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[Lewis] 
Tuesday June 10th 1806.
 

       This morning we arose early and had our horses collected except one of Cruzatt's and one of Whitehouse's, which were not to be found; after a surch of some hours Cruzatt's horse was obtained and the indians promised to find the other and bring it to us at the quawmash flatts  [1] where we purpose encamping a few days.    at 11 A. M. we set out with the party each man being well mounted and a light load on a second horse, beside which we have several supenemary [supernumerary] horses in case of accedent or the want of provision, we therefore feel ourselves perfectly equiped for the mountains.    we ascended the river hills which are very high and about three miles in extent our sourse being N. 22° E. thence N. 15 W. 2 m to Collins's creek.  [2]    thence due North 5 m. to the Eastern border of the quawmash flatts where we encamped near the place we first met with the Chopunnish last fall.  [3]    the pass of Collins's Creek was deep and extreemly difficult tho' we passed without sustaining further injury than weting some of our roots and bread.  [4]    the country through which we passed is extreemly fertile and generally free of stone, is well timbered with several speceis of fir, long leafed pine and larch.  [5]    the undergrowth is chooke cherry  [6] near the water courses, black alder,  [7] a large speceis of redroot  [8] now in blume, a growth  [9] which resembles the pappaw in it's leaf and which bears a burry with five valves of a deep perple colour, two speceis of shoemate  [10] sevenbark,  [11] perple haw,  [12] service berry,  [13] goosburry,  [14] a wild rose honeysuckle  [15] which bears a white berry, and a species of dwarf pine  [16] which grows about ten or twelve feet high.    bears a globular formed cone with small scales, the leaves are about the length and much the appearance of the common pitch pine having it's leaving in fassicles of two; in other rispects they would at a little distance be taken for the young plants of the long leafed pine.    there are two speceis of the wild rose  [17] both quinqui petallous and of a damask red but the one is as large as the common red rose of our gardens. I observed the apples of this speceis last fall to be more than triple the size of those of the ordinary wild rose; the stem of this rose is the same with the other tho' the leaf is somewhat larger.    after we encamped this evening we sent out our hunters; Collins killed a doe on which we suped much to our satisfaction.    we had scarcely reached Collins's Creek before we were overtaken by a party of Indians who informed us that they were going to the quawmash flatts to hunt; their object I beleive is the expectation of bing fed by us in which how ever kind as they have been we must disappoint them at this moment as it is necessary that we should use all frugallaty as well as employ every exertion to provide meat for our journey.    they have encamped with us.    we find a great number of burrowing squirels  [18] about our camp of which we killed several; I eat of them and found them quite as tender and well flavored as our grey squirel.    saw many sand hill crains  [19] and some ducks in the slashey glades about this place.—

 

      

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The Expedition's Route, June 10–September 23, 1806
 
(Journals 8, University of Nebraska Press, used with permission.)




[Clark] 
Tuesday June 10th 1806.
 

       rose early this morning and had all the horses Collected except one of Whitehouses horses which could not be found, an Indian promised to find the horse and bring him on to us at the quawmash fields at which place we intend to delay a fiew days for the laying in Some meat by which time we Calculate that the Snows will have melted more off the mountains and the grass raised to a sufficient hight for our hoses to live.    we packed up and Set out at 11 A M    we Set out with the party each man being well mounted and a light load on a 2d horse, besides which we have several supernumary horses in case of accident or the want of provisions, we therefore feel ourselves perfectly equiped for the Mountains.    we assended the hills which are very high and about three miles in extent our course being N. 22° E, thence N. 15° W 2 ms: to Collins Creek. Thence North 5 Miles to the Eastern boarders of the Quawmash flatts where we encamped near the place I first met with the Chopunnish Nation last fall.    the pass of Collins Creek was deep and extreemly difficult tho' we passed without sustaining further injury than wetting some of our roots and bread. The Country through which we passed is extreemly fertile and generally free from Stone, is well timbered with several Species of fir, long leafed pine and Larch.  [20]    the undergrowth is choke cherry near the watercourses, black alder, a large species of red root now in blume, a Growth which resembles the poppaw in it's leaf and which bears a berry with five valves of a deep purple colour, two species of Shoemate, Seven bark, perple haw, Service berry, Goose berry, wildrose, honey suckle which bears a white berry, and a Species of dwarf pine which grows about 10 or 12 feet high, bears a globarlar formed cone with Small Scales, the leaf is about the length and much the appearance of the pitch pine having it's leaves in fassicles of two; in other respects they would at a little distance be taken for the young plants of the long leafed pine. There are two Species of the wild rose both quinque petallous and of a damask red, but the one is as large as the common red rose of our guardens. I observed the apples of these Species last fall to be more than triple the Size of those of the ordinary wild rose; the Stem of this rose is the Same with the other tho' the leaf is somewhat larger.    after we encamped this evening we Sent out our hunters; Collins killed a doe on which we Suped much to our Satisfaction, we had not reached the top of the river hills before we were overtaken by a party of 8 Indians who informed me that they were gowing to the quawmash flatts to hunt; their object I belive is the expectation of being fed by us in which however kind as they have been we must disappoint them at this moment as it is necessary that we Should use all frugallaty as well as employ every exertion to provide meat for our journey.    they have encamped with us.    we find a great number of burrowing Squirels about our camp of which we killed Several; I eate of them and found them quit as tender and well flavd. as our grey squirel. Saw many Sand hill crains and Some ducks in the Slashey Glades about this place—.




