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       Allen, John L. Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.
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Baldwin (WR) 
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Barbour 
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Barkley 
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Barry 
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Beaglehole 
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Bedini (SILC) 
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Bedini (TT) 
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Belting 
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Benson (HLCE) 
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Benson (HLCE) 
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Benson (CUSC) 
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Bergantino 
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Berreman 
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Berry 
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Berthrong 
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Betts (SY) 
       Betts, Robert B. In Search of York: The Slave Who Went to the Pacific with Lewis and Clark.  Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1985.
Betts (WCW) 
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Betts (WE) 
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Biddle (BR) 
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Billups 
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Boellstorff 
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Borror, Delong, & Triplehorn 
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Bowers (HSCO) 
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Bowers (MSCO) 
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Boyd 
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Boyd & Hajda 
       Boyd, Robert T., and Yvonne P. Hajda. "Seasonal Population Movement Along the Lower Columbia River: The Social and Ecological Context."  American Ethnologist  14 (May 1987): 309–26.
Brackenridge 
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Bradbury 
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Bradley (MS) 
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Bradley (MMC) 
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Bragg & Tatschl 
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Braun 
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Brauner 
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Bray (ETG) 
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Bray (MIT) 
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Brobst & Pratt 
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Brown 
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Brown 
       Brown, Robert Harold. Wyoming: A Geography.  Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1980.
Buck & Buck 
       Buck, Solon J., and Elizabeth Hawthorn Buck. The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1939.
Burchett et al. 
       Burchett, R. R., V. H. Dreeszen, E. C. Reed, and G. E. Pritchard. "Bedrock Geologic Map Showing Thickness of Overlying Quaternary Deposits, Lincoln Quadrangle and Part of Nebraska City Quadrangle, Nebraska and Kansas."  United States Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations (map I–729), 1972.
Burroughs 
       Burroughs, Raymond Darwin. The Natural History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1961.
Butler (ALCV) 
       Butler, B. Robert. "Art of the Lower Columbia Valley."  Archaeology  10 (September 1957): 158–65.
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Butler (WM) 
       ———. "The Physical Stratigraphy of Wakemap Mound: A New Interpretation."  M.A. thesis, University of Washington, 1960.
Butler 
       Butler, James Davie. "The New Found Journal of Charles Floyd, a Sergeant under Captains Lewis and Clark."  Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society,  n.s., 9 (April 1894): 225–52.
Butterfield 
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Caldwell 
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Callender, Pope, & Pope 
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Caywood 
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Chamberlain 
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Champe 
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Chance & Chance 
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Chapman (OM) 
       Chapman, Berlin B. The Otoe and Missourias: A Study of Indian Removal and the Legal Aftermath.  Oklahoma City: Times Journal Publishing Co., 1965.
Chapman (AM) 
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Chapman (IO) 
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Chapman (LOM) 
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Chapman (OOIT) 
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Chatters (LCEM) 
       Chatters, Roy M. "The Discovery of a Lewis and Clark Expedition Medal: A Personal Recollection."  Bunchgrass Historian  10 (Summer 1982): 3.
Chatters 
       Chatters, Roy M. "The Not-So-Enigmatic Lewis and Clark Airgun."  We Proceeded On  3 (May 1977): 4–6.
Chevigny 
       Chevigny, Hector. Russian America: The Great Alaskan Venture, 1741–1867.  New York: Viking Press, 1965.
Chittenden 
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Christman 
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Chuinard (OOMD) 
       ———. Only One Man Died: The Medical Aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  Glendale, Calif.: Arthur H. Clark, 1979.
Chuinard (MMFC) 
       Chuinard, Eldon G. "A Medical Mystery at Fort Clatsop."  We Proceeded On  3 (May 1977): 8–9.
Chuinard (TJCD) 
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Clark 
       Clark, William P. The Indian Sign Language.  1885. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.
Clarke (JN) 
       Clarke, Charles G. "John Newman."  In Hafen, 9: 299–304.
Clarke (MLCE) 
       ———. The Men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: A Biographical Roster of the Fifty-one Members and a Composite Diary of Their Activities from All Known Sources.  Glendale, Calif.: Arthur H. Clark, 1970.
Clarke (PW) 
       ———. "Peter M. Weiser."  In Hafen, 9: 385–91.
Clemens & Wilby 
       Clemens, W. A., and G. V. Wilby. Fishes of the Pacific Coast of Canada.  Bulletin 68 (rev.). Ottawa: Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 1949.
Cleveland et al. 
       Cleveland, Gregory, Bruce Cochran, Judith Giniger, and Hallett Hammatt. "Archaeological Reconnaissance on the Mid Columbia and Lower Snake River Reservoirs for the Walla Walla District Army Corps of Engineers."  Washington State University, Washington Archaeological Research Center, Project Report No. 27. Pullman, 1976
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Cole 
       Cole, David L. "Archaeological Research in the Bonneville Dam Pool."  University of Oregon Museum of Natural History, Report to the National Park Service. Eugene, 1974.
Condra & Reed 
       Condra, G. E., and E. C. Reed. "The Geological Section of Nebraska."  Nebraska Geological Survey Bulletin  14 A. Lincoln: Nebraska Geological Survey, 1959.
Cook 
       Cook, Warren L. Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest, 1543–1819.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.
Cook 
       Cook, Warren L. Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Norhtwest, 1543–1819.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.
Cote, Reinertsen, & Killey 
       Cote, William, David Reinertsen, and Myna Killey. Illinois State Geological Survey, Guide Leaflet.  Geological Science Field Trip, Thebes Area, Alexander County, Jonesboro and Thebes Quadrangles. Urbana: Illinois Department of Registration and Education, 1968.
Coues (DOMJ) 
       Coues, Elliott. "Description of the Original Manuscript Journals and Field Notebooks of Lewis and Clark, on which was based Biddle's History of the Expedition of 1804–1806; and which are now in the possession of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia."  Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society  31 (January 1893): 17–33.
Coues (HLC) 
       Coues, Elliott, ed. History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark. . . .  1893. Reprint. 3 vols. New York: Dover Publications, 1965.
Coues (NLEH) 
       ———, ed. New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest.  3 vols. New York: Harper, 1897.
