake Umatilla creates difficulties in locating this campsite. Based on the locations of their camps of April 24 and 26 it seems that the camp of this day would be in Klickitat County, near present Alderdale. It is also possible that the camp could be in Benton County at Glade Creek, several miles upstream. Atlas map 76. The camp is also shown on fig. 19, but is of little help in locating it in modern terms. The "run" on that map would be either Glade Creek. (Return to text.)

 

5. The hard, black rock is basalt of the middle-upper Miocene Saddle Mountains Basalt Member of the Yakima Basalt Subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. (Return to text.)

 

6. The northern shoveler, Anas clypeata [AOU, 142], not a new species; see Lewis's detailed description at May 8, 1806. Burroughs, 191; Holmgren, 29. It was probably Biddle who drew a vertical line throuogh this passage about animals. (Return to text.)

 

7. Probably the same as the previous day's brown lizard, the western fence lizard. (Return to text.)

 

8. Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus viridus oreganus, another new species. Benson (HLCE), 90; Cutright (LCPN), 288, 427. (Return to text.)

 

9. A new species, the pigmy horned lizard, Phrynosoma douglassi douglassi; see Lewis's description of May 29, 1806. Cutright (LCPN), 306, 428; Benson (HLCE), 88–89. (Return to text.)

 

10. The Shahaptian-language Walulas, or Walla Wallas, possessing numerous horses and apparently influenced by plains culture, but also engaging in fishing. They were located on the lower Walla Walla River and on the Columbia River from the vicinity of present Umatilla, Umatilla County, Oregon to the confluence of the Snake River. The party encountered them on October 19, 1805, but were unable to spend any time at their villages. Hodge, 2:900; Ray et al., 387; Ronda (LCAI), 220–21. The tribal name may have been added to a blank space and is Shahaptian wálawala, "many small streams." (Return to text.)

 

11. The word may have been added to a blank space. (Return to text.)

 

12. Clark means Walla Wallas, the Walulas. (Return to text.)

 

13. "Pish-quit-pahs" to Lewis and Clark, perhaps a Shahaptian-speaking division of Umatilla Indians. See the discussion of these people at Lewis's and Clark's entries for this day. (Return to text.)

 

14. The location of the day's camp is difficult to determine. It may have been near Alderdale, Klickitat County, Washington, or perhaps farther upstream at Glade Creek, Benton County, Washington. See Lewis's and Clark's entries for this day. (Return to text.)

 

15. Note that Gass used the same term for the people met on April 23, perhaps because they were both speakers of Shahaptian language. The captains call them "Pish-quit-pahs." For the question of their identity, see Lewis's entry. They live near the Klickitat-Benton county line, Washington, near Crow Butte State Park. (Return to text.)












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