previous   |   next

[Lewis] 
Thursday May 29th 1806.
 

       No movement of the party today worthy of notice.    we have once more a good stock of meat and roots. Bratton is recovering his strength very fast; the Child and the Indian Cheif are also on the recovery.    the cheif has much more uce of his hands and arms.    he washed his face himself today which he has been unable to do previously for more than twelvemonths.    we would have repeated the sweat today had not been cloudy and frequently raining.    a speceis of Lizzard  [1] called by the French engages prarie buffaloe are native of these plains as well as of those of the Missouri. I have called them the horned Lizzard.    they are about the size and a good deel the figure of the common black lizzard.    but their bellies are broader, the tail shorter and their action much slower; they crawl much like the toad.    they are of brown colour with yellowish and yellowish-brown spots.    it is covered with minute scales intermixed with little horny prosesses like blont prickles on the upper surface of the body.    the belley and throat is more like the frog and are of a light yelowish brown colour. arround the edge of the belley is regularly set with little horney projections which give to those edges a serrate figure the eye is small and of a dark colour.    above and behind the eyes there are several projections of the bone which being armed at their extremities with a firm black substance has the appearance of horns sprouting out from the head.    this part has induced me to distinguish it be the apppellation of the horned Lizzard. I cannot conceive how the engages ever assimilated this animal with the buffaloe for there is not greater analogy than between the horse and the frog.    this animal is found in greatest numbers in the sandy open parts of the plains, and appear in great abundance after a shower of rain; they are sometimes found basking in the sunshine but conceal themselves in little holes in the earth much the greater preportion of their time. they are numerous about the falls of the Missouri and in the plains through which we past lately above the Wallahwallahs.—    The Choke Cherry  [2] has been in blume since the 20th inst.    it is a simple branching ascending stem.    the cortex smooth and of a dark brown with a redish cast.    the leaf is scattered petiolate oval accute at its apex finely serrate smooth and of an ordinary green.    from 2½ to 3 inches in length and 1¾ to 2 in width.    the peduncles are common, cilindric, and from 4 to 5 inches in length and are inserted promiscuously on the twigs of the preceeding years growth.    on the lower portion of the common peduncle are frequently from 3 to 4 small leaves being the same in form as those last discribed.    other peduncles ¼ of an inch in length are thickly scattered and inserted on all sides of the common peduncle at wright angles with it each elivating a single flower, which has five obtuse short patent white petals with short claws inserted on the upper edge of the calyx. the calyx is a perianth including both stamens and germ, one leafed fine cleft entire simiglobular, infrior, deciduous.    the stamens are upwards of twenty and are seated on the margin of the flower cup or what I have called the perianth.    the filaments are unequal in length subulate inflected and superior membranous.    the anthers are equal in number with the filaments, they are very short oblong & flat, naked and situated at the extremity of the filaments, is of a yelow colour as is also the pollen.    one pistillum.    the germen is ovate, smooth, superior, sessile, very small; the Style is very short, simple, erect, on the top of the germen, deciduous.    the stigma is simple, flat very short.—




[Clark] 
Thursday 29th of May 1806
 

       No movement of the party to day worthy of notice.    we have once more a good Stock of Meat and roots. Bratten is recovering his Strength very fast.    the Child, and the Indian Cheaf are also on the recovery. the Chief has much more use of his hands and arms.    he washed his face himself today. Which he has not been able to do previously for more than twelve months past. I would have repeeted the Sweat to day had it not been Cloudy and frequently raining.—. Sence my arrival here I have killed Several birds of the Corvus genus of a kind found only in the rocky mountains and their neighbourhood. I first met with bird on Jeffersons River.    and Saw them on the hights of the rocky mountains.    but never before had an oppertunity of examineing them Closely.    the Small Corvus discribed at Fort Clatsop is a different Species, tho' untill now I had taken it to be the Same, this is much larger and has a loud squaling note something like the newing of a Cat.    the beak of this bird is 1½ inches long, is proportionably large, black and of the form which characterize this genus.    the upper exeeds the under Chap a little.    the head and neck are also propotionably large, the eyes full and reather prominant, the iris dark brown and purple  [3] black.    it is about the Size and Some what the form of the jay bird, tho' reather rounder and more full in the body.    the tail is four and a half inches in length, composed of 12 feathers nearly of the Same length.    the head, neck and body of this bird is of a dove Colour.    the wings are black except the extremities of Six large feathers occupying the middle joint of the wings which are White.    the under disk of the wings are not of the shineing or glossy black which mark it's upper Surface.    the two feathers in the Center of the tail are black as are the two adjacent feathers for half their wedth, the ballance are of a pure White.    the feet and legs are black, and imbricated with wide Scales, the nails are black and remarkably long and Sharp, also much Curved, it has four toes on each foot of which one is in the rear and 3 in front.    the toes are long particular that in the rear.    this bird feeds on the Seeds of the pine and also on insects.    it resides in the rocky Mountains at all Seasons of the year, and in many parts is the only bird to be found.    a Species of Lizzard Called by the French engages, Prarie buffaloe are nativs of these plains as well as those of the Missouri. I have Called them the horned Lizzard.    they are about the Size and a good deel the figure of the Common black lizzard.    but their bellies are broader, the tail Shorter and their action much Slower; they Crawl much like the toad.    they are of a brown Colour with yellowish and yellowish brown Spots.    it is covered with minute scales intermixed with little horney like blunt prickkles on the upper Surface of the body.    the belly and throat is more like the frog and are of a light yellowish brown Colour.    around the edge of the belly is regularly Set with little horney prejections which give to those edges a Serrate figure, the eye is Small and of a dark colour. above and behind the eyes there are Several Projections of the bone which being armed at their extremities with a firm black Substance has the appearance of horns Sprouting out from the head.    this part has induced me to distinguish it by the appellation of the Horned Lizard. I cannot conceive how the engagees ever assimilated this animal withe Buffalow for there is not grater anology than between the Horse and the frog.    this Animal is found in greatest numbers in the Sandy open parts of the Plains, and appear in great abundance after a rain; they are Sometimes found basking in the Sunshine but conceal themselves in little holes under the tufts of grass or herbs much the greater proportion of their time. they are noumerous about the Falls of the Missouri, and in the plains through which we passed lately above the Falls of Columbia—