Cox 
       Cox, Ross. The Columbia River.  Edited by Edgar I. Stewart and Jane A. Stewart. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
Cramer (5th) 
       Cramer, Zadok. The Navigator; or, The Traders' Useful Guide in Navigating the Monongahela, Allegheny, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. . . .  5th ed. Pittsburgh: Zadok Cramer 1806.
Cramer (6th) 
       ———. The Navigator; Containing Directions for Navigating the Monongahela, Allegheny, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. . . .  6th ed. Pittsburgh: Cramer and Spear, 1808.
Cressman 
       Cressman, L. S. "Lower Columbia Indian Weapons."  Oregon Historical Quarterly  49 (December 1948): 297–9.
Cressman et al. 
       Cressman, Luther S., David L. Cole, Wilbur A. Davis, Thomas M. Newman, and Daniel J. Scheans. "Cultural Sequences at The Dalles, Oregon: A Contribution to the Pacific Northwest Prehistory."  Transactions of the American Philosophical Society,  n.s., 50, pt. 10 (December 1960): 1–108.
Criswell 
       Criswell, Elijah Harry. Lewis and Clark: Linguistic Pioneers.  University of Missouri Studies, vol. 15, no. 2. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1940.
Cronquist et al. 
       Cronquist, Arthur, Arthur H. Holmgren, Noel H. Holmgren, James L. Reveal, and Patricia K. Holmgren. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.  Vol. 4 Subclass Asteridae (except Asteraceae). New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1984.
Crosby 
       Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbia Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing, 1972.
Cruikshank 
       Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. "Robert Dickson, the Indian Trader."  Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin  12: 133–53. Madison, Wis.: Democrat Publishing Company, 1892.
Culin 
       Culin, Stewart. Games of North American Indians.  Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907.
Culin 
       Culin, Stewart. Games of the North American Indians.  1907. Reprint. 2 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.
Cumings 
       Cumings, Samuel. The Western Navigator; Containing Directions for the Navigation of the Ohio and the Mississippi. . . .  Philadelphia: E. Littell, 1822.
Curtis 
       Curtis, Edward S. The North American Indian.  Edited by Frederick W. Hodge. 20 vols. Cambridge: The University Press (vols. 1–5); Norwood, Mass.: Plimpton Press (vols. 6–20), 1907–30.
Cutright (HLCJ) 
       Cutright, Paul Russell. A History of the Lewis and Clark Journals.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.
Cutright (IGHB) 
       ———. "I gave him barks and saltpeter. . . ."  American Heritage  15 (December 1963): 59–61, 94–101.
Cutright (LCD) 
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Cutright (LCIPM) 
       ———. "Lewis and Clark Indian Peace Medals."  Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society  24 (January 1968): 160–67.
Cutright (LCPN) 
       ———. Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1969.
Cutright (LCPP) 
       ———. "Lewis and Clark: Portraits and Portraitists."  Montana, the Magazine of Western History  19 (Spring 1969): 37–53.
Cutright (ML) 
       ———. "Meriwether Lewis Prepares for a Trip West."  Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society  23 (October 1966): 3–20.
Cutright (OMPD) 
       ———. "The Odyssey of the Magpie and the Prairie Dog."  Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society  23 (April 1967): 215–28.
Cutright & Brodhead 
       Cutright, Paul Russell, and Michael J. Brodhead. Elliott Coues: Naturalist and Frontier Historian.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.
Daubenmire (ESWI) 
       Daubenmire, Rexford F. "An Ecological Study of the Vegetation of Southeastern Washington and Adjacent Idaho."  Ecological Monographs  12 (January 1942): 53–79.
Daubenmire 
       Daubenmire, Rexford. "Forest Vegetation of Northern Idaho and Adjacent Washington, and its Bearing on Concepts of Vegetation Classification."  Ecological Monographs  22 (October 1952): 301–30.
Daubenmire (SVW) 
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Daugherty 
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Diller (NM) 
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Diller (PH) 
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Dillon 
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Dorsey 
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Drucker 
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Duncan 
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Dunlay 
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Dunnell & Campbell 
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Dunnell & Whitlam 
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Foley & Rice 
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Franchère (JV) 
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Franklin & Dyrness 
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Gleason & Cronquist 
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Lange (GD) 
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Lange (JS) 
       ———. "John Shields: Lewis and Clark's Handyman: Gunsmith—Blacksmith—General Mechanic—for the Expedition."  We Proceeded On  5 (July 1979): 14–16.
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       ———. "Private George Shannon: The Expedition's Youngest Member—1785 or 1787–1836."  We Proceeded On  8 (July 1982): 10–15.
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       Lee, David S., Carter, R. Gilbert, Charles H. Hocutt, Robert E. Jenkins, Don E. McAllister, and Jay R. Stauffer, Jr. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes.  Raleigh: North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, 1980.
Lehmer 
       Lehmer, Donald J. Middle Missouri Archaeology.  National Park Service Anthropological Papers No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971.
Lehmer, Meston, & Dill 
       Lehmer, Donald J., L. K. Meston, and C. L. Dill. "Structural Details of a Middle Missouri House."  Plains Anthropologist  18 (May 1973): 160–66.
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       Lewis, Albert Buell. "Tribes of the Columbia Valley and the Coast of Washington and Oregon."  Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association  1 (1906): 147–209.
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       Lewis, T. H. "Lewis and Clarke and the Antiquities of the Upper Missouri River."  American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal  13 (January–November 1891): 288–93.
Liberty 
       Liberty, Margot. "The Sun Dance."  In Wood & Liberty, 164–78.
Link 
       Link, John Thomas. "The Toponomy of Nebraska."  Master's thesis, University of Nebraska, 1932.
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Little (MWH) 
       ———. Atlas of United States Trees.  Vol. 3, Minor Western Hardwoods.  Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 1976.
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       Long, John. "Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and Trader. . . ."  In Thwaites (EWT) 2: 21–329.
Loomis & Nasatir 
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Loos 
       Loos, John Louis. "A Biography of William Clark, 1770–1813."  Ph.D. diss., Washington University, 1953.
Lothson & Lindeman (PB) 
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Lothson & Lindeman (PK) 
       ———. "Cultural Resource Reconnaissance and Phase II Testing for the Port of Kennewick near Plymouth."  Report to Port of Kennewick, Washington, National Heritage. Colfax, 1981.
