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Part 2: Miscellany

 

       The following miscellaneous items do not fit into other sections of this chapter. These notes were apparently made after the party left Fort Clatsop in March 1806 or are related to the period after that time, perhaps being written as late as after the return to St. Louis in September 1806.




[Clark] 
[undated]  [1]
 

       The navagation of the Missouri to the neighbourhood of the falls is only obstructed by a regularly Swift Current, Sand bars & trees unbeaded in the bottom    no rapids or falls of any Consequence and [in?] The 2575 miles

 

        

The large Rivers which fall into the Missouri are

1st    Osage on S. Side    navagable a long way
2    Kanzas S. S.                   do       in Canoes long way
3    R. Plate not nav: one inch
Little & Big R. Scioux & R. Jacque nav: a Short dists. on N. S.
R. Quecurre not navagbe. one inch
〈Teton River Nav for Ca〉
White River Nav. for Canoes Som Distance S. Side
Teton R.             do       do       do       S. Sd.
Chyenne large & nav. for boats Some Way S. S.
Cannon Ball & 2 other on S. Side for Cans a Short dists.
Little Missouri abov Mandans Nav. a 〈Short〉 long Dis for Cans S. Side
White Earth River Small Nav. for Cans Sht Dist. N. Sd.
Rochejhon (or Yellow rock R.) Navg a long ways    Capt. Clark decended this
     river 818 miles in Cans.
Porcupine River high up on N. Side    Nav. Short dists.
Marias River near the falls    navg for boats a Short distance & for Canoes to
     near the mountains    on the N. Side of the Missouri
Medicine Ri. 35 abov the falls navigable a few Miles N. Side
The 3 forks Jefferson Madisins & Galitin Rivers are all navgable for Small
     Canoes to their Source 〈plenty beaver〉

 

       ☞ The rout which I should propose to carry on this trade across the Continant is from St. Louis by the Missouri to the Falls of that river 2575 Miles 〈in Balluax of [blank] Weight roaling requiring 8 men〉 then by land on horses to the Forks of Kooskooske West of the Great rocky mountains 340 Miles thence Down Lewis River & the Columbia 640 Miles to the Pacific Ocian. The best Situation for a Tradeing Establishment on that River is 125 miles above it's 〈mouth〉 Enterance at the 〈Enterance〉 confluence of Multnomah River from the South    here vestles of any Size may ride in Safty

 

       The winter Establishments of Lewis & Clark in 1804 & 5 was at Mandans Nation 1600 miles up the Mandan Misouri in Latd. 47° 21' 47" North and within 150 miles of the British Tradeing Establishments on the waters of Lake Winnipic & Hudsons Bay—    in the Spring of 1805 the party proceded on in large pereogus & Canoes to the falls of the Missouri 966 Miles in Latd. 47° 8 4 N. Current rapid & muddy    here the party left the large perogue, and hauled the Canoes acrossed a portage of 18 miles, through an open plain.    here the Missouri has a fall within 17 m of about 362 feet in which there are Several pitches are perpendiclr. and fall 〈to an imenc hight〉 one of 97 feet, 19 feet & 47 & 26 feet 5 Inches. 〈above those falls〉 from those falls we view the range of Rocky Mountains (so Called) to a great Distance to N W. & South— above those falls the cors Missouri is more South    in assending we penetrate the 1st range of Rocky Mountains at about 30 Miles on a Direct line, then with the Derection of the Mountains to the East of S. 181 Miles to the 3 forks of Jefferson Madson's & Galitines River in Lat. 45° 22' 34" N—    we Proceeded up Jeffersons River in a S Westely Direction 276 miles by water to its Source or head Spring in Lat. 44° 33' 22" North—    from thence across to Lewis River a Branch of the Columbia is 10 mile west (here the Shoshone or Snake Indians reside)    this river is not navagable & no road in this Direction across to the W. of those Emenc mountains.    〈our Cours〉 we hired a guide and proceded on over Emenc mountains on which there was Snow Augt. & Septr. to Clarks River a Branch of the Columbia, about 100 miles where we met with the Tushepaws or flat head Inds.    then Down that river in a vally about 200 Miles Travelers rest Creek Latd. 46 48 26 at a road which passes from the plains East of the Mountains near the falls of Missouri across those Mountains to the plains of Columbia West of those mountains (and the rout proposed to Carry on the Trade) here Commences the rugid part of those Emenc Mountains, after resting a few Days on Clarks River at this Road where we found a fiew deer, we proceded on over those emenc rugid Mountains of Snow (in which the party were Compelled to live on horse flesh) to the Forks Kooskooske 183 miles 140 miles of which distance was over emenc Mountains 60 ms. of Snow here Canoes were built & decended the Kooskooske 〈73〉 to Lewis's river from the South down that river to the main Columbia from the N. in Latd. 46° 15' 13" and down the Columbia to its enterance in Lat. 46 19 11 N. and Longt. 124° 57' W. of Greenwich being 640 miles by Water and nearly a West Course. The party arived on the pacific Coast 17 Nov. & built a fort in which they Continued untill the 23 of March following & then Set out on their return by water as far as the Great falls of the Columbia 268 where Some hors were precured to Carry 〈bagga〉    Some Currents passed 〈3 involands〉 & then on foot through an open County for [blank] miles to the foot of the Mtn.

