November 13, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

November 13, 1804


13th    The Ice begin to run    we move into our hut, visited by the Grand Chief of the Mandans, and Che chark Lagru [1] a Chief of the Assinniboins & 7 men of that Nation, I Smoke with them and gave the Chief a Cord & a Carrot of Tobacco—    this Nation rove in the Plains above this and trade with the British Companes on the Ossinniboin River, they are Divided into Several bands, the decendants of the Sioux & Speak nearly their langguage    a bad disposed Set & Can raies about 1000 men in the 3 bands near this place, they trade with the nations of this neighbourhood for horses Corn &    Snow all Day    Capt. L. at the village. [2]


The Ice began to run in the river ½ past 10 oClock P. M    we rose early & onloaded the boat before brackfast except, the Cabin, & Stored away in a Store house—    at 10 oClock A M the Black Cat the Mandin Chief and Lagru [NB: Fr: name] Che Chark 〈Christans a〉 〈Ossiniboin〉 Chief [3] & 7 men of note visited us at Fort Mandan, I gave him a twist of Tobacco to Smoke with his people & a Gold Cord with a view to Know him again, The nation [NB: bands] [NB: This Chief was one of 3 bands of Assns who rove between the Missouri & Assn river. The 3 consist    here describe all Asns ] Consists of about 600 men, hunt in the Plains & winter and trade on the Ossiniboin River, they are Decendants of the Siaux and Speake their language, they Come to the nations to this quarter to trade or (make preasthts) for horses 〈& robes〉 the method of this Kind of Trafick by addoption Shall be explained hereafter &, [4] Snow'd all day, the Ice ran thick and air Cold. [5]


Tuesday 13th Nov. Snowey morning    the Ice run considerable fast in the river.    we unlaoded the boat for fear the Ice would take it off.    we put the loading in the Store house, all though it was not finished, but we continued the work    Capt. Lewis & 6 men went in the pearogue up the River through the Ice to the first village of the Mandens after Stone for the backs of our Chimneys. Some of the Souix Indians [6] came here with a chief of the Mandens.    they asked for whiskey &.C. but we Gave them none. Capt. Lewis returned with his party towards evening much fatigued.    they got fast on a Sand bar & had to be out in the water abto. 2 hours.    the Ice running against their legs.    their close frooze on them.    one of them got 1 of his feet frost bit.    it hapned that they had Some whiskey with them to revive their Spirits.

1. This Assiniboine chief's name may be the Cree word otchitchâk, "crane," and his French name La Grue , also translates "The Crane." He owed his life, in 1806, to Le Borgne (One Eye) of the Hidatsas, who protected him, as a guest, from the Cheyennes. Coues (NLEH), 1:385; Baraga, 62. (back)
2. The number "19" (apparently written by Clark) appears at the bottom of this sheet (document 63), probably a direction to the next entry in the Field Notes, November 19, on a new sheet. (back)
3. Apparently Clark first identified La Grue as a "Kristinaux," that is, a Cree (see below, November 14, 1804), then crossed this out because the chief was actually an Assiniboine, which designation he also lined through. 4. (back)
4. The adoption ceremony allowed enemies to become temporary fictional relatives and trade in peace. Ronda (LCAI), 89, 130. (back)
5. From "Speake their language" on, the remainder of the passage is crossed out in red, apparently by Biddle. (back)
6. According to Clark, they were Assiniboine Indians. (back)