Lowie (TA) 
       Lowie, Robert H. The Assiniboine.  Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 4, part 1. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1909.
Lowie (TC) 
       ———. The Crow Indians.  1935. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.
Lowie (IP) 
       Lowie, Robert H. Indians of the Plains.  1954. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.
Lowie (NS) 
       ———. The Northern Shoshone.  Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 2, part 2. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1909.
Ludwickson, Blakeslee, & O'Shea 
       Ludwickson, John, Donald Blakeslee, and John O'Shea. "Missouri National Recreational River: Native American Cultural Resources."  A report prepared for the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Interagency Archeological Services, Denver, Colorado, 1981.
Luttig 
       Luttig, John D. Journal of a Fur-Trading Expedition on the Upper Missouri, 1812–1813. . . .  Edited by Stella M. Drumm. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1920.
McDermott (FFW) 
       ———, ed. Frenchmen and French Ways in the Mississippi Valley.  Urbana: University of Illinois, 1969.
McDermott (FS) 
       McDermott, John Francis. "French Surnames in the Mississippi Valley."  American Speech  9 (February 1934): 28–30.
McDermott (GMVF) 
       McDermott, John Francis. A Glossary of Mississippi Valley French, 1673–1850.  St. Louis: Washington University, 1941.
McDermott (MIG) 
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McDermott (OC) 
       ———, ed. Old Cahokia: A Narrative and Documents Illustrating the First Century of Its History.  St. Louis: St. Louis Historical Documents Foundation, 1949.
McDermott (SMV) 
       ———, ed. The Spanish in the Mississippi Valley, 1762–1804.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.
McDermott (WCS) 
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McGirr 
       McGirr, Newman F. "Patrick Gass and His Journal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition."  West Virginia History  3 (April 1942): 205–12.
McJimsey 
       McJimsey, George Davis. Topographic Terms in Virginia.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1940.
McMillan 
       McMillan, Bruce R. "Man and Mastodon: A Review of Koch's 1840 Pomme de Terre Expeditions."  In Prehistoric Man and his Environments: A Case Study in the Ozark Highlands,  edited by W. Raymond Wood and R. Bruce McMillan, 81–96. New York: Academic Press, 1976.
MacGregor 
       MacGregor, James G. Peter Fidler: Canada's Forgotten Surveyor, 1769–1822.  Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1966.
MacKay 
       MacKay, Douglas. The Honourable Company: A History of the Hudson's Bay Company.  New York: Tudor Pulishing Co., 1938.
Madison 
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Madsen 
       Madsen, Brigham D. The Bannock of Idaho.  Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1958.
Majors 
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Majors (LCRM) 
       Majors, Harry M. "Lewis and Clark Enter the Rocky Mountains."  Northwest Discovery  7 (April and May 1986): 4–120.
Marshall 
       Marshall, Alan G. "Nez Perce Social Groups, an Ecological Interpretation."  Ph.D. diss., Washington State University, 1977.
Martin 
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Marx 
       Marx, Walter H. "A Latin Matter in the Biddle 'Narrative' or 'History' of the Lewis and Clark Expedition."  We Proceeded On  9 (November 1983): 21–22.
Masson 
       Masson, L. R., ed. Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-ouest. . . .   1889–90. Reprint. 2 vols. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1960.
Mathews 
       Mathews, John Joseph. The Osages: Children of the Middle Waters.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961.
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Mattes (FR) 
       ———. "Report on Historic Sites in the Fort Randall Reservoir Area, Missouri River, South Dakota."  South Dakota Historical Collections  24 (1949): 470–588.
Matthews 
       Matthews, Washington. Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians.  Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877.
Mattison (GP) 
       Mattison, Ray H. "Report on Historic Sites Adjacent to the Missouri River, Between the Big Sioux River and Fort Randall Dam, Including Those in the Gavins Point Reservoir Area."  South Dakota Historical Collections  28 (1956): 22–98.
Mattison (GR) 
       Mattison, Ray H. "Report on Historic Sites in the Garrison Reservoir Area, Missouri River."  North Dakota History  22 (January–April 1955): 5–73.
Mattison (OR) 
       ——–. "Report on Historical Aspects of the Oahe Reservoir Area, Missouri River, South and North Dakota."  South Dakota Historical Collections  27 (1943): 1–159.
Mattison (BB) 
       ———. "Report on the Historic Sites in the Big Bend Reservoir Area, South Dakota."  South Dakota Historical Collections  31 (1962): 243–86.
Mattison (GP) 
       ———. "Report on Historic Sites Adjacent to the Missouri River, Between the Big Sioux River and Fort Randall Dam, Including Those in the Gavins Point Reservoir Area."  South Dakota Historical Collections  28 (1956): 22–98.
Mattson 
       Mattson, Daniel M. "Cultural Resource Investigations of the Dworshak Reservoir Project, North Fork Clearwater River, Northern Idaho."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Research Manuscript Series No. 81. Moscow, 1983.
Meany 
       Meany, Edmond S. Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound.  New York: Macmillan, 1907.
Mehl 
       Mehl, M. G. Missouri's Ice Age Mammals.  Educational Series, no. 1. Jefferson City, Mo.: Division of Geological Survey and Water Resources, 1962.
Meinig 
       Meinig, Donald W. The Great Columbia Plain: A Historical Geography, 1805–1910.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.
Menzies 
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Meyer 
       Meyer, Roy W. The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.
Miller 
       Miller, Robert D. "Geology of the Omaha-Council Bluffs Area, Nebraska-Iowa."  U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 472. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964.
Miller (MNA) 
       Miller, Orson K., Jr. Mushrooms of North America.  New York: E. P. Dutton, 1972.
Minor (ASCR) 
       Minor, Rick. "Aboriginal Settlement and Subsistence at the Mouth of the Columbia River."  Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1983.
Minor 
       Minor, Rick. "Archaeological Testing at 45SA16, Skamania County, Washington."  Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 33. Eugene, 1984.
Minor (IHL) 
       ———. "Archaeological Testing at Ice House Lake, Skamania County, Washington."  Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 76. Eugene, 1988.
Minor (SS) 
       ———. "Archaeological Testing at the Skamokawa Site (45-WK-5), Wahkiakum County, Washington."  University of Washington, Office of Public Archaeology, Institute for Environmental Studies, Report to the Soil Conservation Service, Reconnaissance Report 19. Seattle, 1978.
