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[Lewis] 
Sunday June 29th 1806.
 

       We collected our horses early this morning and set out, having previously dispatched Drewyer and R. Fields to the warm springs to hunt.    we pursued the hights of the ridge on which we have been passing for several days; it terminated at the distance of 5 ms. from our encampment and we decended to, and passed the main branch of the Kooskooske  [1] 1˝ ms. above the entrance of Quawmash creek  [2] wid falls in on the N. E. side.    when we decended from this ridge we bid aideu to the snow.    near the river we fund a deer which the hunters had killed and left us.    this was a fortunate supply as all our oil was now exhausted and we were reduced to our roots alone without salt.    the Kooskooske at this place is about 30 yds. wide and runs with great velocity.    the bed as all the mountain streams is composed of smooth stones.  [3]    beyond the river we ascended a very steep acclivity of a mountain about 2 Miles and arrived at it's summit where we found the old road which we had pased as we went out, coming in on our wright.    the road was now much plainer and more beaten, which we were informed happened from the circumstance of the Ootslashshoots visiting the fishery frequently from the vally of Clark's river; tho' there was no appearance of there having been here this spring. at noon we arrived at the quawmas flatts on the Creek of the same name  [4] and halted to graize our horses and dine having traveled 12 miles.    we passed our encampment of the [NB: 13th]  [5] of September at 10 ms. where we halted    there is a pretty little plain of about 50 acres plentifully stocked with quawmash and from apperances this fromes one of the principal stages or encampments of the indians who pass the mountains on this road.    we found after we had halted that one of our packhorses with his load and one of my riding horses were left behind.    we dispatched J. Feilds and Colter in surch of the lost horses.    after dinner we continued our march seven miles further to the warm springs  [6] where we arrived early in the evening and sent out several hunters, who as well as R Fields and Drewyer returned unsuccessful; late in the evening Colter and J. Fields joined us with the lost horses and brought with them a deer which they had killed, this furnished us with supper.    these warm springs are situated at the base of a hill of no considerable hight on the N side and near the bank of travellers rest creek  [7] which at that place is about 10 yards wide.    these springs issue from the bottoms and through the interstices of a grey freestone rock,  [8] the rock rises in iregular masy clifts in a circular range arround the springs on their lower side.    immediately above the springs on the creek there is a handsome little quamas plain of about 10 acres.    the prinsipal spring is about the temperature of the warmest baths used at the hot springs in Virginia. In this bath which had been prepared by the Indians by stoping the run with stone and travel, I bathed and remained in 19 minutes, it was with dificulty I could remain thus long and it caused a profuse sweat    two other bold springs adjacent to this are much warmer, their heat being so great as to make the hand of a person smart extreemly when immerced. I think the temperature of these springs about the same as the hotest of the hot springs in Virginia.    both the men and indians amused themselves with the use of a bath this evening. I observed that the indians after remaining in the hot bath as long as they could bear it ran and plunged themselves into the creek the water of which is now as cold as ice can make it; after remaining here a few minutes they returned again to the warm bath, repeating this transision several times but always ending with the warm bath. I killed a small black pheasant near the quamash grounds this evening which is the first I have seen below the snow region. I also saw some young pheasants which were about the size of Chickens of 3 days old.    saw the track of two bearfoot indians who were supposed to be distressed refugees who had fled from the Minnetares.  [9]




[Clark] 
Sunday June 29th 1806
 

       We colected our horses and Set out haveing previously dispatched Drewyer & R. Field to the Warm Springs to hunt.    we prosued the hights of the ridge on which we have been passing for several days; it termonated at the distancen of 5 M. from our encampment, and we decended to & passed the main branch of Kooskooke 1˝ Ms. above the enterance of Glade Creek which falls in on the N. E. Side.    we bid adew to the Snow.    near the River we found a Deer which the hunters had killed and left us.    this was a fortunate Supply as all our bears oil was now exhosted, and we were reduced to our roots alone without Salt.    the river is 30 yds wide and runs with great velossity.    the bead as all the Mountain streams is composed of Smooth Stone.    beyond this river we assended a Steep Mountain about 2 Miles to it's Sumit where we found the old road which we had passed on as we went out.    comeing in on our right, the road was now much plainer and much beaten.    at noon we arived at the quawmash flatts on Vally Creek and halted to graize our horses and dined haveing traveled 12 Miles    here is a pretty little plain of about 50 acres plentifully Stocked with quawmash and from appearance this forms one of the principal Stages of the indians who pass the mountains on this road.    we found that one of our pack horss with his load and one of Capt. L.s. horses were missing    we dispatched Jo. Field & Colter in serch of the lost horse's.    after dinner we continued our march 7 ms further to the worm Springs where we arrived early in the evening, and Sent out Several hunters, who as well as R. Field & Drewyer returned unsuksessfull; late in the evening Jo. Field & Colter joined us with the lost horses and brought with them a Deer which J. F. had killed, this furnished us with a Supper.