 

       The Choke Cherry has been in blume Since the 20th inst.    it is a Simple branching ascending Stem.    the Cortex Smooth and of a dark brown with a redish Cast.    the leaf is scattered petiolate oval accute at it's apex finely Serated Smooth and of an ordinary green, from 2½ to 3 inches in length and from 1 ¾ to 2 in width    the Penduncles cilindric and Common from 4 to 5 inches in length and are inserted promiscuisly on the twigs of the proceeding years growth.    on the lower portion of the Common peduncle are frequently from 3 to 4 Small leaves, being the same in form as those last discribed.    other peduncles ¼ of an inch in length are Scattered and thickly inserted on all sides of the Common peduncle at right-angles with it, each elivateing a Single flower, which has five obtuse Short patent white petals with Short claws incerted on the upper edge of the calyx.    the Calyx is a perianth including both Stemes & germ, one leafed five cleft entire, Semi globular.    the Stamons are upwards of twenty and are Seated on the Margin of the flower Cup or what I have Called the perianth.    the filaments are unequal in length Subulate inflected and Superior membranous.    the anthers are equal in number with the filaments, they are very Short oblong and flat, naked and Situated at the extremity of the filaments.    is of a yellowish colour asis also the pollen.    one pistillum.    the germin is ovate, Smooth, Superior, sessile, very Small; the Style is very Short, Simple, erect, on the top of the germen deciduous.    the Stigma is Simple, flat very Short. This Shrub rises to the hight of from 6 to 8 feet generally but Sometimes rich Situations much higther.    it is not confined to any particular Situation—. Capt. L—s met with a singular plant in blume of which we preserved a Specimene.  [4]    it grows on the Steep fertile hill Sides near this place    the radix is fibrous, not much branched, annual, woody, white and nearly Smooth.    the Stem is Simple branching ascending 2½ feet high. Celindric, villose and of a pale red Colour.    the branches are but fiew and those near it's upper extremity.    the extremities of the branches are flexable and are bent down near their extremities with the weight of the flowers.    the leaf is sessile, scattered thinly, nearly lineor tho' Somewhat widest in the middle, two inches in length, absolutely entire, villose, obtusely pointed and of an Ordinary green.    above each leaf a Small Short branch protrudes, Supporting a tissue of four or five Small leaves of the Same appearance of those discribed.    a leaf is placed under neath each branch and each flower.    the Calyx is one flowered Spatha.    the corolla Superior, consists of four pale perple petals which are tripartite, the Centeral lobe largest and all terminate obtusely; they are inserted with a long and narrow claw on the top of the germ, are long, Smooth and deciduous.    there are two distinct Sets of Stamens the first or principal Consists of four, the filaments which are capillary, erect, inserted on the top of the germ alternately with the petals, equal short, membranus, the anthers are also four each being elivated with it's fillaments; they are reather flat, erect sessile, cohering to the base, membranous, longitudinally furrowed, twise as long as the filaments naked, and of a pale purple colour, the Second Set of Stamens are very minute, are also four and placed within and opposit to the petals, those are Scercely precptable while the first are large & Conspicious, the fillaments are capillary equal, very Short white and Smooth.    the anthers are four, oblong, beaked, erect Cohering at the base, membanous, Shorter than the fillaments, White naked and appear not to form pollen, there is one pistillum; the germ of which is also one, celindric, villous, inferior, Sessile, as long as the first Stamuns, and grooved.    the Single Style and Stigma form a perfect mono petallous corolla only with this difference that the Style which elivates the Stigma or limb is not a tube but solid tho' it's outer appearance is that of a tube of a Monopetallous corolla swelling as it ascends and gliding in such manner into the limb that it Cannot be Said where the Style ends or the Stigma begins, jointly they are as long as the Corilla, while the limb is four clef, Sauser Shaped, and the margin of the lobes entire and rounded.    this has the appearance of a monopetallous flower growing from the Center of the four petalled corollar which is rendered more conspicuous in consequence of the first being white and the latter of a pale purple. I regret very much that the Seed of this plant are not ripe as yet and it is probable will not be so dureing our residence in this neighbourhood—.    our Horses maney of them have become So wild that we Cannot take them without the assistance of the indians who are extreemly dextrous in throwing a Rope and takeing them with a noose about the neck;  [5] as we frequently want the use of our horses when we cannot get the use of the indians to take them, 〈at pleasure〉 we had a Strong pound formed to day in order to take them at pleasure—




