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[Lewis] 
Thursday June 5th 1806.
 

       Colter and Bratton were permitted to visit the indian villages today for the purpose of trading for roots and bread, they were fortunate and made a good return.    we gave the indian cheif another sweat today, continuing it as long as he could possibly bear it; in the evening he was very languid but appeared still to improve in the use of his limbs.    the child is recovering fast the inflamation has subsided intirely, we discontinued the poltice, and applyed a plaster of basilicon; the part is still considerably swolen and hard.    in the evening R. Feilds Shannon and Labuish return from the chaise and brought with them five deer and a brown bear. among the grasses of this country I observe a large speceis  [1] which grows in moist situations; it rises to the hight of eight or ten feet, the culm is jointed, hollow, smooth, as large as a goos quill and more firm than ordinary grasses; the leaf is linnear broad and rough; it has much the appearance of the maden cain as it is called in the state of Gergia, and retains it's virdure untill late in the fall.    this grass propegates principally by the root which is horizontal and perennial.    a second speceis  [2] grows in tussucks and rises to the hight of six or eight feet; it seems to delight in the soil of the river bottoms which possess a greater mixture of sand than the hills in this neighbourhood.    this is also a harsh course grass; it appears to be the same which is called the Corn grass in the Southern states, and the foxtail in Virginia.    a third speceis  [3] resembles the cheet, tho' the horses feed on it very freely.    a fourth and most prevalent speceis  [4] is a grass which appears to be the same called the blue grass common to many parts of the United States; it is common to the bottom as well as the uplands, is now seeding and is from 9 inches to 2 feet high; it affords an excellent pasture for horses and appears to bear the frosts and snow better than any grass in our country; I therefore regret very much that the seed will not be ripe before our probable departure.    this is a fine soft grass and would no doubt make excellent hay if cultivated. I do not find the greenswoard  [5] here which we met with on the lower part of the Columbia.    there are also several speceis of the wild rye  [6] to be met with in the praries.    among the plants and shrubs common to our contry I observe here the seven bark, wild rose,  [7] vining honeysickle, sweet willow, red willow, longleafed pine, Cattail or cooper's flag, lamsquarter,  [8] strawberry,  [9] raspberry,  [10] tonge grass,  [11] musterd,  [12] tanzy,  [13] sinquefield, horsemint, coltsfoot,  [14] 〈horsemint〉 green plantin,  [15] cansar weed,  [16] elder, shoemate and several of the pea blume flowering plants.—  [17]

 

       Observed equal Altitudes of the sun with Sextant.

 

        

  h m  s     h m s    
A.M. 3   7 13   P.M. 11 39 37   Altitude
  "   8 39.5       " 41   7   62° 46' 30"
  " 10   5       " 42 31    

 

       Observed Sun symbol's Magnetic Azimuth with Circumferenter &c.

 

        


Time by Crotr.
 

Azimuth
 
Altd. of Sun symbol's U.L.
with Sextant
h     m     s  
       
P.M.    11    53    27
  S.    76°    W.  
58°    46'    15"
"       11    59    59
      S.    77    W.      
56       24     —




[Clark] 
Thursday June 5th 1806
 

       Colter and Bratten were permitted to visit the Indian Village to day for the purpose of tradeing for roots and bread, they were fortunate and made a good return.    we gave the Indian Chief another Sweat to-day, continuing it as long as he could bear it.    in the evening he was very languid but Still to improve in the use of his limbs.    the Child is revovereing fast. I applied a plaster of Sarve made of the Rozen of the long leafed pine, Beas wax and Beare oil mixed, which has Subsided the inflomation entirely, the part is Considerably Swelled and hard—.    in the evening Reuben Fields, G. Shnnon, Labiech, & Collins returned from the chaise and brought with them five deer and a brown Bear.

 

       Among the Grasses of this Country I observe a large Species which grows in moist Situations; it rises to the hight of Eight or ten feet, the Culm is jointed, hollow, Smooth, as large as a goose quill, and more firm than ordinary grass; the leaf is linner broad and rough; it has much the appearance of the Meadin Cain as it is Called in the Southern parts of the U' States, and retains it's virdue untill late in the fall.    this grass propegates principally by the Root which is horozontal and perennial.—.    a Second Species grows in tussucks and rises to the hight of Six or Eight feet; it Seams to delight in the Soil of the river bottoms which possess agreater mixture of Sand than the hills in this neighbourhood.    this is also a harsh Course grass; it appears to be the Same which is Called the Corn grass in the Southern States, and the Foxtail in Virginia.    a third Species resembles the cheet, tho' the horses feed on it very freely.    a fouth and most prevalent Species is a grass which appears to be the Same Called the blue Grass common to maney parts of the United States; it is common to the bottoms as well as the uplands, is now Seeding and is from 9 inches to 2 feet high; it affords an excellent paterage for horses and appears to bear the frost and Snow better than any grass in our Country; I therefore regrete very much that the Seed will not be ripe before our probable departure.    this is a fine Soft grass and would no doubt make excellent hay if cultivated. I do not find the Green Sword here which we met with on the lower part of the Columbia. There are also Several Species of the wild Rye to be met with in the praries.    among the plants and Shrubs common to our Country I observe here the Seven bark, Wild rose, vineing honey suckle, Sweet willow, red willow, long leafed pine, Cattail or Coopers Flag. Lambs quarter, Strawberries, Raspberries, Goose berries, tongue grass, Mustard, tanzy, Sinquefield, horse mint, water penerial,  [18] elder, Coalts foot, Green Plantin, canser weed, Shoemate, 〈red black & yellow Currents〉 and Several of the pea blume flowering plants.—. Frazier who had permission to visit the Twisted Hairs Lodge at the distance of ten or twelve miles did not return this evening—. The river falls in course of the day and rises Some at night as will be Seen by the remarks in the Diary of the weather.    this most probably is the melding of the Snows dureing the day &c.




