August 27, 1804
32.27% Complete
Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

August 27, 1804


27th August Monday, this morning the Morning Star was observed to be very large, G Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon or the horses, he had walked all night— we Sent Shields & J. Fields back to look for Shannon & the horses and to Come up with us on the river above at the grand Callemet or River KaCure [1] & we Set out under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E.    proceeded on    passed a Bluff at 7 mes. Several mile in extent of white Clay Marl or Chalk, under this bank we discovered Large Stone resembling lime incrusted with a Substanc like Glass which I take to be Cabolt, also ore, [2] three mes above this Bluff we Set the Prarie on fire, to let the Soues Know we wished to see them    at two oClock an Indian Swam to the Perogue, we landed & two other Came    they were boys, they informed us that the Souex were Camped near, on the R Jacke    one Maha boy informed us his nation was gorn to make a peace with the Pania's [Pawnee]    we Send Sjt. Pryor & a frenchman with the Interptr. Mr. Durion to the Camp to See & invite their Great Chiefs to Come and Counsel with us at the Callemet Bluffs [blank] Mile abov on L. S.—    we proceed on 1½ miles farther & Camped S S. [3]

N. 73 W.   7 mes. to the upper pt of Calx or Chalk Bluffs on L. S.
passd. a large Sand bar on L. S. & 2 on S S.
North   3 mes to a tree in the bend to S. S.
W.   2 ½ m to the mouth of rive Jacque [4] S. S. the Sisze of R [Soes?]
S. 80 W.   1 ½ on the Side of a large mud bar on the S. S. and Camped.

This morning the Star Calld. the morning Star much larger than Common    G. Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon nor horses, we Sent Shields & J Fields, back to hunt 〈Sha〉 Shannon & the horses, with derections to Keep on the Hills to the Grand Calumet above on River Ka cure [NB: quecure].

We Set Sail under a gentle Breeze from the S. E.    at 7 miles passed a white Clay marl or Chalk Bluff    under this Bluff is extensive I discovered large Stone much like lime incrusted with a Clear Substance which I believe to be Cabalt, also ore is imbeded in the Dark earth, resembling Slate much Softer—    above this Bluff we had the Prarie Set on fire to let the Souix See that we were on the river, as a Signal for them to Come to it.

at 2 oClock passed the mouth of River Jacque , or Yeankton    one Indian at the mouth of this river Swam to the Perogue, we landed and two others came to us, those Inds. informed that a large Camp of Soues, were on R. Jacque near the mouth.    we Sent Sergt. Pryor & a Frenchman with Mr. Durioin the Souis interpeter to the Camp with derections to invite the Principal Chiefs to councel with us at a Bluff above Called the Calumet—    two of those Indians accompanied them and the third continued in the Boat Showing an inclination to Continue, this boy is a Mahar, and inform that his nation, were gorn to the Parnias to make a peace with that nation.

We proceeded on about one and a half miles and in Camped on a bar makeing out from the S. S.    the wind blew hard from the South.    a Cool & Pleasent evening, The river has fallen verry Slowly and is now low.

Course and Dist refrs. August 27.
N. 73° W.   7 miles to the upper part of a Calx or Chalk Bluff on the
L. S. haveing passd. a large Sand bar on the L. S. and two
on the S. S. also Some small bars in the R.
North   3 mes. to a tree in a bend to the S. S. pass 2 Sand bars in the
West   2 ½ ms. to the mouth of River Jacque on the S. S.    two large
Sand bars on the L. S.
S. 80° W.   1 ½ mes. on the Side of a large mud bar makeing out above
the River Jacques or Yeankton. This river about 85 or 90
yds. wide and is navagable for Perogues a Great distance,
it heads with the St. Peters [Minnesota River], of the Mis-
& the red River which runs into Lake Winipeck &
Hudsons Bay. [5] 〈passing the head of Demoin River

On the Stard. shore, opposite to the lower point, or commencement of the white Calk Bluff—

Observed Magnetic azimth. of by ☉ Circumft S. 85° E.
    h     m      s
Time by Chronometer    A. M.   7     41    52
Altd. of ☉ U. L. by Sextant. 60°      4'     "
☉'s magnetic Azimuth by circumferentr. S. 84° E.
    h     m      s
Time by Chronometer    A. M.   7     46    13
Altd. of ☉'s U. L. by Sextant 61°    57'     "

Observed time and altitudes of ☉ with Sextant

  Time       Altitude of
    h    m      s        
A.M.   7    49    37   ☉'s U. Limb   63°    8'    15"
    "     51      3   ☉'s Center   "        "        "
    "     52    40   ☉'s Limb.   "        "        "

On the Stard. shore opposite to the upper point of the white Chalk Bluffs.