[Ordway] 
 

       Tuesday 10th June 1806.    clear & pleasant.    we went eairly for our horses    found all except 2.    about 10 A. M. we Set out and proced. on    ascended a high hill then decended it down on Collins Creek    forded it and ascended a high hill on to a livel timbred country    2 or 3 men was left to look for the lost horses.    proced. thro. thickets of young slim pines & balsom fer timber    about 4 P M. we arived at the Commass ground  [21] where we Camped 22 Sept last but no villages here now.    we Camped here for a fiew days to kill some deer to take Some meat for the mountains.    this level consists of about 2000 ackers of level Smooth prarie on which is not a tree or Shreub, but the lowest parts is covred with commass which is now all in blossom, but is not good untill the Stalk is dead, then the natives assemble and collect their winters food in a short time as it is verry convenient for their villages as points of timber runs out in the praries of higher ground & covred with pitch pine.    a fine timbred country all around this rich land the Soil is deep black & verry rich & easy for cultervation    our men all came up    had found only one of the 2 lost horses. Several of the natives accompanied us. Several of our hunters went out this evening a hunting.    they all returned at dark    Collins had killed one deer. Some of the rest wounded Several others &C.




[Gass] 
 

       Tuesday 10th.    We collected all our horses, but one, and set out accompanied by several of the natives, travelled about twelve miles and arrived at what we call the Com-mas flat, where we first met the natives after crossing the Rocky mountains last fall. Here we encamped  [22] and some hunters  [23] went out. The com-mas grows in great abundance on this plain; and at this time looks beautiful, being in full bloom with flowers of a pale blue colour.— At night our hunters came in and had killed one deer.




 

1. On Weippe Prairie, in Clearwater County, Idaho, near the western bank of Jim Ford Creek ("Village Creek" on Atlas map 71) and about two miles southeast of present Weippe. Space, 30; Peebles (LT), map. The "quawmash" is camas, Camassia quamash (Pursh) Greene; see September 20, 1805, and the next entry, June 11, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

2. Present Lolo Creek, in Clearwater County. Atlas map 71. (Return to text.)

 

3. They were about a mile southeast of the first Indian village they had come to when meeting the Nez Perces on September 20, 1805. Space, 30; Peebles (LT), map; Appleman (LC), 284–85. (Return to text.)

 

4. Probably meaning the roots of either camas or cous, Lomatium cous (Wats.) Coult. & Rose, and the bread made from these plants. Hitchcock et al., 3:548–49. On June 17 Lewis specifically mentions "roots and bread of cows [cous]." (Return to text.)

 

5. The species of "fir" along the route include Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, grand fir, Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl., and Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry. See February 6, 1806. The pine with long leaves is Ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and the larch is western, Montana, or mountain, larch, also called hackmatack, and tamarack, Larix occidentalis Nutt. Hitchcock et al., 1:131–32, 117, 122, 129, 121. (Return to text.)

 

6. Prunus virginiana L. (Return to text.)

 

7. The alder of this region is thinleaf alder, Alnus incana (L.) Moench. Hitchcock et al., 2:73–74. Lewis uses the common name of the closely related European species, Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Bailey, 327. (Return to text.)

 

8. Redroot is an eastern North American shrub also called New Jersey tea, Ceanothus americanus L., with reputed medicinal value as a blood coagulant. Lewis clearly realizes that he is seeing a different, "large" species, now called redstem ceanothus, buckbrush, or buckthorn, C. sanguineus Pursh. The species was new to science, but the captain did not collect the type specimen until possibly June 27. Uphof, 115; Hitchcock et al., 3:418; Cutright (LCPN), 306–7, 405–6. (Return to text.)