 

       [blank] miles to the foot of the mountain where the party were obliged to delay from the 9th of May untill the 24th of June for the Snows of the mountain to Subside Sufficient to Cross, and then pased over Snow for 60 ms generally from 3 to 6 or 8 feet deep quit 〈firm &〉 Consolidated, or Sufficiently So to bear a hors    at the Enterance of Travelers rest on Clarks river Capt Lewis & Clark Seperated. Lewis passed imedeately to the falls of the Missouri on an old indian parth of good road    left a party as that place to prepar 〈Geer & Wheels &c〉 and proceded with 3 men to Explore a large N. fork of the Missouri Called Marias River and met with a party of Indians & was Compelled to kill 2 of them. Clark with [blank] men passed up Clarks river and across the heads of Several branches of the Missouri to the place the Canoes had been left on his outward bound journey at the head of Jefferson river, 〈Sent down〉 decended Jeffersons river to the 3 forks, and Sent on the Canoes down the Missouri under the derection of a Sergt. and proceded himself up Galitines River and passed over to the River Rochejhon or Yellow rock river from the South in Latd. 45° 22 N. and 〈built〉 made Canoes of wood & Buffalow Canoes & decended that river 818 miles to its junction with the Missouri 1880 Miles from St. Louis.

 

       The Streams of the Missouri near & within those mountains abound in beaver & otter.

 

       The Muddiness of the Missouri is Caused by the Washing in of it's banks— within the rocky mountains the Water is Clear

 

       The Pumies Stone which is found as low as the Illinois County is formd by the banks or Stratums of Coal taking fire and burning the earth imedeately above it into either pumies Stone or Lavia, this Coal Country is principly above the Mandans—

 

       The Country from the Mississippi to the River Plate 630 Miles 〈will afford of a good〉 furnishes a Sufficient qty of Wood for Settlements— above that River the 〈wood〉 Country becoms more open, and wood principally Confined to river & Creek bottoms.    the uplands furtile and open, with Some exceptions    on the Rochejhone R. Capt Clark Saw Some Pine Country and the ranges of low Black mountains are Covered with wood.    most of the large Rivers fall in on the South side of the Missouri.




[Clark] 
[undated]  [2]
 

      


Cowe[lis]kee River
Chah nwah na hi oos River, alter to quathlah potte r.
add Several on Wappato Island
The Multnomah
The Skillute Nation on The Coweleske River
Multnomah River and the tribes on Wappato Island
Seal & Quicksand Rivers
add Several nations and their names on the Columbia
Mt. Jefferson & Clarkamos River &c.
add the Skaddatts— and other nations
a large Creek above River la page on North Side
alter the Towarnahiooks River
add a River below the Mucle Shele rapid on South SideYou-ma-lol-am
Walllah wallah River & the road by land
South fork of Louises River & the Stream & Nations
Clarks River & the Streams & Nations. Lake &c.
The East and West forrk of Clarks River &c. &c.
Wisdom River and hot Spring Vally. Willards Creek & &c.
Galletins River andn the portage of 48 miles & mountains
River Rochejhone and it's waters




[Clark] 
[undated]  [3]
 

        