Minor (CAC) 
       ———. "The Carty Artifact Collection from Cathlapotle Village."  Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 78. Eugene, 1989.
Minor (EAS) 
       ———. "An Evaluation of Archeological Sites on State Park Lands Along the Oregon Coast."  Report to the Oregon State Historic Preservation Office, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 44. Eugene, 1986.
Minor (FATS) 
       ———. "Further Archaeological Testing at 45SA16, Skamania County, Washington."  Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 67. Eugene, 1988.
Minor (FSS) 
       ———. "Further Archaeological Testing at the Skamokawa Site (45-WK-5), Wahkiakum County, Washington."  University of Washington, Office of Public Archaeology, Institute for Environmental Studies, Report to the Soil Conservation Service, Reconnaissance Report 36. Seattle, 1980.
Minor (PH) 
       ———. "Prehistory."  In "Prehistory and History of Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, Oregon and Washington," by Stephen Dow Beckham, Rick Minor, Kathryn Anne Toepel, and Jo Reese, 31–80. Report to the U.S. Forest Service, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 75. Eugene, 1988.
Minor & Beckham 
       Minor, Rick, and Stephen Dow Beckham. "Overview and Assessment of Cultural Resources in the Proposed Home Valley Park, Skamania County, Washington."  Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 45. Eugene, 1986.
Minor & Toepel 
       Minor, Rick, and Kathryn Anne Toepel. "Archaeological Investigations at 45CL4, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington."  Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 37. Eugene, 1985.
Minor, Toepel, & Beckham 
       Minor, Rick, Kathryn Anne Toepel, and Stephen Dow Beckham. "An Overview of Investigations at 45SA11: Archaeological in the Columbia River Gorge."  Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 39. Eugene, 1986.
Minor, Toepel, & Beckham 
       Minor, Rick, Kathryn Anne Toepel, and Stephen Dow Beckham. "An Overview of Investigations at 45SA11: Archaeology in the Columbia River Gorge."  Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 39. Eugene, 1985.
Minor, Toepel, & Beckham (Rev.) 
       Minor, Rick, Kathryn Anne Toepel, and Stephen Dow Beckham. "An Overview of Investigations at 45SA11: Archaeology in the Columbia River Gorge."  Revised Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. 83. Eugene, 1989.
Missouri Guide 
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MRC 
       Missouri River Commission. Map of the Missouri River From Its Mouth to Three Forks, Montana, in Eighty-four Sheets.  Washington, D.C.: Missouri River Commission, 1892–95.
MRM 
       Missouri River: Mouth to Rulo.  Kansas City, Mo.: Corps of Engineers, 1947–49.
MRR 
       Missouri River: Rulo, Nebraska to Yankton, South Dakota.  Omaha, Nebr.: Corps of Engineers, 1947–49.
MRY 
       Missouri River: Gavins Point Near Yankton, South Dakota to Stanton, North Dakota.  Omaha, Nebr.: Corps of Engineers, 1949.
Montana Guide 
       Montana: A State Guide Book.  Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Montana. American Guide Series. 1939. Reprint. New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1949.
Moodie & Kaye 
       Moodie, D.W., and Barry Kaye. "The Ac ko Mok ki Map."  The Beaver  (Spring 1977): 4–15.
Moore 
       Moore, Conrad T. "Man and Fire in the Central North American Grassland, 1535–1890: A Documentary Historical Geography."  Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1972.
Moore (MPMW) 
       Moore, Michael. Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.  Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1979.
Morgan & Harris 
       Morgan, Dale L., and Eleanor T. Harris, eds. The Rocky Mountain Journals of William Marshall Anderson: The West in 1834.  San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1967.
Moulton 
       Moulton, Gary E., ed. Atlas of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.
Moulton 
       Moulton, Gary E. "A Note on the White Pirogue."  We Proceeded On  12 (May 1986): 22.
Moulton 
       Moulton, Gary E. "The Specialized Journals of Lewis and Clark."  Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society  127 (June 16, 1983): 194–201.
Morgan 
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Mueggler & Stewart 
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       Munnick, Harriet D. "François Rivet."  In Hafen, 7: 237–43.
Munnick (PD) 
       ———. "Pierre Dorion."  In Hafen, 8: 107–12.
Murdock 
       Murdock, George Peter. "Notes on the Tenino, Molala, and Paiute of Oregon."  American Anthropologist,  n.s., 40 (July–September 1938): 395–402.
Murray & Marrant 
       Murray, Thomas A., and Joel Marrant. "Preliminary Sampling of the Three Rox Site, 35-LNC-33, on the Oregon Coast."  In Contributions to the Archaeology of Oregon, 1981–1982," edited by Don E. Dumond, 47–55. Association of Oregon Archaeologists, Occasional Papers No. 2. Portland, 1983.
Nance 
       Nance, Charles R. "45WT2: An Archaeological Site on the Lower Snake River."  M.A. thesis, Washington State University, 1966.
Nasatir (BLC) 
       ———. ed. Before Lewis and Clark: Documents Illustrating the History of the Missouri, 1785–1804.  2 vols. St. Louis: St. Louis Historical Documents Foundation, 1952.
Nasatir (BR) 
       Nasatir, Abraham P. Borderland in Retreat: From Spanish Louisiana to the Far Southwest.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1976.
Nasatir (JBT) 
       Nasatir, Abraham P. "Jean-Baptiste Truteau."  In Hafen (MMFT), 4: 318–97.
Nasatir (JM) 
       ———. "James Mackay."  In Hafen, 4: 185–206.
Nasatir (SWV) 
       ———. Spanish War Vessels on the Mississippi, 1792–1796.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.
Nebraska Guide 
       Nebraska: A Guide to the Cornhusker State.  Compiled and written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration. American Guide Series. New York: Viking Press, 1939.
Neiburger, Edinger, & Bonner 
       Neiburger, Morris, James G. Edinger, and William D. Bonner. Understanding Our Atmospheric Environment.  2d ed. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1982.
Nelson (LMLG) 
       Nelson, Charles M. "Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dam Reservoir Areas, 1964."  Washington State University Laboratory of Anthropology, Report of Investigations No. 34. Pullman, 1965.
Nelson 
       Nelson, Joseph S. Fishes of the World.  New York: John Wiley, 1976.
