October 25, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

October 25, 1804

Course and Distance &c the 25 of October
N. 80° W. 3 M. to a pt. on the L. S.    pass old Ricara village (1)
W. 1 m on the L. S.
S. 80° W. 1 m on the L. S.
S. 60° W 2 m. to a pt. on the L S. opsd. the old mandan Villages (2)
S. 30° W 2 m. to a tree on the L. S.
S. 33° W. 2 m. to a point on the S. S. opsd. a hill.

25th of October Thursday 1804.    a Gentle Breeze from the S. E by E passed an (1) old Village on a high Plain where the Mandans onced lived & after they lef[t] the Village & moved higher the Ricaras took possession & live until 1799 when they abandoned it & flew from the just revenge of the Mandans, a verry extensive Bottom above the Village above the Center of which (2) the Mandans lived in the 2 villages on the L. S., 2 [2] but little timber—    Several parties of Indians on each Side of the River going up.    in view in every directions—    we are informed that the Sioux has latterly taken horses from the Big Bellies or Minitaries [3] and on their way homerwards the[y] fell in with the Assinniboins who killed them and took the horses & a frenchman Menard [4] who resided with the Mandan for 20 years past was Killed a fiew days ago on his way from the Britishment astablishments on the Assineboin River, [5] 150 miles N. of this place to the mandans by the assinniboin Indians—    we were frequently Called to by parties of Indians & requested to land & talk, passed a verry bad place & Camped on a Point S S. opposit a high hill [6]   Several Indians visit us this evening    the Sun of the late great Chief of the Mandans who had 2 of his fingers off and appeared to be pearced in maney places    on inquiring the reason, was informed that it was a testimony to their grief for Deceased freinds, they frequently Cut off Sevral fingers & pierced themselves in Different parts, a Mark of Savage effection, wind hard from the S. W.    verry Cold    R Fields with a Rhumitisum in his Neck    one man R. in his hips [7]    my Self much better, Those Indians appear to have Similar Customs with the Ricaras, their Dress the Same    more mild in their language & justures &c. &c.

Course Distance & Reffurences
N. 80° W.   3 miles to a pt. on the L. Side    passed an old Village (1)
West   1 mile on the L. Side
S. 80° W.   1 mile on L. Side
S. 60 W.   2 miles to a pt. on the L. Side
S. 30° W.   2 miles to a Tree on the Larboard Side
S. 33° W.   2 miles to a point on the Starboard Side opposit a high

a Cold morning    Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. by E    proceeded on, passed (1) the 3rd old Village of the Mandans which has been Desd. for many years, This village was Situated on an eminance of about 40 foot above the water on the L. S.    back for Several miles is a butifull plain    (2) at a Short distance above this old village on a Continuation of the Same eminance was Situated the 〈Ricares Village〉 [NB: two old villages of ricaras one on top of high hill the 2d below in the bottom.] which have been avacuated only Six [NB: five] years, above this village a large and extensive bottom for Several miles in which the Squars raised ther Corn, but little timber near the villages, [NB: about 3 or 4 miles above Ricaras villages are 3 old villages of Mandans near together—here they lived when the R's came for protection    afterwards moved where they now live.]    on the S.S. below is a point of excellent timber, and in the point Several miles above is fine timber, Several parties of Mandins rode to the river on the S. S. to view us    indeed they are continuelly in Sight Satisying their Curiossities as to our apperance &c.    we are told that the Seaux has latterly fallen in with & Stole the horses of the Big belley, on their way home they fell in with the Ossiniboin who killed them and took the horses—    a frenchman has latterly been killed by the Indians on the Track to the tradeing establishment on the Ossinebine R. in the North of this place (or British fort) This frenchman has lived 〈20〉 many years with the Mandins—    we were frequently called on to land & talk to parties of the Mandins on the Shore, wind Shifted to the S. W at about 11 oClock and blew hard untill 3 OCk. clouded up    river full of Sand bars & we are at a great loss to find the Channel of the river, frequently run on the Sand bars which Detain us much    passed a verry bad riffle of rocks in the evining by takeing the L. S. of a Sand bar and Camped on a Sand point on the S. S. opposit a high hill on the L. S.    Several Indians Come to See us this evening, amongst others the Sun of the late great Cheif of the Mandins, [NB: mourning for his father] this man has his two little fingers off—; on inqureing the Cause, was told it was Customary for this nation to Show their greaf by Some testimony of pain, and that it was not uncommon for them to take off 2 Smaller fingers of the hand [NB: at the 2d joints] and Some times more with ther marks of Savage effection