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 29th May 1806.    rained the greater part of last night.    a rainy morning.    we took a light breakfast    Frazer got 2 Spanish mill dollars from a squaw for an old razer  [6]    we expect they got them from the Snake Indians who live near the Spanish country to the South.  [7]    we proceed. on    Shortly arived at a fork of the kimoo-enim or Lewises river  [8]    followed down it Some distance then left it and bore to the right up a creek.  [9]    passd one lodge crossed a steep bad hill and descended down a long hill an a run    pass a large lodge and descended the worst hills we ever saw a road made down.    towards evening we arived at the kimooenim or Lewises river at a fishery at a bad rapid.  [10]    our chief told us to set down and not go in the lodge untill we were invited    so we did at length they invited us in.    spread robes for us to sit on and Set a roasted Salmon before us and Some of their white bread which they call uppah.  [11]    we eat hearty of this fat fish but did not eat ¼ of it. It was Set up for us.    this lodge is about 100 feet long and 20 wide and all in one    but they have but fiew Salmon.




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 29th.    The morning was cloudy and wet, and the river is rising very fast; which gives us hopes that the snow is leaving the mountains. At 10 o'clock the river ceased rising and the weather became clear.




 

1. The first description of the pigmy horned lizard, previously noted. The subspecies of Montana and the Dakotas (Lewis's Missouri) is the eastern short-horned lizard, Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre. Cutright (LCPN), 306, 428; Burroughs, 279–80; Benson (HLCE), 88. The French term would be boeuf de prairie. McDermott (GMVF), 25. A red vertical line runs from "a species of" to the bottom of this page (Codex K, p. 12) at the words "their action much," perhaps Biddle's mark. (Return to text.)

 

2. The only cherry in the vicinity with elongate racemes as Lewis describes is the common choke cherry, Prunus virginiana L. var. melanocarpa (A. Nels.) Sarg. Hitchcock et al., 3:161–62; cf. Cutright (LCPN), 307. Another red vertical line runs from "The Choke Cherry" to "peduncles are common," perhaps Biddle's doing. (Return to text.)

 

3. Probably "pupil." (Return to text.)

 

4. The first description of ragged robin, Clarkia pulchella Pursh. Lewis's version, from which Clark presumably copied, appears on June 1, 1806. Pursh bestowed the scientific name, honoring Clark, in 1814. Lewis's detailed, technical account of the choke cherry and of the ragged robin demonstrates his botanical knowledge and his ability accurately to describe both a species that was familiar and one that was entirely new to himself and to science. Hitchcock et al., 3:470; Cutright (LCPN), 298–99. (Return to text.)

 

5. Presumably a lasso, the use of which, along with the horse itself, would have worked its way north to the Nez Perces from New Mexico. See also Biddle Notes [ca. April 1810], Jackson (LLC), 2:503. (Return to text.)

 

6. The story and wider implications of this transaction is told in James P. Ronda, "Frazer's Razor: The Ethnohistory of a Common Object," We Proceeded On 7 (August 1981): 12–13. Gass elaborates on this incident in his entry of June 2, 1806, saying that the coins came from the neck of a dead Shoshone Indian whom the Nez Perces had killed some time before. (Return to text.)

 

7. Probably modern New Mexico. (Return to text.)

 

8. The fork of Lewis's (Snake) River is the Salmon River; again Ordway uses "Kimooenem" inappropriately. (Return to text.)

 

9. China Creek, Nez Perce County, according to Peebles and Wells. (Return to text.)

 

10. The men followed China Creek in a northwesterly direction for a distance, then went over Wapshilla Ridge to the Snake River. From the ridge Peebles has them come down Corral Creek to the fishery at Wild Goose Rapids, Nez Perce County, on the Snake River. Wells puts the route on a parallel course but more to the south after they cross Wapshilla Ridge. He would have them descend in an area between China Garden Creek and Cave Gulch, reach the Snake River and follow it to McDuff Rapids near the Asotin-Wallowa county line, Washington, some distance to the south of Wild Goose Rapids. (Return to text.)

 

11. A word not used by Lewis or Clark. It may represent the Nez Perce term 'įpa "cous cake." Aoki, Nez Perce Dictionary, 973. On June 1 Ordway mentions a "large cake of uppah." (Return to text.)












previous   |   next


Home  |  Search  |  Read the Journals  |  Additional Texts  |  Images  |  Maps  |  Multimedia
About This Project |  FAQ  |  Links  |  Print Editions  |  Copyright  |  Contact Us  |  Site Map