Newman 
       Newman, Thomas M. "Tillamook Prehistory and its Relation to the Northwest Coast Culture Area."  Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1959.
Ney 
       Ney, Virgil. Fort on the Prairie: Fort Atkinson on the Council Bluff, 1819–1827.  Washington, D.C.: Command Publications, 1978.
Nichols & Halley 
       Nichols, Roger L., and Patrick L. Halley. Stephen Long and American Frontier Exploration.  Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1980.
Nichols 
       Nichols, William. "Lewis and Clark Probe the Heart of Darkness."  American Scholar  49 (Winter 1979–80): 94–101.
Nicollet (MMR) 
       Nicollet, Joseph N. Maps of the Missouri River, Joseph N. Nicollet Papers, vol. 2, pt. 2, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Nicollet (RIIM) 
       ———. Report Intended to Illustrate a Map of the Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River. . . .  Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, 1843.
North Dakota Guide 
       North Dakota: A Guide to the Northern Prairie State.  Compiled by workers of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of North Dakota. American Guide Series. 1938. Reprint. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950.
North Dakota Guide 
       North Dakota: A Guide to the Northern Prairie State.  Compiled by workers of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of North Dakota. American Guide Series. 1938. Reprint. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950.
Nute 
       Nute, Grace Lee. The Voyageur.  1931. Reprint. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1955.
Oglesby 
       Oglesby, Richard Edward. Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
Ohio Guide 
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Olson 
       Olson, Kirk. "A Lewis and Clark Rifle?"  American Rifleman,  May 1985, 23–25, 66–68.
Olson (TNC) 
       Olson, Ronald L. "Adze, Canoe, and House Types of the Northwest Coast."  University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 2 (November 1927): 1–38.
Osborne 
       Osborne, Douglas. Excavations in the McNary Reservoir Basin near Umatilla, Oregon.  Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 166. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1957.
Osborne, Bryan, & Crabtree 
       Osborne, Douglas, Alan Bryan, and Robert H. Crabtree. "The Sheep Island Site and the Mid-Columbia Valley."  Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 179, River Basin Surveys Papers No. 24, 267–306. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961.
Osborne & Crabtree 
       Osborne, Douglas, and Robert H. Crabtree. "Two Sites in the Upper McNary Reservoir."  Tebiwa  4 (Fall 1961): 19–36.
Osgood (FN) 
       Osgood, Ernest S., ed. The Field Notes of Captain William Clark, 1803–1805.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964.
Osgood (ODS) 
       Osgood, Ernest S. "Our Dog Scannon—Partner in Discovery."  Montana, the Magazine of Western History  26 (July 1976): 8–17.
Osgood (ODS) 
       Osgood, Ernest S. "Our Dog Scannon—Partner in Discovery."  Montana, the Magazine of Western History  26 (Summer 1976): 8–17.
Parks (BVAP) 
       Parks, Douglas R. "Bands and Villages of the Arikara and Pawnee."  Nebraska History  60 (Summer 1979): 214–39.
Parks (NCL) 
       ——–. "The Northern Caddoan Languages: Their Subgroupings and Time Depth."  Nebraska History   60 (Summer 1979): 197–213.
Peebles (LT) 
       Pebbles, John J. "On the Lolo Trail: Route and Campsites of Lewis and Clark."  Idaho Yesterdays  9 (Winter 1965–66): 2–15.
Peebles (RLC) 
       ———. "The Return of Lewis and Clark."  Idaho Yesterdays  10 (Summer 1966): 16–27.
Peebles (RW) 
       ———. "Rugged Waters: Trails and Campsites of Lewis and Clark in the Salmon River Country."  Idaho Yesterdays  8 (Summer 1964): 2–17.
Pendergast 
       Pendergast, David M., ed. Palenque: The Walker-Caddy Expedition to the Ancient City, 1839–1840.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.
Pennak 
       Pennak, Robert W. Fresh-water Invertebrates of the United States.  New York: Ronald Press, 1953.
Petersen 
       Petersen, William J. Iowa: The Rivers of Her Valleys.  Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1941.
Peterson 
       Peterson, Harold L. The Book of the Continental Soldier.  Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Company, 1968.
Pettigrew 
       Pettigrew, Richard M. "A Prehistoric Culture Sequence in the Portland Basin of the Lower Columbia Valley."  University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No. 22. Eugene, 1981.
Pfister et al. 
       Pfister, Robert D., Bernard L. Kovalchik, Stephan F. Arno, and Richard C. Presby. "Forest Habitat Types of Montana."  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-34. Ogden, Utah, 1977.
Phebus 
       Phebus, George E. "The Smithsonian Institution 1934 Bonneville Reservoir Salvage Archaeology Project."  Northwest Anthropological Research Notes  12 (Fall 1978): 113–77.
Phebus & Drucker 
       Phebus, George, Jr., and Robert M. Drucker. Archaeological Investigations at Seaside, Oregon.  Seaside: Seaside Museum and Historical Society, 1977.
Prior, Halberg, & Bettis 
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Prucha (IPM) 
       Prucha, Francis Paul. Indian Peace Medals in American History.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971.
Prucha (SR) 
       ———. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783–1846.  New York: Macmillan, 1969.
Pryor & Ross 
       Pryor, W. A., and C. A. Ross. Geology of the Illinois Parts of the Cairo, La Center, and Thebes Quadrangles.  Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 332. Urbana: Illinois Department of Registration and Education, 1962.
Pursh 
       Pursh, Frederick. Flora Americae Septentrionalis.  1814. Reprint. Braunschweig, Germany: Stauss and Cramer, 1979.
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Quaife (ECMJ) 
       Quaife, Milo Milton, ed. "Extracts from Capt. McKay's Journal—and Others."  Wisconsin Historical Society Proceedings  63 (1915): 186–210.
Quaife (MLJO) 
       ———, ed. The Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis and Sergeant John Ordway Kept on the Expedition of Western Exploration, 1803–1806.  Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1916.
Ray 
       Ray, Louis L. "Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology of the Owensboro Quadrangle, Indiana and Kentucky."  Geological Survey.  Professional Paper 488. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1965.
Ray (CI) 
       Ray, Verne F. "The Chinook Indians in the Early 1800s."  In The Western Shore: Oregon Country Essays Honoring the American Revolution,  edited by Thomas Vaughan, 121–50. Portland, Oreg.: American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Oregon, 1975.
