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[Lewis] 
Tuesday April 29th 1806.
 

       This morning Yellept furnished us with two canoes and we began to transport our baggage over the river; we also sent a party of the men over to collect the horses.    we purchased some dogs and shappellell this morning.    we had now a store of 12 dogs for our voyage through the plains.    by 11 A. M. we had passed the river with our party and baggage but were detained several hours in consequence of not being able to collect our horses.    our guide now informed us that it was too late in the evening to reach an eligible place to encamp; that we could not reach any water before night.    we therefore thought it best to remain on the Wallahwollah river about a mile from the Columbia untill the morning, and accordingly encamped on that river near a fish wear.  [1]    this wear consists of two curtains of small willow switches matted together with four lines of withs of the same materials extening quite across the river, parrallel with eah other and about 6 feet assunder.    those are supported by several parsels of poles placed in the manner before discribed of the fishing wears.    these curtains of willows are either roled at one end for a few feet to permit the fish to pass or are let down at pleasure.  [2]    they take their fish which at present are a mullet only of from one to five lbs., with small seines of 15 or 18 feet long drawn by two persons; these they drag down to the wear and raise the bottom of the seine against the willow curtain.    they have also a small seine maniaged by one person it bags in the manner of the scooping net; the one side of the net is confined to a simicircular bow of half the size of a man's arm and about 5 feet long; the other side is confined to a strong string which being attatched to the extremities of the bow forms the cord line to the simicircle. The Wallah-wollah river discharges itself into the Columbia on it's S. side  [3] 15 miles below the entrance of Lewis's river or the S. E. branch.    a high range of hills pass the Columbia just below the entrance of this river.  [4]    this is a handsome stream about 4˝ feet deep and 50 yds. wide; it's bed is composed of gravel principally with some sand and mud;  [5] the banks are abrupt but not high, tho' it does not appear to overflow; the water is clear.    the indians inform us that it has it's surces in the range of mountains in view of us to the E and S. E.  [6]    these mountains commence a little to the south of Mt. Hood and extending themselves in a N. Eastwardly direction terminate near a Southen branch  [7] of Lewis's river short of the Rocky mountains. The Towannahiooks river, river LaPage [NB: You ma lol am R] and the Wollah-wollah rivers all take their rise on the N side of these mountains; two principal branches of the first  [8] of these take their rise in Mountains Jefferson and hood.    these mountains are covered with snow at present tho' do not appear high; they seperate the waters of the Multnomah from those of the Columbia river.    they appear to be about 65 or 70 miles distant from hence. The Snake indian prisoner informed us that at some distance in the large plains to the South of those mountains there was a large river runing to the N. W. which was as wide as the Columbia at this place which is nearly one mile.  [9]    this account is no doubt some what exagerated but it serves to evince the certainty of the Multnomah being a very large river and that it's waters are seperated from the Columbia by those mountains and that with the aid of a southwardly branch of Lewis's river which passes arrond the eastern extremity of those mountains, it must water that vast tract of country extending from those mountains to the waters of the gulph of California.    and no doubt it heads with the 〈Yellowstone river〉 [WC?: waters of the Missouri] and the del Nord.  [10]    we gave small medals to two inferior cheifs of this nation and they each presented us a fine horse    in return we gave them sundry articles and among others one of my case pistols  [11] and several hundred rounds of amunition.    there are 12 other lodges of the Wollahwollah nation on this river a little distance below our camp.  [12] these as well as those beyond the Columbia appear to depend on this fishing wear for their subsistence.    these people as well as the Chymnahpos are very well dressed, much more so particularly their women than they were as we decended the river last fall most of them have long shirts and leggings, good robes and mockersons.    their women wear the truss when they cannot procure the shirt, but very few are seen with the former at this moment. I presume the success of their winters hunt has produced this change in their attire.    they all cut their hair in their forehead and most of the men wear the two cews over each sholder in front of the body; some have the addition of a few small plats formed of the earlocks and others tigh a small bundle of the docked foretop in front of the forehead.    their ornaments are such as discribed of the nations below and are woarn in a similar manner.    they insisted on our dancinq this evening but it rained a little the wind blew hard and the weather was cold, we therefore did not indulge them.—




