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[Lewis] 
Saturday May 31st 1806.
 

       Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Villages this morning and returned in the evening. Willard brought with him the dressed skin of a bear which he had purchased for Capt. C.    this skin was an uniform pale redish brown colour, the indians informed us that it was not the Hoh-host or white bear, that it was the Yâck-kâh.  [1]    this distinction of the indians induced us to make further enquiry relative to their opinions of the several speceis of bear in this country.    we produced the several skins of the bear which we had killed at this place and one very nearly white which I had purchased. The white, the deep and plale red grizzle, the dark bron grizzle, and all those which had the extremities of the hair of a white or frosty colour without regard to the colour of the ground of the poil, they designated Hoh-host and assured us that they were the same with the white bear, that they ascosiated together, were very vicisious, never climbed the trees, and had much longer nails than the others.    the black skins, those which were black with a number of intire white hairs intermixed, the black with a white breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown, they designated the Yâck-kâh;—said that they climbed the trees, had short nails and were not vicious, that they could pursue them and kill them with safety, they also affirmed that they were much smaller than the white bear. I am disposed to adopt the Indian distinction with rispect to these bear and consider them two distinct speceis.    the white and the grizzly of this neighbourhood are the same of those found on the upper portion of the Missouri where the other speceis are not, and that the uniform redish brown black &c of this neighbourhood are a speceis distinct from our black bear and from the black bear of the Pacific coast which I believe to be the same with those of the Atlantic coast, and that the common black bear do not exist here. I had previously observed that the claws of some of the bear which we had killed here had much shorter tallons than the variagated or white bear usually have but supposed that they had woarn them out by scratching up roots, and these were those which the indians called Yâh-kâh.    on enquiry I found also that a cub of an uniform redish brown colour, pup to a female black bear intermixed with entire white hairs had climbed a tree. I think this a distinct speceis from the common black bear, because we never find the latter of any other colour than an uniform black, and also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and longer with a greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other ispects they are much the same.—    This evening Joseph and R. Feilds returned with the three deer which they had killed. The Indians brought us another of our origional Stock of horses; there are only two absent now of those horses, and these the indians inform us that our shoshone guide  [2] rode back when he returned.    we have sixty five horses at this time, most of them in excellent order and fine strong active horses.—

 

       The Indians pursued a mule deer to the river opposite to our camp this evening; the deer swam over and one of our hunters killed it.    there being a large party of indians assembled on this occasion on the opposite side, Hohâst-ill-pilp desired them to raise our canoe which was sunk on that side of the river yesterday; they made the attempt but were unable to effect it.—




[Clark] 
Saturday May 31st 1806  [3]
 

       Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Village this morning and returned in the evening Willard brought with him the dressed Skin of a bear which he had purchased for me.    this Skin was of a uniform pale redish brown colour, the indians inform us that it was not the Hoh-host or white bear, that it was the Yâck-kâh    this distinction of the indians induced us to make further enquiry relitive to their oppinions of the defferent Species of bear in this country. We produced the Several Skins of the bear which our hunters had killed at this place and one very nearly white which Capt Lewis had purchased.    the White, the deep and pale red grizzle, the dark brown grizzle, and all those that had the extremities of the hair of a White or frosty Colour without reguard to the Colour of the ground of the poil, they disignated Hoh-host and assured us that they were the Same with the White bear, that they associated together, were very vicisious, never climb the trees, and had much longer nails than the others. The black skins, those which were black with a number of entire white hairs intermixed, the black with a White breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown, they disignated the Yâck-kâh—; Said that they Climb the trees had Short nails and were not viscisious, that they could prosue them and kill them in Safty, they also affirmed that they were much Smaller than the white bear. I am disposed to adopt the indians distinction with respect to these bear and consider them two distinct Species.    the White and the Grizzly of this neighbourhood are the Same as those found on the upper part of the Missouri where the other Species are not, and that the uniform redish brown black &c. of this neighbourhood are a Species distinct from both Species of our black bear and from the black bear of the Pacific Coast which I believe to be the Same with those of the Atlantic Coast, and that the Common black bear do not exist here. I have previously observed that the claws of Some of the bear which we had killed here had much Shorter tallons than the varigated or White bear usially have but Supposed that they had worn them out by scratching our roots, and these were those which the indians call Yâhkâh.    on enquiry I found also that a Cub of a uniform redish brown Colour pup to a female black bear intermixed with entire white hairs, had climbed a tree. I think this a distinct Species from the common black bear becaus we never find the latter of any other Colour than a uniform black, and also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and longer with a greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other respects they are much the same—.