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       Ray, Verne F. Cultural Relations in the Plateau of Northwestern America.  Publications of the Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Publication Fund, vol. 3. Los Angeles: The Southwest Museum, 1939.
Ray (CDP) 
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Ray (LCEN) 
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Ray (HCI) 
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Ray (NVCB) 
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Ray & Lurie 
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Ray et al. 
       Ray, Verne F., et al. "Tribal Distribution in Eastern Oregon and Adjacent Regions."  American Anthropologist,  n.s., 40 (July–September 1938): 384–415.
Raynolds & Simpson 
       Raynolds, W. F., and James H. Simpson. Map of the Mississippi River between the Mouth of the Illinois and the Mouth of the Ohio Rivers.  St. Louis: Corps of Engineers, 1878.
Reed & Dreeszen 
       Reed, E. C., and V. H. Dreeszen. "Revision of the Classification of the Pleistocene Deposits of Nebraska."  Nebraska Geological Survey Bulletin  no. 23. Lincoln: Conservation and Survey Division, University of Nebraska, 1965.
Rees 
       Rees, John E. "The Shoshoni Contribution to Lewis and Clark."  Idaho Yesterdays  2 (Summer 1958): 2–13.
Reid 
       Reid, Russell, ed. Lewis and Clark in North Dakota.  Bismarck: State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1947–48.
Reid & Gannon 
       Reid, Russell, and Clell C. Gannon. "Birds and Mammals Observed by Lewis and Clark in North Dakota."  North Dakota Historical Quarterly  1 (July 1927): 14–36.
Rhodes 
       Rhodes, Richard A. Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary.  Berlin: Mouton, 1985.
Rice (CSWC) 
       Rice, Harvey S. "The Cultural Sequence at Windust Caves."  M.A. thesis, Washington State University, 1965.
Rice (NAD) 
       ———. "Native American Dwellings and Attendant Structures of the Southern Plateau."  Eastern Washington University Reports in Archaeology and History, Archaeological and Historical Services, Report No. 100-44. Cheney, 1985.
Rice 
       Rice, Otis K. The Allegheny Frontier: West Virginia Beginnings, 1730–1830.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1970.
Rice & Lindeman 
       Rice, Harvey S., and Glen W. Lindeman. "Cultural Resource Reconnaissance and Historical Statement for the Port of Benton near Plymouth Washington."  Report to Port of Benton County, Washington, National Heritage. Pullman, 1979.
Robinson 
       Robinson, Doane. "Lewis and Clark in South Dakota."  South Dakota Historical Collection  9 (1918): 514–96.
Rodeffer 
       Rodeffer, Michael J. "A Classification of Burials in the Lower Snake River Region."  Northwest Anthropological Research Notes  7 (Spring 1973): 101–31.
Rodeffer, Rodeffer, & Sprague 
       Rodeffer, Michael J., Stephanie H. Rodeffer, and Roderick Sprague. "Nez Perce Grave Removal Project: A Preliminary Report."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Research Series No. 5. Moscow, 1972.
Rogers 
       Rogers, Ann. "Was it the Pawpaws?"  We Proceeded On  13 (February 1987): 17–18.
Ronda (AE) 
       Ronda, James P. Astoria and Empire.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.
Ronda (IC) 
       Ronda, James P. "'A Chart in His Way': Indian Cartography and the Lewis and Clark Expedition."  Great Plains Quarterly  4 (Winter 1984): 43–53.
Ronda 
       Ronda, James P. "Frazer's Razor: The Ethnohistory of a Common Object."  We Proceeded On  7 (August 1981): 12–13.
Ronda (LCAI) 
       ———. Lewis and Clark among the Indians.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Ronda (SLW) 
       ———. "St. Louis Welcomes and Toasts the Lewis and Clark Expedition."  We Proceeded On  13 (February 1987): 19–20.
Rose 
       Rose, Donald W. "Captain Lewis's Iron Boat: 'The Experiment.'"  We Proceeded On  7 (May 1981): 4–7.
Roseboom & Weisenburger 
       Roseboom, Eugene Holloway, and Francis Phelps Weisenburger. A History of Ohio.  New York: Prentice-Hall, 1934.
Ross 
       Ross, Alexander. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River.  Edited by Milo Milton Quaife. Chicago: R. R. Donnelly and Sons, 1923.
Ruby & Brown (CIIT) 
       Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown. The Cayuse Indians: Imperial Tribesmen of Old Oregon.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.
Ruby & Brown (CITC) 
       ———. The Chinook Indians: Traders of the Lower Columbia River.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.
Ruby & Brown (IPN) 
       ———. Indians of the Pacific Northwest: A History.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.
Russell (FTT) 
       Russell, Carl P. Firearms, Traps, and Tools of the Mountain Men.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967.
Russell (FTT) 
       Russell, Carl P. Firearms, Traps, and Tools of the Mountain Men.  New York: Knopf, 1967.
Russell (GEF) 
       ———. Guns on the Early Frontiers: A History of Firearms from Colonial Times Through the Years of the Western Fur Trade.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.
Saindon 
       Saindon, Bob. "The Lost Vocabularies of the Lewis and Clark Expedition."  We Proceeded On  3 (July 1977): 4–6.
Saindon (RSO) 
       Saindon, Bob. "The River Which Scolds at All Others: An Obstinate Blunder in Nomenclature."  Montana, the Magazine of Western History  26 (July 1976): 2–7.
Saindon (WP) 
       Saindon, Bob. "The White Pirogue of the Lewis and Clark Expedition."  WPO Publication  No. 1 (August 1976): 15–22.
Saleeby & Pettigrew 
       Saleeby, Becky M., and Richard M. Pettigrew. "Seasonality of Occupation of Ethnohistorically-Documented Villages on the Lower Columbia River."  In Prehistoric Places on the Southern Northwest Coast, edited by Robert E. Greengo, 169–93. Thomas Burke Memorial State Museum Research Report No. 4. Seattle, 1983.
Sapir 
       Sapir, Edward. "Preliminary Report on the Language and Mythology of the Upper Chinook."  American Anthropologist,  n.s., 9 (July–September 1907): 533–44.
