Set out this morning at half after six. (1) throughout the whole of this course the land lys high on the Stad. qtr. and soon becomes low on the Lard. and continues so to the end of the course, on the Stard. the land rises into a fine bold looking range of hills 250 feet high which run parallel with the river— (2) Oposite to this stone quarry, is the upper point of hat [hot?] Island,  a small Island, of an oval form about the center of the river, the chanel being near lard. shore; came too at a stone bar a little above the rock and took Meridian Altd. of ☉'s L. L. found it 63° 34' —" Error of sextant as usual this observation may be depended on for it's accuraacy to a single secd. the hills now are near the river on the Lard. and the land is low on the Stard. qutr.— there is a range of hills which run near, and pralle to the river on Lard. qutr. quite to Cape St. Combs—  The river from the Grand Tower upwards bears N. 5 W. below it bears—S 20 E. the extreem of the bason S. 30 W. The sugarloaf point or nobb—  S. 25 E. Hight of rock which forms the grand Tower is—92 Ft.— On the W. side and about 25 feet up this rock is a small cavern— the rock is limestone & the same quality of the clifts heretofore discribed (i e) intermixed with a considerable portion of Flint stone. When the river is high the courent setts in with great violence on the W. side of this rock and being confined on that by a range of high hills is drven with much impetuosity through a narrow channel fromed by the rock which composes this rock, and one which forms the base of the Sugar-loaf point, this courent meets the other portion of the river which runs E. of the Tower and on the Tower side in an obtuse angle; these strong courants thus meeting each other form an immence and dangerous whirlpool which no boat dare approach in that state of the water; the counter courent driving with great force against the E. side of the rock would instandly dash them to attoms and the whirlpool would as quickly take them to the botom. In the present state of the water there no danger in approaching it I asscend it yesterday evening & measured the hight of it by a cord on the S. E. point, from whence I also took the bearings of the river bason &c. as above noticed. the passage through this difficult pass of the Mississippi in high water is on the E. side of the river to the point which it forms on that side with the high-land where stands a large rock, thence across the river above the Tower to the Lard. shoar; but in low water the nearest and most convenient passage is the rout we took close arond the E. side of the G. Tower.— A ridge of Hills 200 feet high make across the river at this place; and the Gd. Tower as well as the sugarloaf point, as also a rock detached from both these and likewise the hills, another side of the bason all appear once to have formed a part of the range of hills which cross the Mississippi at this place, and which in the course of time have been broken down by the river— the last mentioned rock is detached from the hills about 400 yards, and about 300 from the Sugar loaf point; the rock thus detatched measures 120 yards in circumpherence at it's base, and is 40 feet in hight perpendicular; it's sides show the water marks, and is so steep there is no possibility of ascending it without artificial aid.— There is a most beautifull and commanding view from the summit of the sugarloaf point; it commands the top of the grand Tower about 60 feet and overlooks the low surrounding country: the view of the river above is particularly beautifull; as well as the rang of hills which appear to the E. & stretching from the river below; from S. to N.— (1) this Creek is not very considerable but may be recconed 10 or 12 miles in length, no name.—
continuation of Note (2) this stone appears to possess excellent grit for grind stones; tho' the rock on the upper part of the hill is a lime stone such as appears common to those hills which border on the river, the country is high on the Lard qtr.
|N. 5 W.||2 40||4 ½||To Creek Stard. (1)|
|N. 70 W||1 20||1 ½||To grindstone quarry Lard (2)—|
|" " "||5 10||3 ¾||To uper point of small Inld. Lard qtr.—|
|" " "||—20||—¼||To Lard. shore where we staid all night |
Thos Lisbet Blacksmith