January 3, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

January 3, 1804


Tuesday Jany 3rd 1804    a Verry Cold blustering day    〈the Merkery?〉 in Doneyan [1] Co: Thermometer one oClock in the open air the 〈quick-silver〉 mercuria fell to 21 D. below the freezing point [11° F], I took the altitude of the suns L. L. and made it 57° 16 0 N by the Sexton, all the after part of the Day the wind so high that the View up the Missouris appeared Dredfull, as the wind blew off the Sand with fury as to Almost darken that part of the atmespear    this added to agutation of the water apd. truly gloomy    Comy [commissary] Kiled a Beef &

at 3 oClock the q s or murcy. fell to 22 D. below feesing [10° F.]

at 4 do— do— do 27 ½ ditto [4 ½° F.] in the air
at 5 do— do— do 30 or (O)

the wind violent all Day from N. N W. & N W. [2]

3d Jany 1804 Excessive Cold after Sunset

Confluence of Missouri and Mississippi Rivers,
ca. January 3, 1804, Field Notes, reverse of document 4
Beinecke Library, Yale University

1. John Donegan (or Denegan) and Joseph Donegany (Donegani) were making thermometers in Philadelphia in 1785. Although thermometers are among Lewis's list of requirements for the trip, there is no direct evidence that any were purchased. Lewis kept temperature readings on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and Clark continued the practice at Camp Dubois, thus providing strong indirect evidence that thermometers were purchased in Philadelphia. This reference helps to confirm that supposition and to dispel the idea that the St. Louis physician Antoine Saugrain made thermometers for Lewis and Clark. Bedini (TT), 302–3; Jackson (LLC), 69, 75 n. 1. (back)
2. The phrase "Say (10)" at the bottom of the obverse of document 4 is repeated at the top of document 5; it was apparently a device for keeping the loose pages in order. This is the first sheet to use such a device, and it does not appear to be part of a larger system. On later sheets Clark used "O, ancore" and "say on." Because there is no indication of missing material, we should not suppose that nine sheets preceded this one, leaving us to discover six missing sheets to add to the three that we now have in advance of this one. (back)