Sappington (AISC) 
       Sappington, Robert Lee. "Archaeological Investigations at 10 Sites Along the Lower Snake and Clearwater Rivers."  University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Letter Report No. 85–24. Moscow, 1985.
Sappington (AIA) 
       ———. "Archaeological Investigations at the Ahsahka Sportsmen's Access Site (10-CW-5), Clearwater River, North Central Idaho."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Reports No. 90. Moscow, 1989.
Sappington & Carley (AIK) 
       Sappington, Robert Lee, and Caroline D. Carley. "Archaeological Investigations at the Kooskia Bridge Site (10-IH-1395), Middle Fork, Clearwater River, North Central Idaho."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Reports No. 87. Moscow, 1987.
Sappington & Carley (AECR) 
       ———. "Results of Archaeological Test Excavations along the Clearwater River, North Central Idaho."  University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Report to the Idaho Transportation Department. Moscow, 1983.
Sappington, Cochran, & Ozbun 
       Sappington, Robert Lee, Bruce Cochran, and Terry L. Ozbun. "Archaeological Test Excavation and Evaluation of the Proposed Fish Hatchery Site (10-CW-4), on the North Fork of the Clearwater River, North Central Idaho."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Reports No. 89. Moscow, 1988.
Sappington & Wegars 
       Sappington, Robet Lee, and Priscilla Wegars. "Results of Archaeological Test Excavations at Canoe Camp, Nez Perce National Historical Park, near Orofino, Idaho."  University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Report to the National Park Service, Letter Report No. 88-15. Moscow, 1988.
Saucier & Seineke 
       Saucier, Walter J., and Kathrine Wagner Seineke. "François Saucier, Engineer of Fort de Chartres, Illinois."  In McDermott (FFW), 199–229.
Schalk 
       Schalk, Randall F., ed. "Cultural Resource Investigations for the Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery Project, near Lyons Ferry, Washington."  Washington State University Laboratory of Archaeology and History, Project Report No. 8. Pullman, 1983.
Schalk (IMD) 
       Schalk, Randall, ed. "Cultural Resource Investigations for the Second Powerhouse at McNary Dam, near Umatilla, Oregon."  Washington State University, Laboratory of Archaeology and History, Project Report No. 1. Pullman, 1980.
Schwede 
       Schwede, Madge L. "An Ecological Study of Nez Perce Settlement Patterns."  M.A. thesis, Washington State University, 1966.
Seaman 
       Seaman, Norma G. Indian Relics of the Pacific Northwest.  Portland, Oreg.: Binfords and Mort, 1967.
Secoy 
       Secoy, Frank Raymond. Changing Military Patterns on the Great Plains (17th Century through Early 19th Century).  Monographs of the American Ethnological Society, no. 21. Locust Valley, N.Y.: J.J. Augustin, 1953.
Sellers 
       Sellers, Charles Coleman. Charles Willson Peale.  New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1969.
Settle 
       Settle, Raymond W. "Nathaniel Pryor."  In Hafen, 2: 277–84.
Shaw 
       Shaw, Robert D. "Report of Excavations: the Martin Site (45PC7), 1974."  Washington Archaeological Society, Occasional Paper No. 5. Seattle, 1977.
Shawley 
       Shawley, Stephen D. "Nez Perce Trails."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Research Manuscript Series No. 44. Moscow, 1984.
Shiner 
       Shiner, Joel L. "The McNary Reservoir: A Study in Plateau Archaeology."  Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 179, River Basin Surveys Papers No. 23, 149–266. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961.
Shiner (WW) 
       ———. "A Preliminary Report on the Archaeology of Site 45-WW-6 on the Columbia River, Washington."  Columbia Basin Project, River Basin Survey, Smithsonian Institution. Eugene, 1952.
Shultz 
       Shultz, Leila M. McReynolds. "Systematics and Anatomical Studies of Artemisia Subgenus Tridentatae."  Ph.D. diss., Claremont Graduate School, 1983.
Silverstein 
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Silverstein 
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Skarsten (GD) 
       Skarsten, M. O. "George Drouillard."  In Hafen, 9: 69–82.
Skarsten (GDLC) 
       ———. George Drouillard, Hunter and Interpreter for Lewis and Clark and Fur Trader, 1807–1810.  Glendale, Calif.: Arthur H. Clark, 1964.
Smith (BBHS) 
       Smith, G. Hubert. Big Bend Historic Sites.  River Basin Surveys Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Publications in Salvage Archaeology, no. 9. Lincoln, Nebr.: [Smithsonian Institution], 1968.
Smith (LAFV) 
       ———. Like-a-Fishhook Village and Fort Berthold, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota.  National Park Service, Anthropological Papers, no. 2. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.
Smith (OI) 
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Smith (EOI) 
       Smith, Huron H. Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians.  Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, vol. 4. Milwaukee, Wis.: Public Museum, 1932.
Smith (SSPG) 
       Smith, James S., and Kathryn. "Sedulous Sergeant, Patrick Gass."  Montana, the Magazine of Western History  5 (July 1955): 20–27.
Smith & Smith 
       Smith, James S., and Kathryn Smith. "Sedulous Sergeant, Patrick Gass."  Montana, the Magazine of Western History  5 (Summer 1955): 20–27.
South Dakota Guide 
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Space 
       Space, Ralph S. The Lolo Trail: A History of Events Connected with the Lolo Trail Since Lewis and Clark.  Lewiston, Idaho: Printcraft Printing, 1970.
Spaulding 
       Spaulding, Kenneth A., ed. On the Oregon Trail: Robert Stuart's Journey of Discovery.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.
Speck 
       Speck, Gordon. Breeds and Half-Breeds.  New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1969.
Spier (PD) 
       ———. "The Prophet Dance of the Northwest and its Derivatives: The Source of the Ghost Dance."  General Series in Anthropology No. 1. Menasha, Wis.: George Banta, 1935.
Spier (TDW) 
       Spier, Leslie. "Tribal Distribution in Washington."  General Series in Anthropology No. 3. Menasha, Wis.: George Banta, 1936.
Spier & Sapir 
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Spier & Sapir 
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Spinden 
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Spinden 
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Sprague (GG) 
       Sprague, Marshall. The Great Gates: The Story of the Rocky Mountain Passes  Boston: Little, Brown, 1964.