Note. The Lynn commence about the Calumet Bluffs and downwards.—
      950 Ms. up the Missouri
The Prairie Fowl common to the Illinois are found as high up as the River
     Jacque above which the Sharpe tailed Grows commence    950 Ms.
The Black Walnut is found as high up as 〈Floyds〉 White Stone river and
     from thence down on the high rich lands.    900 Ms.
Mulberry is found as high up as Grand River de Sieoux.    858
Prickly pear is not Common below the Queequerre    1000 ms
Hickory is to be found below the Mahars and black birch in the Same
     Country, also the horn beem    (830 ms.)
Racoons is found from the Calumet Bluffs downwards & on the Pacific
     Coast also the honey locus and Coffee nut    650
Indian Hen & Small Species of Kildee which frequent drift is found as
     high up as the Entrance of the Little Sieux river    733 ms.
The large Black and Brindle Wolf is found as high up as the Mahars Vil-
     lage—    the Small burrowing wolf of the prarie is found as low as the
     Mahars & some fiew near the Missippi    836 Ms.
The Black Bear is found in abundance as high as the little Sioux river, and
     the are found much higher but scerce. The Ass smart is also found in
     the Same neighbourhood.    733 ms.
Parotqueet is Seen as high as the Mahar Village    836 ms.
Opossum is found as high as the River platt.    600 ms.
Grey Squrils are found as high up as little Sieux R    733
Hack berry and Hasel bushes are found as high up as the Council bluff    also
     red oake and Sycamore several species of oake Iron wood    650 mes.
Papaws arrow wood and [letters crossed out, illegible] elder are found as high
     as the little Nemahaw, also Sugar tree    480 mil
Buckeye & 〈Sugartree〉 is found as high up as the old Kanzas village above
     Independance Creek    285 ms
Green Bryar found as high up as [blank]
Pacans are found as high up 〈as Osarge River〉  [4]    400

 

        

In decending the Missouri & Rochejhone

The Grapes of the Small kind first appear on the River Rochejhone near
     it's enterance into the Rocky mountains    2700 mils    but are not abun-
     dant on that river, the grape are abundant below cannon ball rivers
     1500 ms up    and from thence down to the enterance of the river into
     the Mississippi.    no grapes of the large kind
Wild plumbs first appear at the cut off or Mandan Isld.    below the man-
     dans tho' they are Scerce and Small    they becom abundant and fine in
     the neighbourhood of the enterance of White River.    1580 ms
white oake first appear 60 miles below the Ricaras Vilg. and are found in
     considerable quantity in the river bottoms just above the enterance of
     Corvus Creek.    1370 mes up
white ash at ash rapid on the Missouri up and on the River rochejhone 60
     miles above it's enterance.    2443 ms. up
Elm is found Something higher up the rivers than the ash    2500
Prickly ash first appears a fiew miles above Bull Island in the river bot-
     toms. Shoemate commences—    2500
Turkeys first appear at the enterance of Tylors Rivr above the big bend
     1200 miles up this 〈river〉 Missouri    1206
The pointed tail Prarie fowl are found above the Big bend upwards.    1200
     ms. up    box elder as high as the Mandans    1600
The party coloured Corvus or Magpy Commence at or about Corvus Creek
     and from thence upwards.    1130
The Fox Squirel first appear a fiew miles above the Dome where we first
     met with the burrowing or Barking Squirels    1030 Mils. up the [Missouri]
     Missouri whipperwill is the common attendant of those squirels.
The Big horn animal is found as low as the Beaver bend a fiew miles below
     the enterance of the rochejhone.    1800 ms. up
The Antilope or Cabra are found in great abundance as low as the Chyenne
     River, and are seen scattering as low down as the neighbourhood of
     the Mahar village.    or 800 ms up
Mule or Black tail Deer is met with 〈at〉 on the Snowey mts. up and are
     found as low down the Missouri as the antient fortification & on Boon
     homm Island or good mans Islands    1000 m
Brarow are found as low as Council Bluff    650 ms. up
Yellow Oker above the upper old Kanzas Village in a ben on the S side
Chock Cherry found between the 2 Nemahars Rivers 500 miles up the Mis-
     souri also another species of Cherry
Sycamore is found at Ball pated prarie




[Clark] 
From St. Louis 1806  [5]
 

       Memorandum of articles fowarded to Louisville by Capt. Clark in care of Mr. Wolpards  [6] 1s.

 

        

one large Box Containing

4 large Horns of the Bighorn animal
2 Sceletens    do         do         do
2 Skins horns & bons of    do
4 Mandan Robes of Buffalow
1 Indian Blanket of the Sheep
1 Sheep Skin of the rocky mountains
1 Brarow Skin
3 Bear Skins of the White Speces
3 barking Squirls
2 Skins of the big horn
1 Mule or black tail Deer Skin
1 Hat made by the Clatsops Indians
2 Indian Baskets
4 buffalow horns
1 Tigor Cat Skin Coat
1 long box of sundery articles
1 Tin box containing Medicine &c &c. &c.