[Ordway] 
 

       Thursday 5th June 1806.    a fair morning. Several of the party went across the river to Some villages and purchased Some uppah & couse.—    towards evening our hunters  [19] all came in    had killed one black bear and five deer and informed us that an Indian had Set out Some days past to cross the mountains if possable but Soon after dark he returned to our Camp and informed us that he went over one mountain and in attempting to cross a creek which was high and rapid his horse fell and hurt him So he turned back to wait untill the water falls.    the river kooskee is falling fast.




[Gass] 
 

       Thursday 5th.    There was a fine plesant morning with heavy dew. In the afternoon four hunters came in with the meat of five more deer, and a bear. An Indian  [20] came with them, who had been part of the way over the mountains; but found the road too bad and the snow too deep to cross; so we are obliged to remain where we are sometime longer.




 

1. Based on stature, habitat, and stem description, this is clearly the common reedgrass, Phragmites communis (L.) Trin., which is nearly worldwide in distribution. Hitchcock et al., 1:645–46; Welsh et al., 759. (Return to text.)

 

2. Based on stature, habit, and ecology, this is clearly basin wildrye. The corn grass of the southern states may refer to weedy, coarse grass associated with corn cultivation there, such as Johnson-grass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., although it is not a clump forming species such as basin wildrye. Foxtail, Setaria italica (L.) Beauv., is another large, coarse species also associated with corn cultivation, but also not clump forming. Fernald, 234, 226. (Return to text.)

 

3. Probably California brome, Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., but also possibly fringed brome, B. ciliatus L., or smooth brome, B. inermis Leys. "Cheet" may refer to an eastern species of Bromus with which Lewis was familiar, perhaps cheat, B. secalinus L. Hitchcock et al., 1:503–5, 507–8; ALbee, Shultz, & Goodrich, 416; Fernald, 102. Above this, beginning at "which is called" a red vertical line runs down to about "if cultivated," perhaps Biddle's mark. (Return to text.)

 

4. Sandberg bluegrass. Lewis is correct that this is the most common type of native bluegrass, both in the bottoms and in the uplands. It is frost tolerant, greens up early in the spring, and is important as a forage species. Poa secunda is part of a complex of species that occupies a wide range of habitats in the region. (Return to text.)

 

5. Lewis seems to refer to a definite plant species as "greensward," rather than to an ecological setting of a green meadow (see August 17, 1805). The species to which he refers is unknown. (Return to text.)

 

6. Including Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis L., and other species of Elymus. Hitchcock et al., 1:559. Perhaps also wheatgrasses, Agropyron sp. (Return to text.)

 

7. Including both western wild, or Wood's, rose, Rosa woodsii Lindl. var. ultramontana (Wats.) Jeps., and Nootka rose, R. nutkana Presl. Hitchcock et al., 3:169–71. (Return to text.)

 

8. Probably Fremont goosefoot, Chenopodium fremontii Wats., commonly found in sagebrush to pine forest habitats. The lambsquarter with which Lewis was familiar, C. album L., is a Eurasian, weedy species, which was introduced widely over North America after white settlement. Hitchcock et al., 2:198–99, 195. (Return to text.)

 

9. Probably wild strawberry, but possibly woodland strawberry. (Return to text.)

 

10. Possibly black raspberry, black cap, Rubus leucodermis Dougl. ex T. & G., but more likely red raspberry. Hitchcock et al., 3:176, 178. (Return to text.)

 

11. Possibly peppergrass, Lepidium virginicum L. Hitchcock et al., 2:519–21. (Return to text.)

 

12. All of the mustard species, Brassica, are introduced weeds of a later era. It is unclear to which genus of the mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Lewis refers. (Return to text.)

 

13. Certainly not common tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L., an Old World plant, but one with which Lewis was probably familiar. This unknown species probably had deeply divided, compound leaves similar to tansy. A distinct possibility is western yarrow, Achillea millefolium L., which is present in this area and has characteristics similar to tansy. Bailey, 992; Hitchcock et al., 5:21–23, 320. This determination may also apply to earlier references to tansy, on June 6 and July 31, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

14. Possibly arrowleaf coltsfoot, Petasites sagittatus (Banks) Gray, from the mountains north of Camp Chopunnish, but it is uncommon even there. Hitchcock et al., 5:273. It is likely that Lewis used the name coltsfoot for a similar plant that remains unknown. (Return to text.)

 

15. No native species of plantain is known from the area. The name was probably used for some unknown species with a similar appearance. (Return to text.)

 

16. Probably a species of broomrape, cancerroot, Orobanche. Lewis's reference may have been to an eastern plant called cancerroot, perhaps Salvia lyrata L. Hitchcock et al., 4:428 ff.; Fernald, 1235. (Return to text.)

 

17. Any number of species in the pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Possibly a species of lupine, Lupinus, or of sweet pea, Lathyrus, or the sweet vetch, Hedysarum boreale. Hitchcock et al., 3:297 ff., 275–77. (Return to text.)

 

18. The pennyroyal to which Clark refers is Mentha pulegium L., a European species. Bailey, 863. (Return to text.)

 

19. Reubin Field, Shannon, Labiche, and Collins, say Lewis and Clark. (Return to text.)

 

20. The captains do not mention this man, although his information must have been unwelcome. (Return to text.)












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