[Clark] 
Tuesday April 29th 1806
 

       This Morning Yelleppit furnished us with 2 Canoes, and We began to transport our baggage over the river; we also Sent a party of the men over to collect our horses.    we purchased Some deer and chappellell this morning.    we had now a Store of 12 dogs for our voyage through the plains.    by 11 A. M. we had passed the river with our party and baggage but were detained Several hours in consequence of not being able to Collect our horses.    our guide now informed us that it was too late in the evening to reach 〈to〉 an eligible place to encamp; that we Could not reach any water before night.    we therefore thought it best to remain on the Wallah wallah river about a mile from the Columbia untill the morning, accordingly encampd on the river near a fish Wear.    this weare Consist of two Curtains of Small willows wattled together with four lines of withes of the Same Materials extending quite across the river, parralal with each other and about 6 feet asunder.    those are Supported by Several parrelals of poles placed in this manner  [13]    those Curtains of willows is either roled at one end for a fiew feet to permit the fish to pass or are let down at pleasure.    they take their fish which at present are a Mullet only of from one to 5 pounds Wt. with Small Seines of 15 or 18 feet long drawn by two persons; these they drag down to the Wear and rase the bottom of the seine against the willow Curtain.    they have also a Small Seine managed by one person, it bags in the manner of the Scooping Nets; the one Side of the Net is Confined to a Simicircular bow of half the Size of a mans arm and about 5 feet long, the other Side is confined to a Strong String which being attatched to the extremities of the bows forms the Cord line to the Simicurcle. The Wallah wallah River discharges it's Self into the Columbia on it's Souoth Side 15 miles below the enterance of Lewis's River, or the S. E. branch.    a range of hills pass the Columbia just below the enterance of this river.    this is a handsom Stream about 4˝ feet deep and 50 yards wide; it's bead is composed of gravel principally with Some Sand and Mud; the banks are abrupt but not high, tho' it does not appear to overflow; the water is Clear.    the Indians inform us that it has it's Source in the range of Mountains in view of us to the E. and S. E. these Mountains commence a little to the South of Mt. Hood and extend themselves in a S Eastwardly direction terminateing near the Southern banks of Lewis's river Short of the rockey Mountains.    Ta wan na-hiooks river, river Lapage and [blank] River all take their rise on those 〈N. Side of〉 Mountains.    the two principal branches of the first of those take their rise in the Mountain's, Jefferson and Hood.    those Mountains are Covered at present with Snow.    those S W. Mountains are Covered with Snow at present tho' do not appear high.    they Seperate the Waters of the Multnomah from those of the Columbia river.    they appear to be 65 or 70 miles distant from hence. The Snake indian prisoner informed us that at Some distance in the large plains to the South of those Mountains there was a large river running to the N. W. which was as wide as the Columbia at this place, which is nearly 1 mile.    this account is no doubt Somewhat exagurated but it Serves to evince the Certainty of the Mult-nomah being a very large River and that it's waters are Seperated from the Columbia by those Mountains, and that with the aid of a Southwardly branch of Lewis's river which pass around the Eastern extremity of those mountains, it must water that vast tract of Country extending from those Mountains to the Waters of the Gulf of Callifornia.    and no doubt it heads with the Rochejhone and Del Nord.

 

        (Image not available due to copyright restrictions.) 

 

       We gave Small Medals to two inferior Chiefs of this nation, and they each furnished us with a fine horse, in return we gave them Sundery articles among which was one of Capt Lewis's Pistols & Several hundred rounds of Amunition.    there are 12 other Lodges of the Wallahwallah Nation on this river a Short distance below our Camp.    those as well as those beyond the Columbia appear to depend on their fishing weres for their Subsistance.    those people as well as the Chym na poms are very well disposed, much more So particular their women than they were when we decended the river last fall. Most of them have long Shirts and leggings, good robes and Mockersons.    their women were the truss when they Cannot precure the Shirt, but very fiew are Seen with the former at the present. I prosume the Suckcess of their Winters hunt has produced this change in their attere.    they all Cut their hair in the fore head, and most of the men ware the two Cews over each Sholders in front of the body; Some have the addition of a fiew Small plats formed of the eare locks, and others tigh a Small bundle of the docked foretop in front of the fore head.    their 〈amusements〉 orniments are Such as discribed of the nativs below, and are worn in a Similar manner.    they insisted on our danceing this evening but rained a little the wind blew hard and the weather was Cold, we therefore did not indulge them.—    Several applyed to me to day for medical aides, one a broken arm another inward fever and Several with pains across their loins, and Sore eyes. I administered as well as I could to all.    in the evining a man brought his wife and a horse both up to me.    the horse he gave me as a present.    and his wife who was verry unwell the effects of violent Coalds was placed before me. I did not think her Case a bad one and gave Such medesine as would keep her body open and raped her in flannel.    left Some Simple Medesene to be taken.    we also gave Some Eye water 1 G. of Ela v V. & 2 grs. of Sacchm Stry.  [14] to an ounce of water and in that perpotion. Great No. of the nativs about us all night.