 

        

a Small Box of papers

Books and Sundery Small articles
a Hat Box containing the 4 vols. of the Deckinsery of arts an ciences  [7]    two
Indian wallets a tale of the black taile Deer of the Ocean & a Vulters quill with a buffalow Coat.
Capt. Lewis forward to Washington by Lieut. Peters  [8] in

 

        

Box No. 1

6 Skins and Sceletens complete of the mountain ram, three male and 3 female
1 Blacktail Deer Skin
1 Sheep Skin
4 Barking Squirels
3 Bear Skins
1 White Wolf
3 beaver tales
No. 2
2 Boxes Containing Various articles
1 Tin Case                   do    do
1 air gun
4 Robins
1 Clat sop hat




 

1. This brief summary of the expedition's route and its major features may have been started at Fort Clatsop but includes discussions of terrain that was explored after that time. It may have been a preliminary draft for the descriptions of the party's trip that the captains sent to Jefferson and others in September 1806; see Jackson (LLC), 1:317–43. The document as printed here is a combination of two items at the American Philosophical Society. The first part is from the little field book containing Clark's draft of his side trip from Fort Clatsop to the coast, January 6–10, 1806, and other miscellaneous items such as this one. The second part is from Codex T, beginning with the paragraph "[blank] miles to the foot of the mountain." The first words of Codex T repeat the last words from this section of the field draft and the two clearly belong together. See Appendices B and C; Moulton (SJ), 198–99. (Return to text.)

 

2. This document is a loose sheet in the Voorhis collection, written by Clark some time after he completed his exploration of the Yellowstone River. This list of Indian tribes and locations was apparently intended as an aid in the creation of a map of the explorers' route and the placement of Indian tribes. (Return to text.)

 

3. This document is found in Codex N, pp. 153–54 (reading backwards). The last three entries (yellow oker, chock cherry, and sycamore) are found only in another copy, in the notebook Voorhis No. 4; it also contains other slight variations that are omitted here. The species may be identified as: lynn, American linden; prairie fowl common to the Illinois, greater prairie-chicken; sharp-tailed grouse; black walnut; red mulberry; prickly pear; hickory, either bitternut hickory or shagbark hickory; black birch, perhaps river birch, Betula nigra L.; American hornbeam; raccoon; honey locust, Gleditsia triancanthos L.; coffeenut, Kentucky coffee-tree, Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch; Indian hen, greater prairie-chicken; killdeer, Charadrius vociferus [AOU, 273]; black wolf, gray wolf; small wolf, coyote; black bear; ass smart, perhaps smartweed, Polygonum sp.; parroquet, Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis [AOU, 382]; opossum, Didelphis virginiana; gray squirrel; hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L.; hazelnut, Corylus americana Walt.; red oak, Quercus borealis Michx.; sycamore; iron wood, hop-hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch; pawpaw; arrowwood, black haw; elder, common elderberry; sugar tree, sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh.; western buckeye, Aesculus glabra Willd.; green briar, probably bristly greenbriar, Smilax hispida Muhl.; pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch; small grape, probably river-bank grape, Vitis riparia Michx.; large grape, Vitis sp.; wild plum; white oak, probably bur oak (see September 2, 1806); white ash, probably green ash (see September 2, 1806); American elm; prickly ash; shoemate, perhaps smooth sumac (see June 10, 1806); turkey; pointed tail prairie fowl, sharp-tailed grouse; boxelder, Acer negundo L.; black-billed magpie; fox squirrel; barking squirrel, prairie dog; Missouri whip-poor-will, common poorwill; bighorn sheep; antelope, pronghorn; mule deer; brarow, badger; yellow ocher, the mineral limonite (see July 5, 1804); choke cherry. (Return to text.)

 

4. Another word was substituted for these crossed out ones but is not legible. The Voorhis version is no help. The word begins with "N" and both the Nemaha and Nodaway rivers are in the area of four hundred miles up the Missouri by Clark's calculations, but the letters do not appear to form those words. (Return to text.)

 

5. This list appears in Codex N, pp. 1–2. A dark vertical line runs the length of the text. (Return to text.)

 

6. Probably Adam Woolford, or Woodford, who operated a boat between St. Louis and Louisville; see April 15, 1804. (Return to text.)

 

7. Jackson (SBLC), 11–13, discusses what these volumes may be. One possibility is Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopedia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Another is Owen's Dictionary, so called after the publisher. (Return to text.)

 

8. George Peter; see September 22, 1806. (Return to text.)












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