The wind blew verry hard this evening from the S. W. verry Cold

R. Fields with the rhumitim in his neck, P. Crusat with the Same Complaint in his Legs—    the party other wise is well, as to my Self I feel but Slight Simptoms of that disorder at this time, [8]


Thursday 25th Oct.    a clear morning.    we Set off eairly under a fine breeze from the S. Sailed on    passed a handsom high prarie on S. S. where their was formerly a village of the Rickarrees nation. [9]    we Saw a nomber of the natives Strung along the Shore on horse back looking at us.    at 2 o.C we halted for to dine on S. S.    our chief went over to Speak to the natives on N. S. in a cannoe as we could not land on that Shore with our boat for the Sand beaches &.C.    proceeded on round a Bend    passed a handsome Timbred bottom on N. S. Camped on the N. S.    one of the natives came to our Camp with our chief & remd. all night &C


Thursday 25th.    The morning was pleasant, and we set sail early with a fair wind. Passed a beautiful bottom on the south side, and hills on the north. A great many of the natives, some on horseback and some on foot appeared on the hills on the north side, hallooing and singing. At 2, we stopped for dinner, and as we could not get our boat to shore on the north side, the water being shallow, our Indian was sent over to them. In the afternoon we passed a bottom covered with timber on the north side and hills on the south, and encamped on the north side. Here our Indian returned, accompanied by one of the Mandans.


Thursday October 25    We set off early this morning, having a fair Wind & pleasant Weather, and proceeded on, we saw a number of Indians, walking and Riding along the Shore on the North side of the River, We proceeded on, and in the Evening we encamped on the South side of the River.—

1. The courses and distances of October 25 and 26 are at the bottom of document 60 of the Field Notes, while the narrative entries are on document 61. Here they are placed together on appropriate dates. At the head of document 61 are the words "continued" (probably by Clark) and "& 27" (probably by Biddle). (back)
2. The first village passed this day is probably the Bagnell site, a very large late prehistoric Mandan or Hidatsa site. It is shown on Atlas map 29 almost directly across from the camp of October 24. Two other villages are also shown in close proximity. The one on the point (the middle one) is the Greenshield site, which appears to be an old Mandan village which was re-occupied by the Arikara during visits to the locale in the later eighteenth century. The third village has not been located. Clark's codex entry for the date says the place was evacuated about six years, while the Atlas map gives it as nine years. Will & Hecker, 109–10; Lehmer, Meston, & Dill, 160–66. (back)
3. Names for the Hidatsas. (back)
4. Ménard, a French Canadian possibly bearing the Christian name Pierre and otherwise known as "Manoah" and "old Menard," had lived with the Mandans and Hidatsas since the 1770s. He told Jean Baptiste Truteau that he had been on the Yellowstone River some time before 1795, making him possibly the first white man to have seen that stream. Different sources attribute his death to the Assinniboines, the "Gros Ventres," and the Mandans. Abel (TN), 167–68 and n. 21; Wood & Thiessen, 43–44, 166 n. 27, 180 n. 62; Nasatir (BLC), 1:82, 89, 90, 91, 93, 161, 304, 331, 332, 2:381, 390; Glover, 170, 172, 174; Coues (NLEH), 1:311–12. (back)
5. The Assiniboine River of southeastern Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba is a major tributary of the Red River of the North. The North West and Hudson's Bay companies had several trading posts on the Assiniboine and its tributaries. (back)
6. In the vicinity of present Fort Clark, Oliver County, North Dakota. Because of shifts in the river, the campsite may be in either Oliver or McLean County. Atlas map 29; MRC 5. (back)
7. If "R." stands for "rheumatism," the man may be Pierre Cruzatte, noted in Codex C for this date as having the ailment in his legs. If "R." is the man's initial, it could be Reed, Rivet, or Roi. (back)
8. At this point Clark inserted material belonging under the October 26 entry; see below, October 26, 1804. (back)
9. Probably either the Bagnell site or Greenshield site, which were occupied by Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Indians, in Oliver County, across from and somewhat south of Washburn, McLean County, North Dakota. (back)