[Ordway] 
 

       Tuesday 29th of April 1806.    we bought 2 more dogs to take us across the plains and a little Shappalell & other roots &C.    we borrowed a canoe from the Indians and crossed over the Columbia to the South Side above the mouth of the river which we took to a byo where we passd. down last fall, and got all our baggage across the river and got up our horses.    our guide telling us that it was a long distance to water, & further than we could go this day. So we mooved over 1 mile on the bank of the river which is named the wal-a-wal-a River near a large village of the wal-a-wal-a nation where we Camped again.  [15]    these Savages have wers made of willows across this little river where they catch large quantityes of Salmon trout, Suckers, &C.    we bought a little Commass roots, Shappalell and a fiew more dogs &C.    the most of the Savages moved across the river also, & they have a vast Site of horses. Capt. Lewis made a chief    gave him a meddle.    he gave a fine horse in return as a present.    another chief who Capt. Clark made yesterday brought up another fine horse and made him a present of.    we purchased another by giving a Small quantity of powder and ball.    these natives are the kindest and the most friendly to us than any we have yet Seen.—    they have lately been at war with the Snake nation and many of them were kild.    one of our men lift a Steel trap on the other Side—




[Gass] 
 

       Tuesday 29th.    The natives remained about our camp all night; and we bought some dogs and a horse from them. The day was fair, and we got all our baggage transported to the south side of the river.  [16] Here are a great many of the natives encamped on a large creek,  [17] which comes in from the south, and those on the north side are moving over as fast as they can. We encamped on the creek, and got three horses, some dogs, shap-a-leel, some roots called com-mas  [18] and other small roots, which were good to eat and nourishing.




 

1. On the north bank of the Walla Walla River, in Walla Walla County, Washington, south or southeast of present Wallula. The site is shown on Atlas map 75 as the camp of April 27, 28 and 29. It may now be under Lake Wallula. See also n. 12. (Return to text.)

 

2. A vertical line, perhaps drawn by Biddle, runs through several lines after the sentence. (Return to text.)

 

3. Since the party had been traveling up the Columbia on this return journey, the east bank of the river was now the starboard side by their system of reckoning. (Return to text.)

 

4. The Horse Heaven Hills, in Benton County, Washington; Lewis obviously regards them as extending across the Columbia into Walla Walla County. Atlas map 75. (Return to text.)

 

5. The Walla Walla River has its source in the Blue Mountains about forty-five miles upstream of its mouth. In the first twenty miles of its course to near Walla Walla the river descends from these mountains to about 1,000 feet above sea level. In the next twenty-five miles to its mouth, the river descends to about 330 feet abot sea level—a gradient of more than twenty-six feet per mile. This steep gradient allows the river to transport a coarse bedload of gravel. (Return to text.)

 

6. The Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. (Return to text.)

 

7. Perhaps a reference to the Grande Ronde River, which is indeed a tributary of the Snake (Lewis's) River. (Return to text.)

 

8. The White and Metolius rivers, tributaries of the Deschutes. (Return to text.)

 

9. Here again they are probably confusing information about the Snake River with their theories about the Willamette (Multnomah) River. The "southwardly branch of Lewis's River" might be the Snake itself, the Malheur, or the Owyhee. Allen (PG), 341. (Return to text.)

 

10. The Rio Grande (del Norte), whose headwaters in the Colorado Rockies are far from any of the rivers Lewis is discussing. (Return to text.)

 

11. This would be one of a pair of quality, custom-made pistols—so-called "duelling pistols"—kept in a case with accessories. These would be Lewis's personal property, not government issue. Russell (GEF), 88, 90–91. (Return to text.)

 

12. The site of the lodges was at the confluence of the Columbia and Walla Walla rivers on the north side of the Walla Walla. This site has been reported by Shiner, who at first declared it to be the location of Lewis and Clark's reference, but later was less confident of the relationship. Shiner (WW); Shiner (MR), 209. (Return to text.)

 

13. Here apears a sketch of the weir in Voorhis No. 3 (fig. 15). (Return to text.)

 

14. "Ela v V." is white vitriol (zinc sulphate), and "Sacchm Stry" is saccharum saturni (sugar of lead, or lead acetate). Thwaites (LC), 4:340 n. 1, provides a lengthy note about the possible meaning of "Ela v V." In addition, "Ela v" may be Clark's misspelling of an abbreviation of elixir. Lewis purchased elixir of vitriol in Philadelphia before the expedition. Jackson (LLC), 2:80. See also May 10, 1805, and April 28, 1806. Chuinard (OOMD), 157–58. (Return to text.)

 

15. On the north bank of the Walla Walla River, Walla Walla County, Washington. (Return to text.)

 

16. Really from the west to the east side of the Columbia, which is flowing southerly at this point. They landed in Walla Walla County, Washington, above the mouth of the Walla Walla River. (Return to text.)

 

17. The Walla Walla River. The people were Walulas. (Return to text.)

 

18. Camas, which the captains called "quawmash," a staple in the diet of the people of the interior Northwest. (Return to text.)












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