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[Lewis] 
Friday May 16th 1806.
 

       Drewyer's horse left his camp last night and was brought to us this morning by an indian who informed us he had found him a considerable distance towards the mountains. Hohâstillpilp and all the natives left us about noon and informed us that they were going up the river some distance to a place at which they expected to fine a canoe, we gave them the head and neck of a bear, a part of which they eat and took the ballance with them.    these people sometimes kill the variagated bear when they can get them in the open plain where they can pursue them on horseback and shoot them with their arrows.    the black bear they more frequently kill as they are less ferocious.    our sick men are much better today. Sahcargarmeah geathered a quantity of the roots of a speceis of fennel  [1] which we found very agreeable food, the flavor of this root is not unlike annis seed, and they dispell the wind which the roots called Cows and quawmash are apt to create particularly the latter.    we also boil a small onion  [2] which we find in great abundance, with other roots and find them also an antidote to the effects of the others.    the mush of roots we find adds much to the comfort of our diet.—    we sent out several hunters this morning but they returned about 11 A. M. without success; they killed a few pheasants only.    at 5 P. M. Drewyer and Cruzatte returned having killed one deer only. Drewyer had wounded three bear which he said were as white as sheep but had obtained neither of them.    they informed us that the hunting was but bad in the quarter they had been, the Country was broken and thickly covered in most parts with underbrush.    a little after dark Shannon and Labuish returned with one deer; they informed us that game was wild and scarce, that a large creek (Collins' Creek)  [3] ran parallel with the river at the distance of about 5 or 6 miles which they found impracticable to pass with their horses in consequence of the debth and rapidity of it's current.    beyond this creek the Indians inform us that there is great abundance of game. Sergt. Pryor and Collins who set out this morning on a hunting excurtion did not return this evening.—    I killed a snake  [4] near our camp, it is 3 feet 11 Inches in length, is much the colour of the rattlesnake common to the middle atlantic states, it has no poisonous teeth.    it has 218 scutae on the abdomen and fifty nine squamae or half formed scutae on the tail.    the eye is of moderate size, the iris of a dark yellowish brown and puple black.    there is nothing remarkable in the form of the head which is not so wide across the jaws as those of the poisonous class of snakes usually are.—    I preserved the skin of this snake.




[Clark] 
Friday 16th May 1806
 

       a cloudy morning with Some rain which continued untill Meridean at intervales, but very moderately.    a man and boy Came to our Camp at 11 A. M with Drewyers Horse which he informed us he found at a long distance towards the Mtns.    this horse must have Strayed from Drewyers Camp last night. Hohhastillpelt and all the nativs left us at merdn. and went up the river with a view to Cross at Some distance above where they expected to find a Canoe.

 

       we gave those people a head and Neck of the largest bear a part of which they eate and the balance they Carefully took with them for their children. The Indians of this Country Seldom kill the bear    they are very much afraid of them and the killing of a white or Grzley bear, is as great a feet as two of their enimy.    the fiew of those Animals which they Chance to kill is found in the leavel open lands and pursued on horses & killed with their Arrows.    they are fond of the flesh of this animal and eate emoderately of it when they have a Sufficiency to indulge themselves. The men who were complaining of the head ake and Cholicks yesterday and last night are much better to day. Shabonos Squar gatherd a quantity of fenel roots which we find very paleatiable and nurishing food.    the Onion we also find in abundance and boil it with our meat. Shields rode out and hunted in the morning without Suckcess    he returned at 11 A. M. having killed only a black wood pecker with a red breast as discribed hereafter.  [5] A snake which resembles the rattle Snake in colour and Spots on the Skin, longer and inosent.    at 5 P M Drewyer and Crusat returned haveing killed only one Deer only. D. Shot 3 White bear but Could get neither of them.    they inform us that the hunting in the derection they were is very bad.    the country hilly & brushey.    a little after dark Shannon & Labiech came in from the Chass. Shannon killed one deer which he brought in.    this deer being the only animal they Could kill.    they informed that a large Creek (Collen's Creek) run parrelal with the river at about 5 or 6 miles distant between which there was but little game, and the Creek being high rapid and the Smothe rocks in the bottom rendered it impossible for them to pass it on hors back. Sergt. Pryor and Collins who Set out early this morning hunting have not returned.    we derected that the horses be drove up in future at 12 oClock on each day




[Ordway] 
 

       Friday 16th of May 1806.  [6]    Sergt. Pryor and two other men went out a hunting.    we eat two more of our unruly Stud horses.    a light rain in the fore part of the day.    the after part pleasant.    in the evening our hunters except two  [7] returned    had wounded three white bear and killed two Deer, which they brought in the meat




[Gass] 
 

       Friday 16th.    The morning was cloudy and some rain fell; but in about two hours it cleared away and we had a fine day. An Indian performed the quieting operation on two more of our horses. In the evening two of our hunters  [8] came in, and brought with them two deer and some ducks. Two of the hunters still remained out. The natives all left our camp this evening.




