August 25, 1805
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

August 25, 1805


This morning loaded our horses and set out a little after sunrise; a few only of the Indians unengaged in assisting us went on as I had yesterday proposed to the Cheif.    the others flanked us on each side and started some Antelope which they pursued for several hours but killed none of them.    we proceeded within 2 Ms. of the narrow pass or seven miles from our camp of last evening and halted for dinner. Our hunters joined us at noon with three deer the greater part of which I gave the indians. sometime after we had halted, Charbono mentioned to me with apparent unconcern that he expected to meet all the Indians from the camp on the Columbia tomorrow on their way to the Missouri.    allarmed at this information I asked why he expected to meet them.   he then informed me that the 1st Cheif had dispatched some of his young men this morning to this camp requesting the Indians to meet them tomorrow and that himself and those with him would go on with them down the Missouri, and consequently leave me and my baggage on the mountain or thereabouts. I was out of patience with the folly of Charbono who had not sufficient sagacity to see the consequencies which would inevitably flow from such a movement of the indians, and altho' he had been in possession of this information since early in the morning when it had been communicated to him by his Indian woman yet he never mentioned it untill the after noon. I could not forbear speaking to him with some degree of asperity on this occasion. I saw that here was no time to be lost in having those orders countermanded, or that we should not in all probability obtain any more horses or even get my baggage to the waters of the Columbia. I therefore Called the three Cheifs together and having smoked a pipe with them, I asked them if they were men of their words, and whether I could depent on the promises they had made me; they readily answered in the affermative; I then asked them if they had not promised to assist me with my baggage to their camp on the other side of the mountains, or to the place at which Capt. Clark might build the canoes, should I wish it.    they acknowledged that they had. I then asked them why they had requested their people on the other side of the mountain to meet them tomorrow on the mountain where there would be no possibility of our remaining together for the purpose of trading for their horses as they had also promised.    that if they had not promised to have given me their assistance in transporting my baggage to the waters on the other side of the mountain that I should not have attempted to pass the mountains but would have returned down the river and that in that case they would never have seen anymore white men in their country.    that if they wished the white men to be their friends and to assist them against their enemies by furnishing them with arms and keeping their enemies from attacking them that they must never promis us anything which they did not mean to perform.    that when I had first seen them they had doubted what I told them about the arrival of the party of whitemen in canoes, that they had been convinced that what I told them on that occasion was true, why then would they doubt what I said on any other point. I told them that they had witnessed my liberality in dividing the meat which my hunters killed with them; and that I should continue to give such of them as assisted me a part of whatever we had ourselves to eat.    and finally concluded by telling them if they intended to keep the promisses they had made me to dispatch one of their young men immediately with orders to their people to remain where they were untill our arrival.    the two inferior cheifs said that they wished to assist me and be as good as their word, and that they had not sent for their people, that it was the first Chief who had done so, and they did not approve of the measure.    Cameahwait remained silent for some time, at length he told me that he knew he had done wrong but that he had been induced to that measure from seeing all his people hungary, but as he had promised to give me his assistance he would not in future be worse than his word. I then desired him to send immediately and countermand his orders; acordingly a young man was sent for this purpose and I gave him a handkerchief to engage him in my interest.    this matter being arranged to my satisfaction I called all the women and men together who had been assisting me in the transportation of the baggage and gave them a billet for each horse which they had imployed in that service and informed them when we arrived at the plaice where we should finally halt on the river I would take the billet back and give them merchandize for it.    every one appeared now satisfyed and when I ordered the horses loaded for our departure the Indians were more than usually allert.    we continued our march untill late in the evening and encamped at the upper part of the cove where the creek enters the mountains; [1] here our hunters joined us with another deer which they had killed, this I gave to the women and Children, and for my own part remained supperless. I observed considerable quantities of wild onions [2] in the bottom lands of this cove. I also saw several large hares [3] and many of the cock of the plains.

Capt. Clark set out early this morning and continued his rout to the indian camp at the entrance of fish Creek; here he halted about an hour; the indians gave himself and party some boiled salmon and burries [WC?: tho' not half Sufficient &c].    these people appeared extreemly hospitable tho' poor and dirty in the extreem.    he still pursued the track up the river by which he had decended and in the evening arrived at the bluff on the river where he had encamped on the 21st Inst.    it was late in the evening before he reached this place. [4]    they formed their camp, and Capt. C. sent them in different directions to hunt and fish.    some little time after they halted a party of Indians passed by on their way down the river, consisting of a man a woman and several boys; from these people the guide obtained 2 salmon which together with some small fish they caught and a beaver which Shannon killed furnished them with a plentifull supper.    the pine grows pretty abundantly high up on the sides of the mountains on the opposite side of the river.    one of the hunters saw a large herd of Elk on the opposite side of the river in the edge of the timbered land.—    Winsor was taken very sick today and detained Capt C. very much on his march.    three hunters whom he had sent on before him this morning joined him in the evening having killed nothing; they saw only one deer.