Observed meridian Altd. U. L. with Sextant by the fore observation 115° — 45"

Latitude deduced from this observatn.    42 53 13


Monday 27th    we heard G. Drewyer hollow before day this morning.    the pearogue went over eairly for him    he had not found the horses.    2 other men went out to hunt them, 2 of the party caught 12 fine cat fish last night, we Set off at Sun rise under a gentle Breeze from the S. E.    we Saw a mink [8] under the bank    we Sailed on    passed a Chalk Bluff on S. S.    in the Same Bluff their is a vane of Black Sulpheras clay which has the appearance of Slate or Stone coal & Some kinds of mineral Substance, we proceeded on    the Sand blew thick till abt. 3 o.C. P. M.    passed the Mouth of a large creek called River [pt.?] Shark Jaque [9] on N. S.    here we See a likely young Indian of the Mahar nation.    he told us that their camp was near; their is considerable of cottonwood Timber about this place, while we were halted here 2 more young Indians came to us.    one a Mahar the other a Siowee. Sergt. pryor & 2 more [10] went from the Boat with 2 of the Indians out to their Camp to invite them in to See us especially the Chiefs, the other Indian came along and went with us, we proceeded on till dark and Camped on a large Sand beach on the N. S.


Monday 27th.    Got under way at sunrise, and passed white bluffs on the south side. At 2 we stopped for dinner, and an Indian of the Mahas nation, who lives with the Sioux came to us here, at the mouth of the Sacque river; [11] and while we remained here two more came in. A sergeant with our old Frenchman and another man went with two of the Indians to their camps, and the other went with us in the boat. We encamped on a sand beach on the north side.


Monday 27th    G. Drewyer came to us this morning    2 men Sent out for to hunt the horses.    we Set out at Sun rise under a gentle Breeze from the S. E.    we proceeded on    passed a chalk Bluff on S. S.    in this Bluff is Mineral Substance &c—    we passed the Mouth of a large Creek called River Jaque on the N. S.    here we Saw 3 Indians [12] they informed us that their Camp was near & Sergt. pryor & 2 men went    we then proceeded on until dark & camped on a large Sand beach on the N. Side.

Monday August 27th    This morning early George Drewyer our hunter came to us, two of our Men were sent out to hunt the horses, We set out at sunrise, with a gentle breese from the South East, and proceeded on, we passed a Chalk bluff, laying on the South side of the River; this bluff had also Mineral substance on it.    We proceeded on, and passed the Mouth of a large Creek, called the River Jacque, lying on the North side of the River.    Here we met with 3 Indians, who informed us that their Camp lay near us.    Captain Lewis sent Serjeant Pryor & 2 Men to find them out & bring them to us.—    We proceeded on our way with the boat &ca till dark, and encamped on a large Sand barr, lying on the North side of the River—

2. Here Clark gets a good view of the Niobrara Formation, an impure chalk or marl, which later became famous for the fossil skeletons of marine reptiles and remains of foraminifera (one-celled animals) which it contains in abundance. The glassy substance is probably the coating of a concretion or nodule which is common in the Niobrara. Clark's references to cobalt and ore are wishful thinking as no metallic ores have been discovered here. (back)
3. In Yankton County, South Dakota, between the mouth of the James River and the present town of Yankton. Atlas map 18; MRC map 30; MRR maps 82, 83. (back)
4. The origin of the name Rivière aux Jacques is uncertain. It is now the James River, one of the principal streams of eastern North and South Dakota, locally known as "Jim River." Atlas map 18; MRC map 30. (back)
5. The head of the James, in Wells County, North Dakota, is nowhere near the headwaters of the Mississippi, Red, or Minnesota rivers. (back)
6. Lewis's observation from Codex O. (back)
7. Lewis's undated observation from Codex O, immediately following the previous one; the location seems to be near the campsite of August 27. (back)
8. Ordway is the only writer who mentions seeing a mink, Mustela vison. (back)
10. Pierre Dorion, Sr. and another Frenchman with him. (back)
12. The Indians were Yankton Sioux, the first plains nomads the party had met. (back)