 

1. This plant has been identified as Gairdner's yampah, Perideridia gairdneri (H. & A.) Mathias, which has leaves like the cultivated sweet fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and is in the same plant family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). A pressed specimen collected on April 25, 1806, has the label: "A species of fennel root eaten by the Indians, of an annis taste; flowers white, Columbia River." Although the specimen is fragmentary, it has been tentatively identified as yampah. Based on the leaf, flower, and habitat descriptions, the "fennel" in question is almost certainly yampah. However, it has been suggested that the "fennel" gathered by Sacagawea is more likely western sweet-cicely, osmorhiza occidentalis (Nutt. ex Torr & Gray) Torr. See also Lewis's description of yampah at August 26, 1805. Cutright (LCPN), 188 n. 7; Abrams, 3:233; Hitchcock et al., 3:576, 533, 573–74. (Return to text.)

 

2. Geyer's onion, Allium geyeri Wats., which is common in low meadows and along streams of the lower Clearwater River near Kamiah, Idaho County, Idaho. Hitchcock et al., 1:749–50. (Return to text.)

 

3. Lolo Creek, running into the Clearwater below Camp Chopunnish and forming the boundary between Clearwater and Idaho counties, Idaho. Atlas map 71. (Return to text.)

 

4. Great Basin gopher snake, Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola. Benson (HLCE), 89. (Return to text.)

 

5. Lewis's woodpecker, Melanerpes lewis [AOU, 408]; see July 20, 1805, and May 27, 1806. Burroughs, 239–40. (Return to text.)

 

6. Here begins the first entry in Ordway's third and final notebook of his journal. This book is missing its original covers, is about 7½ by 4⅛ inches in size, with 120 unnumbered pages covering the period May 16 to September 23, 1806. The outer, first page of the notebook is quite faded and some words are illegible. This page and the following one appear to be a listing of the animals that the party took for food from March to August 1806. More particularly it may be a listing of the wildlife obtained by Collins. A note to the side on the second page reads, "John Collins game," but not all of the quarry on the list can be accounted for in entries for corresponding days nor can they always be attributed specifically to Collins's hunting. There is also the name "Richardson" at the end of the list, but its relation to the list is unknown and the person's identity cannot be determined. Some of the animals listed are crossed out and there is a large "X" across each page. Apparently there was a heading at the top of the first page, but only the last part is legible; it reads, "[Fort?] Clatsop 23rd March 1806.—"    Then follows this list:


in the month of March [two?] Deer—
in the month of April one black bear at Sandy river & 2 Deer & one Elk
on May 14th at kooskooskee river Camp two white bear    16th one white bear    [17th?] May
   [three?] Deer.—
month of June    [4th?] two deer    10th one deer
     Commas flat
22nd          do    one Deer
[23rd?]       do    one black bear and one deer
July 1st two large bucks & [9?] does
      2nd three Deer—
      4th two Deer—
      9th one Deer—
      11th two deer—
      12th three 3 beaver
      13th two deer
      14th three deer
      15th one fat buck
      [16th?] faun Elk
July 16th one faun Elk    two Mountn. Sheep [word illegible]    one beaver—
      18th three deer—
      23rd three buffaloe
      26th one buffaloe & one brarow
      27th one deer
      28 two buffalo & one beaver [1?] Elk
      29th one big horn animal
      30th one big horn & one beaver
      31st one beaver—
1st August one beaver


     At the top of the third page immediately above the first daily entry in this notebook is the heading, "Encampment at kooskooskee river    Sergt. Ordways journal continued from Small Book."  (Return to text.)

 

7. Pryor and Collins, write Lewis and Clark, and confirmed by Ordway in the next entry. (Return to text.)

 

8. Drouillard and Cruzatte returned together, and later Shannon and Labiche. (Return to text.)












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