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Collected our horses and set out early; the morning was cold and disagreeable. we ascended the Lard. hills of the creek and steered N. 60° E. 4 miles through a high level plain to a ravine which forms the source of a small creek,  thence down this creek N. 75° E. 8 ms. to it's entrance into Lewis's river 7½ ms. below the entrance of the Kooskooske. on the river a little above this creek we arrived at a lodge of 6 families  of which We-ark-koomt had spoken. we halted here for breakfast and with much difficulty purchase 2 lean dogs. the inhabitants were miserably poor. we obtained a few large cakes of half cured bread made of a root which resembles the sweet potatoe, with these we made some soope and took breakfast. the lands through which we passed today are fertile consisting of a dark rich loam.  the hills of the river are high and approach it nearly on both sides. no timer in the plains. the S. W. Mountains which appear to be about 15 Ms. above us still continue to become lower they are covered with snow at present nearly to their bases. Lewis's river appeas to pass through these mots. near their N. Eastern extremity. these hills terminate in a high level plain between the Kooskooske and Lewis's river. these plains are in many places well covered with the Longleafed pine, with some Larch and balsom fir.  the soil is extreemly fertile no dose it appear so thisty as that of the same apparent texture of the open plains. it produces great quantities of the quawmash a root of which the natives are extreemly fond. a great portion of the Chopunnish we are informed are now distributed in small vilages through this plain collecting the quawmash and cows; the salmon not yet having arrived to call them to the river. the hills of the creek which we decended this morning are high and in most parts rocky and abrupt. one of our pack horses sliped from one of those hights and fell into the creek with it's load consisting principally of ammunition but fortunately neith the horse nor load suffered any material injury. the amunition being secured in canesters the water did not effect it.— after dinner we continued our rout up the West side of the river 3 Ms. opposite to 2 lodges the one containing 3 and the other 2 families of the Chopunnish nation; here we met with Te-toh, ar sky,  the youngest of the two cheifs who accompanied us last fall the great falls of the Columbia here we also met with our pilot  who decended the river with us as far as the Columbia. these indians recommended our passing the river at this place and ascending the Kooskooske on the N. E. side. they said it was nearer and a better rout to the forkes of that river where the twisted hair resided in whose charge we had left our horses; thither they promised to conduct us. we determined to take the advice of the indians and immediately prepared to pass the river which with the assistance of three indian canoes we effected in the course of the evening,  purchased a little wood and some bread of cows [NB: a root]  from the natives and encamped  having traveled 15 Ms. only today. We-ark-koomt whose people resided on the West side of Lewis's river above left us when we determined to pass the river and went on to his lodg. the evening was cold and disagreeable, and the natives crouded about our fire in great numbers insomuch that we could scarcely cook of keep ourselves warm. at all these lodges of the Chopunnish I observe an appendage of a small lodg with one fire which seems to be the retreat of their women in a certain situation [X: S M].  the men are not permitted to approach this lodge within a certain distance and if they have any thing to convey to the occupants of this little hospital they stand at the distance of 50 or 60 paces and throw it towards them as far as they can and retire.
Collected our horses and Set out early; the morning was Cold and disagreeable. we assended the Lar board Hill of the Creek and Steared N 60° E 4 M. through a high leavil plain to a revine which forms the Source of a small creek, thence down the Creek N 75° E. 8 Ms. to it's enterance into Lewis's river 7½ ms. below the enterance of Koos koos ke. on the river a little above this Creek we arived at a lodge of 6 families of which We-ark'-koomt has Spoken. We halted here for brackfast and with much dificuelty purchased 2 lean dogs. the inhabitents were miserably pore. we obtained a fiew large cakes of half cured bread made of a root which resembles the Sweet potatoe, with these we made Some Soope and took brackfast. the lands through which we passed to day are fertile consisting of a dark rich loam. the hills of the river are high and abrupt approaching it nearly on both Sides. no timber in the plains. the S. W. Mountains which appear to be about 15 Miles from us Still Continue to become lower, they are Covered with Snow at present nearly to their bases. Lewis's river appear to pass through those Mountains near the N Eastern extremity. those hills termonate in a high leavil plain between the Kooskoske & Lewis's river. these plains are in maney places well covered with the long leafed pine and Some balsom fir. the Soil is extreamly fertile. no does it appear So thirsty as that of the Same apparrant texture of the open plains. it produces great quantities of the quawmash a root of which the natives are extreemly fond. a Great portion of the Chopunnish we are informed are now distributed in Small villages through this plain Collecting the Cowse a white Meley root which is very fine in Soup after being dried and pounded; the Salmon not yet haveing arived to Call them to the river—. The hills of the Creek which we decended this morning are high and in most parts rocky and abrupt. one of our pack horses Sliped from one of those hights and fell into the Creek with it's load Consisting principally of amunition, but fortunately neither the horse nor load Suffered any Matereal injury. the ammunition being Secured in Canesters the water did not effect it.—
after dinner we Continued our rout up the West Side of the river 3 ms. opposit 2 Lodges the one Containing 3 and the other 2 families of the Chopunnish Nation; here we met with Te-toh-ar-sky the oldest of the two Chiefs who accompanied us last fall to the Great falls of the Columbia. here we also met with our old pilot who decended the river with us as low as the Columbia these indians recommended our passing the river at this place and going up on the N E Side of the Kooskoske. they Sayed it was nearer and a better rout to the forks of that river where the twisted hair resided in whose charge we had left our horses; thither they promised to Conduct us. we determined to take the advise of the indians and imediately prepared to pass the river which with the assistance of three indian Canoes we effected in the Course of the evening, purchased a little Wood, Some Cows bread and encamped, haveing traveled 15 miles to day only. We ark koomt whose people reside on the West Side of Lewis's river above left us when we deturmined to pass the river. before he left us he expressed his concern that his people would be deprived of the pleasure of Seeing us at the forks at which place they had assimbled to Shew us Sivilities &c. I gave him a Small piece of tobacco and he went off Satisfied. the evening was Cold and disagreeable, and the nativs Crouded about our fire in great numbers in so much that we Could Scercely Cook or keep ourselves worm. at all those Lodges of the Chopunnish I observe an appendage of a Small lodge with one fire, which Seames to be the retreat of their women in a certain Situation. the men are not permited to approach this Lodge within a certain distance, and if they have any thing to Convey to the Occupents of this little hospital they Stand at the distance of 50 or 60 paces and throw it towards them as far as they Can and retire.