Sprague (ABP) 
       Sprague, Roderick. "Aboriginal Burial Practices in the Plateau Region of North America."  Ph.D. diss., University of Arizona, 1967.
Sprague (PBS) 
       ———. "The Descriptive Archaeology of the Palus Burial Site, Lyons Ferry, Washington."  Washington State University Laboratory of Anthropology, Report of Investigations No. 32. Pullman, 1965.
Sprague (MP) 
       Sprague, Roderick. "The Meaning of 'Palouse'."  Idaho Yesterdays  12 (Summer 1968): 22–27.
Sprague & Birkby 
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Stapp, Bryan, & Rigg 
       Stapp, Darby C., Edgar Bryan, and Diana Rigg. "The 1978 Clearwater River Survey."  University of Idaho, Anthropological Research Manuscript Series No. 82. Moscow, 1984.
Stearn & Stearn 
       Stearn, E. Wagner, and Allen E. Stearn. The Effect of Smallpox on the Destiny of the Amerindian.  Boston: Bruce Humphries, 1945.
Steffen 
       Steffen, Jerome O. William Clark: Jeffersonian Man on the Frontier.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977.
Steinacher & Carlson 
       Steinacher, Terry L., and Gayle F. Carlson. Nebraska Highway Archaeological and Historical Salvage Investigations, 1969–1975.  Nebraska State Historical Society, Publications in Anthropology, no. 10. Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, 1983.
Stephens 
       Stephens, H. A. Woody Plants of the North Central Plains.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1973.
Stephenson 
       Stephenson, Robert L. "Blue Blanket Island (39WW9), An Historic Contact Site in the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, South Dakota."  Plains Anthropologist  14 (February 1969): 1–31.
Stewart (APN) 
       Stewart, George R. American Place-Names: A Concise and Selective Dictionary for the Continental United States of America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Stewart (AAGS) 
       Stewart, Henry, Jr. "The American Air Gun School of 1800 (with Corollary Verification of the Lewis and Clark Air Rifle Maker)."  Monthly Bugle,  February 1977, 2–7.
Steyermark 
       Steyermark, Julian A. Flora of Missouri.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1963.
Stoddard 
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Strong 
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Strong, Schenck, & Steward 
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Swan (NC) 
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Swanson 
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Swanton 
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Swenk 
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Swetnam & Smith 
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Taylor (TI) 
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Terrell 
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Wedel (PA) 
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Will & Spinden 
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Wittke 
       Wittke, Carl, ed. The History of the State of Ohio.  6 vols. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1941–44.
Wolf 
       Wolf, James R. "Lewis and Clark: Pioneers on the Continental Divide Trail."  Dividends  8 (July 1987): unpaged.
Wolff 
       Wolff, Eldon G. Air Guns.  Milwaukee, Wis.: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1958.
Wood (BS) 
       Wood, W. Raymond. Biesterfeldt: A Post-Contact Coalescent Site on the Northeastern Plains.  Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, no. 15, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971.
Wood (CF) 
       Wood, W. Raymond. "Contrastive Features of Native North American Trade Systems."  In "For the Chief: Essays in Honor of Luther S. Cressman by Some of his Students," edited by Fred W. Voget and Robert L. Stephenson, 153–69. " University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No. 4. "  Eugene, 1972.
Wood (JE) 
       ———. "The John Evans 1796–97 Map of the Missouri River."  Great Plains Quarterly  1 (Winter 1981): 39–53.
Wood (MMA) 
       Wood, W. Raymond. "Lewis and Clark and Middle Missouri Archaeology."  The Quarterly Review of Archaeology  3 (December 1982): 3–5.
Wood (NPF) 
       ———. Nanza, the Ponca Fort.  Society for American Anthropology, Archives of Archaeology, no. 3. Madison, Wis.: Society for American Anthropology, 1960.
Wood (OHI) 
       ———. "The Origins of the Hidatsa Indians: A Review of Ethnohistorical and Traditional Data."  A study conducted for the National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1980.
Wood (PT) 
       ———. "Plains Trade in Prehistoric Intertribal Relations."  In Wood & Liberty, 98–109.
Wood (SR) 
       ———. "Slaughter River: Pishkun or Float Bison?"  We Proceeded On  12 (May 1986): 11–14.
Wood (TL) 
       ———. "Theodore H. Lewis and his Northeastern Nebraska 'Forts.'"  Plains Anthropologist  23 (February 1978): 77–79.
Wood 
       Wood, W. Raymond. "William Clark's Mapping in Missouri, 1803–1804."  Missouri Historical Review  76 (April 1982): 241–52.
Wood & Moulton 
       Wood, W. Raymond, and Gary E. Moulton. "Prince Maximilian and New Maps of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers."  Western Historical Quarterly  12 (October 1981): 373–86.
Wood & Liberty 
       Wood, W. Raymond, and Margot Liberty, eds. Anthropology on the Great Plains.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980.
Wood & Thiessen 
       Wood, W. Raymond, and Thomas D. Thiessen, eds., Early Fur Trade on the Northern Plains: Canadian Traders among the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians, 1738–1818.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.
Woodward 
       Woodward, Arthur. The Denominators of the Fur Trade.  Pasadena: Socio-Technical Publications, 1970.
Woodward (ECT) 
       Woodward, John. "An Early Ceramic Tradition on the Pacific Coast."  Masterkey  51 (April–June 1977): 66–72.
Woodward (PSOC) 
       ———. "Prehistoric Shipwrecks on the Oregon Coast? Archaeological Evidence."  In "Contributions to the Archaeology of Oregon, 1983–1986,"  edited by Kenneth M. Ames, 219–64. Association of Oregon Archaeologists, Occasional Papers No. 3. Portland, 1986.
Woodward (CIC) 
       Woodward, John. "Salmon, Slaves, and Grizzly Bears: The Prehistoric Antecedents and Ethnohistory of Clackamas Indian Culture."  Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1974.
Woolworth 
       Woolworth, Alan R., comp. "The Red Pipestone Quarry of Minnesota."  Minnesota Archaeologist  42 (1983): 1–137.
Wylie 
       Wylie, Paul E. The Essentials of Modern Navigation.  New York: Harper and Brothers, 1941.
Wyoming Guide 
       Wyoming: A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People.  Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Wyoming. New York: Oxford University Press, 1941.







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