 

       This evening Joseph and Reuben Fields returned with the three deer they had killed. The indians brought us another of our Original Stock of Horses; there are only two Absent now of these horses, and these the indians inform us that our Sho-sho-ne guide rode back when he returned.    we have Sixty five horses at this time, most of them in excellent order and fine Strong active horses—.

 

       The Indians pursued a Mule deer to the river opposit to our Camp this evening; the deer Swam over and one of our hunters killed it.    there being a large party of indians assembled on this Occasion on the opposit Side with Tin-nach-e-moo-tolt they attempted to rais our Canoe which was Sunk on that Side of the river yesterday; they made the attempt but were unable to effect it—.

 

      

click to enlarge


Snake and Missouri Rivers and their Connections, May 29–31, 1806, Codex M,
pp. 1–2
 
(American Philosophical Society library, used with permission.)




[Ordway] 
 

       Saturday 31st May 1806. Some of the young Indians Stole Some of our fish and went away in the night.    we got up our horses eairly and Set out on our return    our old chief and his man stayed as they had got no fish yet, so we followed back the same road we went on to the fork of the kimooenim which the Indian name of it is Toomonamah river  [4] which is about 150 yards wide.    we followed up to the village we left the day before yesterday.    their the chief directed us another way whi[ch] he said was nearer & a better road and Sent 2 boys to show us the way to a village on the road.    they took us over a verry bad hill down on to the Thommonama river again then left the river ascended a high long hill near the top of which is a large village    we Camped  [5] near Sd. village as night came on.




[Gass] 
 

       Saturday 31st.    We had a fine clear morning with a heavy dew. The hunters  [6] went out with two horses for the vension; and two men  [7] went over the river to the villages. About noon a deer was seen swimming the river and some of our men killed it. Our canoe still lies under water at the opposite shore, but we have a small Indian canoe, that serves to cross in. In the afternoon the two men came from the village with some of the natives, and one of our old stock of horses, which is the last, except the two which they assure us the old Snake guide took. In the evening the weather became cloudy, and we had some rain with sharp thunder and lightning. The two hunters came in with the venison.




 

1. Hoh-host, x with dot below lowercase symboláx with dot below lowercase symbolá·c, is the Nez Perce term for the grizzly bear, while Yâck-kâh, yá·ka, "brown bear," is the designation for the black bear. The "cinnamon bear" was at one time, in harmony with Lewis's opinion, designated a separate species, Ursus cinnamomeus. More recently it has been considered either a color phase or subspecies of the black bear, U. americanus. Cutright (LCPN), 297; Burroughs, 55–56. (Return to text.)

 

2. Old Toby; see August 20, 1805, and May 12, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

3. Although it is not mentioned in the text, this day Clark completed a map of the Snake River and its connections with the Rocky Mountains and with the drainage of the Missouri River (fig. 18). It was given to him by Nez Perce Indians and he had worked on it over the preceding two days. It is found in Codex M, pp. 1–2, a journal which is taken up in the next volume of this edition. A fragment at the American Philosophical Society has wording almost identical to the notes on Indians at the head of this map, and it also repeats a portion of the map showing the Willamette (Multnomah) River. The fragment may have been a preliminary sketch and notes, but apparently most of the sheet is gone and the remaining portion is badly damaged. (Return to text.)

 

4. Toomonamah (variously spelled) is Nez Perce tamá·nma, for the Salmon River. (Return to text.)

 

5. The detachment retraced their steps to Deer Creek. Wells then has the men go east to touch the Salmon River near the mouth of Maloney Creek. From there they must have ascended a hill to the northeast and camped for the night at a spot a short distance northeast of where Maloney Creek empties into a prominent oxbow of the Snake River, in Lewis County, Idaho. (Return to text.)

 

6. Apparently Joseph and Reubin Field, although Reubin was supposed to have stayed out the previous night. They were also the two hunters who returned at the end of this entry. (Return to text.)

 

7. Goodrich and Willard. (Return to text.)












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