The course and the distances, of Capt. Clark's rout down this branch of the Columbia below this bluff, commencing opposite to an Island, are as follow.

N. 30° W.   2 To the top of a mountain    the river 1 m. on the left.
N. 45° W. 10 With the general course of the river; passing over the spurs
of four mountains, almost inacessible, and two small runs
from the wright, to some Indian lodges at the entrance of
fish creek which discharges itself on the N. Side.    a large In-
dian road passes up this creek.    on this course Capt. C. also
passed several Islands, and some small bottoms betwen the
river and the mountains.—
West   3 along the river to the ascent of a mountain, passing one spur
of the same.    also 2 Islands and a bottom in which there was
an abundance of burries.
S. 45 W.   5 to a very bad rapid, opposite which, a small run discharges
itself on N. side passing perpendicular clifts where the[y]
were compelled to pass through the water; passed over loose
fragments of rocks on the side of a steep mountain    also
passed one Island and a number of small rapids.
N. 45° W.   3 high clifts on either side of the river, no road
West   2 no road. passed several bad rapids which it would be scarcely
possible either to ascend or decend with empty canoes.
N. 45° W.   6 to a large Creek on the N. side; passing several bad rappids
and a number of riffles.    the mountains high steep and very
rocky.    no bottom except a little above the entrance of this
South   1 to the entrance of a small run on N. side opposite to a small
island and a bad rapid.
N. 45° W.   6 up the run along an indian road through a piney country;
steep and lofty hills on each side.
S. 45° W.   1 to the river at a small bottom, passing a gap in the mountain
from the top of which can be seen the break of the river
through the mountains for 20 miles to a very high mountain
on the South, at which place the guide informed Capt. C.
that the impassable part of the river commenced, and was
innitely worse than any part he had yet seen.—
Miles 39  

This morning while passing through the Shoshone cove Frazier fired his musquet at some ducks in a little pond at the distance of about 60 yards from me; the ball rebounded from the water and pased within a very few feet of me.    near the upper part of this cove the Shoshonees suffered a very severe defeat by the Minnetares about six years since. this part of the cove on the N. E. side of the Creek has lately been birned by the Indians as a signal on some occasion.


Set out verry early and halted one hour at the Indian Camp, they were kind gave us all a little boiled Sammon & dried buries to eate, abt. half as much as I could eate, those people are kind with what they have but excessive pore & Durtey.—    we proceeded on over the mountains we had before passed to the Bluff we Encamped at on the 21s instant where we arrived late and turned out to hunt & fish, Cought Several Small fish, a party of Squars & one man with Several boys going down to guathe berries below, my guide got two Sammon from this party [(]which made about half a Supper for the party), after Dark Shannon came in with a beaver which the Party suped on Sumptiously—    one man verry Sick to day which detained us verry much    I had three hunters out all day, they saw one Deer, killed nothing.    one of the Party Saw 9 Elk on a Mountain to our right assending, amongst the Pine timber which is thick on that side

Course & Distance Down Columbia [EC: Lemhi and Salmon ] river by
Land, as I Decended &c. [5]
N. W.

[EC: Aug 20
Aug 21
18 miles from the Indian Camp to the forks [EC: of Salmon R ]
crossed the [EC: Lemhi] river twice, passed Several old camps
on the East Side and a Camp of Several lodges at a were [weir]
on the west Side, passed a roade on the left leading up the
main West fork [EC: i.e. Salmon above the Lemhi ] below the last
Camp, Several Small branches falls in on each Side [EC: of the
], a high mountain on each Side, [EC: of Salmon and Lemhi
] 〈passed〉
N. 15° W.

[EC: Aug 21
Aug 22
14 miles to a Island passed high red Clift on the right Side passed
a large [ EC: Tower] Creek [EC: on the right] a 9 miles up which
a roade passes large bottom below. Several Spring runs falling
from the mountains on the left    passed a Creek on the right.
[EC: SalmonLemhi〉 (right)]
N. 30° W.   2 to the top of a mountain    the river one mile to the left

[EC: Aug 22]
10 miles with the general Course of the river, passed over the
Spurs of four mountains almost inexcessable and two Small
runs on the right to Some Indian Camps at the mouth of a Small
river [EC: Fish cr. ] on the right up which a road passes    passed
Several Islands, and Small bottoms between the mountains.
West   3 miles on the right Side to the assent of a mountain, passed
over one Spur of the Same Mountain passed 2 Islands, & a
bottom in which berris were plenty.
S. W.