Sunday 4th of May 1806. a hard frost & verry cold this morning. we Set out as usal and proced on left the creek and assended high plains came on a Small branch in a deep revean. followed down it. about noon we arived at a small village  on the bank of Lewises river where we halted about 10 miles below the forks of koos kooskee & Lewises rivers. we bought a little dark couloured root bread  which is not good but will Support nature. bought 2 dogs & a fiew Small fresh fish &C. we dined and proceed. on Soon met one of the chiefs  of the flat head or Chopennish tribe who we left our horses with & who went down to the narrows with us last fall. he tells us that tobe our Snake Indn. guide took 2 of our best horses away with him when he left us.  we crossed Lewises river to the N. Side to a Small village where we bought only one dog and Camped the head chief of the Chopennish tribe Camped with us and a number more of his tribe who came down to meet us, &C—
Sunday 4th. We had a severe frost last night; and the morning was cold and clear. We were early on our march over a handsome plain; and came to another creek, which we kept down until we came to Lewis's river,  some distance below the forks of Koos-koos-ke;  where we halted at an Indian lodge, and could get nothing to eat, except some bread made of a kind of roots I was unacquainted with. We had, however, a dog, which we bought from the Indians, who met us last night; but this was a scanty allowance for thirty odd hungry men. We remained here about two hours, got a dog, and proceeded up the south side of Lewis's river, about three miles, when we met with one of our old chiefs,  who had come down with us last fall; and who advised us to cross the river, as the best road is on the north side. We therefore were occupied in crossing, during the remainder of the day, as we could raise but four small canoes from the natives at this place. We, however, by dark got all safe over, and encamped on the north side, accompanied by a great many of the natives, who appear a friendly and well disposed people.
1. Alpowa Creek, in Garfield County, Washington. It reaches the Snake river in Asotin County, Washington. They may first have struck its upper branches, Megginson Gulch and Stember Creek in Garfield County; the direction of travel to the creek would probably have been more nearly due east. Atlas map 73. (Return to text.)
2. On the Snake River at Alpowa in the vicinity of former Silcott, Asotin County, now inundated by Lower Granite Reservoir. Atlas map 73. This same Nez Perce village was visited on October 11, 1805. Major archaeological excavations were conducted at three sites in this vicinity and a 6,000 year occupation sequence was defined, with houses dated from about 3000 B.C. to 1880 A.D. The Silcott area has been heavily excavated for prehistoric and historic materials as well as burial relocation. The fifteen or more publications on the historical material have been best summarized by Adams. Accounts of Alpowa or Timothy's village are best summarized in Brauner. The burial relocation work of both prehistoric and historic Timothy village burials is described in Rodeffer, Rodeffer, & Sprague. Timothy or Timootsin was one of the first Christian Nez Perce chiefs. According to Schwede, 37, and Spinden, 175, the village was known as Alpaweyma, from which comes modern Alpowa. (Return to text.)
3. The soils on the areas above the stream valleys are residual soils that have developed from weathering of volcanic ash and Columbia River Basalt. (Return to text.)
4. Lewis is describing the forest vegetation zone in the northern Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The western larch (also called Montana larch, mountain larch, hackmatack, and tamarack), Larix occidentalis Nutt., and grand fir are associates in some moister forest communities. Lewis's description of the grand fir is at February 6, 1806. Franklin & Dyrness, 44, 172; Hitchcock et al., 1:117, 121. (Return to text.)
6. Probably the unnamed "guide," apparently a Nez Perce, who left the party on October 18, 1805. Several Indians accompanied the Corps of Discovery for part of the journey down the Clearwater and Snake rivers and receive only casual mention in the journals. (Return to text.)
7. They crossed the Snake above Silcott into Whitman County, Washington, and continued upstream on the north bank. Atlas map 73. (Return to text.)
8. Biddle also underlined the words "bread of cows," all in red. (Return to text.)
9. In Whitman County, on the Snake some three miles below Clarkston. Atlas map 73. (Return to text.)
10. The lodge for menstruating women; see April 30, 1806. The cryptic interlineation "S M," perhaps written by Lewis, may stand for "situation menses." The words "women in a certain situation" are underlined in red, perhaps by Biddle. (Return to text.)
11. In the vicinity of former Silcott, Asotin County, Washington, on the Snake ("Lewises") River and some miles below the entrance of the Clearwater ("Kooskooskee") River, as Ordway mentions. This is the same Nez Perce village that was visited on October 11, 1805. (Return to text.)
16. The Koos-koos-ke is the Clearwater River; Gass evidently means the point where it joins the Snake on the Idaho-Washington border. (Return to text.)
17. Tetoharsky, the Nez Perce chief who, with Twisted Hair, accompanied them down the Clearwater, Snake, and Columbia rivers some distance on the westbound journey. (Return to text.)
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