 

9. The purple berry helps identify this as cascara, chittam bark, Rhamnus purshiana DC. Lewis wrote a similar description of the berry on the label of the type specimen he collected in the vicinity on May 29, 1806. Hitchcock et al., 3:420; Cutright (LCPN), 307–8, 416–17. He compares its leaves to the leaf of the pawpaw, Asimina triloba (L.) Dun. Bailey, 420; Barkley, 14. See references to pawpaw and its possible effects on September 11 and 19, 1806. (Return to text.)

 

10. One species of the "shoemate" is probably smooth sumac, Rhus glabra L., which is common in the area. The second could be poison ivy, R. radicans L., which occurs at lower elevations around Camp Chopunnish. Since this plant was certainly known to the men, it is curious that it is not named specifically. Thus, Lewis could have been seeing Greene mountain ash, Sorbus scopulina Greene, which without flowers could be confused for sumac. See September 20, 1805, where he calls another mountain ash "shoemake." Hitchcock et al., 3:407, 189; Little (MWH), 193-W. (Return to text.)

 

11. Identified previously as ninebark, Physocarpus capitatus (Pursh) Kuntze (see December 1, 1805), it now seems certain that Lewis's "sevenbark" is another plant. Sevenbark is an old common name for the eastern North American shrub, Hydrangea arborescens L., probably known to Lewis because of its importance as a medicinal. Lewis's syringa or Lewis's mock orange, Philadelphus lewisii Pursh, is the only member of the Hydrangea family in the region, and it would have looked very similar to sevenbark (Hydrangea arborescens) at this time of year, prior to its midsummer flowering season. Syringa is common in the area, and Lewis had pressed a specimen of it four days earlier. He collected it again when he saw it in bloom on July 4, 1806. Based on these specimens, Frederick Pursh honored Lewis by attaching his name to it, one of the most attractive flowering shrubs in the Rocky Mountains, now the state flower of Idaho. Uphof, 274; Hitchcock et al., 3:86–87; Cutright (LCPN), 299, 363, 413–14. (Return to text.)

 

12. Purple haw is black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii Lindl. Hitchcock et al., 3:101; Cutright (LCPN), 288–89, 407. (Return to text.)

 

13. Serviceberry, Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Hitchcock et al., 3:93–95. (Return to text.)

 

14. Two species of gooseberry could have been seen on this day, snow gooseberry, Ribes niveum Lindl., which occurs at lower elevations in the vicinity of Camp Chopunnish, and Idaho gooseberry, R. irriguum Dougl., which could have been encountered at higher elevations as they ascended the slope. Ibid., 3:80, 75. (Return to text.)

 

15. The honeysuckle with a white berry is common snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake. Ibid., 4:464–65; see also August 13, 1805. Roses are discussed in detail a few lines below. (Return to text.)

 

16. Lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud; not a dwarf pine, Lewis was simply observing young trees here. Ibid., 1:125–27. The species somewhat resembles the pitch pine (P. rigida Mill.) of eastern North America. (Return to text.)

 

17. The wild rose with large flowers and "apples" (hips) is Nootka rose, Rosa nutkana Presl. The other species with smaller flowers but similar stems is western wild, or Wood's, rose, R. woodsii Lindl. Both were undescribed species at the time. Ibid., 3:169–71; Cutright (LCPN), 418. Lewis exhibits some of his botanical training by using the latin term "quinqui petallous," meaning that the two species, like most wild roses, have flowers with five petals, in contrast to cultivated forms that are bred to have many petals. It was probably Biddle was marked a red vertical line through this passage about roses. (Return to text.)

 

18. Lewis and Clark commonly applied this term to the prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus (see September 7, 1804, and July 1, 1806); here he may be referring to the Columbian ground squirrel, Spermophilus columbianus (see May 23 and 27, 1806). The gray squirrel mentioned for comparison is Sciurus carolinensis. Burroughs, 99–101, 102–6; Cutright (LCPN), 306, 445. (Return to text.)

 

19. Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis [AOU, 206]. (Return to text.)

 

20. Beginning with this sentence a light red vertical line runs through this botanical material, probably done by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

21. Weippe Prairie, Clearwater County, Idaho. The party now camped near the location where they had met the Nez Perces on September 20, 1805. (Return to text.)

 

22. Near the western bank of Jim Ford Creek, about two miles southeast of Weippe, Clearwater County. (Return to text.)

 

23. Collins is the only one named, by the captains and Ordway; he killed the one deer mentioned later. (Return to text.)












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