 

       Those Worm or Hot Springs are Situated at the base of a a hill of no considerable hight, on the N. Side and near the bank of travellers rest Creek which is at that place about 10 yds wide.    these Springs issue from the bottom and through the interstices of a grey freestone rock, the rock rises in irregular masy clifts in a circular range, arround the Springs on their lower Side.    imediately above the Springs on the Creek there is a handsom little quawmash plain of about 10 acres.    the principal Spring is about the temperature of the Warmest baths used at the Hot Springs in Virginia.    in this bath which had been prepared by the Indians by stopping the river with Stone and mud, I bathed and remained in 10 minits it was with dificuelty I could remain this long and it causd a profuse swet. two other bold Springs adjacent to this are much warmer, their heat being so great as to make the hand of a person Smart extreemly when immerced.    we think the temperature of those Springs about the Same as that of the hotest of the hot Springs of Virginia.    both the Men and the indians amused themselves with the use of the bath this evening. I observe after the indians remaining in the hot bath as long as they could bear it run and plunge themselves into the Creek the water of which is now as Cold as ice Can make it; after remaining here a fiew minits they return again to the worm bath repeeting this transision Several times but always ending with the worm bath. Saw the tracks of 2 bearfooted indians—.




[Ordway] 
 

       Sunday 29th June 1806.    a fair morning.    we got up our horses eairly    two hunters went on a head.    the fog rose up thick from the hollars    we proceeded on a ridge desended down on a fork of Collinses Creek took the meat of a deer the hunters had killed crossed the creek above the forks Some distance ascended a high mountn. came in the old road we went in last year & proceed. on  [10]    had a Shower of hail and Thunder.    about 1 oClock P. M. we arived at the glades of the rockey mountn.  [11]    Crossed glade Creek Several times and halted at a handsom flat of grass and Commass.    found that 2 of our horses got left back on the road    2 men  [12] went back for them    Shields killed 2 crains    we dined and proceed. on    Soon came on the head waters of travvellers rest Creek.  [13]    towards evening we arived at the hot Stream where we Camped.  [14]    the 2 men came up with the 2 horses.    had killed one deer.    a number of the party as well as myself bathed in these hot Springs, but the water so hot that it makes the Skin Smart when I first entered it. I drank Some of the water also.—




[Gass] 
 

       Sunday 29th.    There was a foggy morning. We went out early, proceeded over some bad hills, and came to the old path;  [15] at which time there was a shower of rain, with hail, thunder and lightening, that lasted about an hour. At 10 o'clock we left the snow, and in the evening we arrived at the warm spring; where we encamped for the night, and most of us bathed in its water. One of our hunters killed a deer where we dined at the glades or plains on Glade creek;  [16] and where there is good grass, and com-mas also grows. Two other hunters went on ahead and killed another deer on the way.




 

1. Present Crooked Fork, in Idaho County, Idaho, "North Fork" on Atlas map 69. Space, 38; Peebles (LT), map; Peebles (RLC), 27. (Return to text.)

 

2. Brushy Creek in northeast Idaho County; it is not named on Atlas maps 69 or 70. Space, 38; Peebles (RLC), 27; Peebles (LT), map. (Return to text.)

 

3. The stones result principally from mass wasting of the formations through which the river cuts. The stones in the streambed become rounded and polished as the current moves them downstream, especially during spring runoff. (Return to text.)

 

4. Packer Meadows on Pack Creek, in Idaho County, in the vicinity of their camp of September 13, 1805, on Atlas map 69. Space, 39; Peebles (RLC), 27; Peebles (LT), map. (Return to text.)

 

5. Another addition to an apparent blank space in Biddle's customary red ink. (Return to text.)

 

6. They crossed into Missoula County, Montana, and camped at the Lolo Hot Springs; see September 13, 1805. Space, 39; Peeble (RLC), 27; Peebles (LT), map; Atlas map 69. (Return to text.)

 

7. Present Lolo Creek, in Missoula County. Atlas map 69. (Return to text.)

 

8. The term freestone was applied to any layered stone that could be split easily to produce slabs or blocks; it generally was used in reference to sedimentary rocks such as sandstone or limestone. The rocks near Lolo Hot Springs, however, are igneous rocks of granitic composition and were derived from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Idaho batholith intrusion. Lewis probably called these rocks freestone either because they are fractured and appear layered or because these rocks have the tendency to spall off in slabs (ex-foliate). The temperature of the water at Lolo Hot Springs was measured at 111° F in 1974, and the discharge was measured at 180 gallons per minute. (Return to text.)

 

9. From the cramped nature of the writing, it appears that this last sentence was probably inserted later. The "Minnetares" here might be either Atsinas or Hidatsas. A red vertical line runs through the last sentences of the entry, probably to strike out the material about the "pheasants" and perhaps done by Biddle. (Return to text.)

 

10. The party moved eastward along the ridge to Rocky Point, then descended to Crooked Fork Creek and crossed it a mile or so above the entrance of Brushy Creek. Then they turned to the northeast and climbed a ridge to pick up their trail of the previous year, all in Idaho County, Idaho. (Return to text.)

 

11. Packer Meadows on Pack (Glade) Creek, Idaho County. (Return to text.)

 

12. Joseph Field and Colter, say the captains. (Return to text.)

 

13. Lolo Creek, Missoula County, Montana. (Return to text.)

 

14. Lolo Hot Springs, Missoula County, Montana. (Return to text.)

 

15. Their westbound route, which they now rejoined, having avoided the portion that went down into the Lochsa River valley. (Return to text.)

 

16. Packer Meadows on Pack (Glade) Creek, Idaho County, Idaho. (Return to text.)












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