[EC: Aug 22]
  5 miles to a verry bad rapid & Camped, a Small run on the
left.    passed perpendicular Clift where we were obliged to go
into the water    passed Several places on Stones & Sides of
Mountains, one Island & Several rapids, all the way rapids at
N. W.   3 miles high Clifts on each side    no road [EC: left men here]
[EC: Aug 23]
  2 miles do    do    passed bad rapids    Scercely possible to pass
down or up
N. W.   6 miles to a large Creek on the Right Side, passed verry bad
rapids & a number of riffles, Mountains high and steep verry
Stoney    no bottoms except the Creek & a little above
South   1 mile to the Mouth of a Small run on the right a Small Island
and rapid
N. W.   6 miles up the Run [EC: Berry Creek Aug. 23] thro a piney coun-
trey    large & lofty hills high
S. W.   1 m. to the river at a Small bottom    passed over a gap in the
Mounts. from the top of which I could See the hollers of the
river for 20 miles to a verry high Mountain on the left, at
which place my guide made Signs that the bad part reclonnois
of the river Comsd. and much worst than any I Saw &c. &c.
returned.    6 bad rapids.    many others
miles 70  
[EC: End of

Sunday 25th August 1805.    a clear morning. Some frost.    we loaded our horses and Set out soon after Sunrise and proceeded on through the level Sandy plain or desert covred with nothing but wild hysop & golden rod, and prickley pears. [6]    we went about 7 [7] miles and halted to dine    our hunters killed three Deer which we divided with the natives. Some of the Indian hunters rode and chased Several goats or antelopes but did not kill any.    the mountains are high each Side of this valley and are covred in Some places with pitch pine.    passed Several fine Spring runs which falls from the mountains.    the creek is gitting Small and affords but little water.    the hills rockey &.C.    we proceeded on    passed thro a low part of the plain or prarie, which is covred with high Grass and wild onions    passed Several fine Springs and forks of the creek 〈of〉 one of which had a rapid where it passed a hill little above high clifts which make near the creek on each Side.    the plain gitting narrow    the upper part of it has lately been burned over.    no timber in this valley except the willow on the little branches    Saw a fiew cotton trees towards evening.    we Came 15 miles this day and Camped [8] at the branch where the mountains made near on each Side.    our hunters joined us    one of them had killed another Deer which we were oblidged to give to the natives who were all most Sterved.    had sent an express across the Mo. for the remainder of their lodges to meet them that they all might go down the Missourie after the baffalow.    that they could not Sterve but Capt. Lewis prevailed on the head chief to Send one of his men to contermand the Orders and git the other lodges on the other Side to wait one day longer, as we wish to purchase Some more of their horses & want them to help us over &C.


Sunday 25th.    We set out early and had a fine morning; passed the Indian camp, where they gave us a little dried salmon, and proceeded back again over the mountains. Some hunters went on ahead and about 4 o'clock we got over the four mountains, and encamped [9] in the valley. Two men went to hunt, and all the rest to fish. We soon caught as many small fish as made, with two salmon our guide got from some Indians, a comfortable supper. At dark our hunters [10] came in and had killed but one beaver.


Sunday 25th August 1805.    a clear morning a little frost last night.    we loaded up our horses and loaded the Indian horses and proceeded on through the level plain.    our hunters killed 3 Deer.    passed a nomber of fine Springs and Spring runs.    Some willow on the creeks & runs but no timber of any acct. except pitch pine on the hills & tops of the mountains.    our hunters killed another Deer.    we came about 15 miles this Day and Camped near the creek or run

Sunday August 25th    A clear morning with a light frost, we loaded our horses, & those hired from the Indians; and proceeded on through a level plain, Our hunters that we sent a head of us, had killed 3 deer, which they brought to us, We passed a number of fine springs & Spring runs, we saw no timber except some pitch pine trees, which were on the hills, & tops of mountains, and a few Willow Trees which grew on Creeks & Runs.    towards evening, our hunters killed another deer, which they brought to us.    We came about 15 Miles this day, & encamped near a large Creek or River

1. West of the fork of Horse Prairie Creek and Trail Creek, in Beaverhead County, Montana, as marked on Atlas map 67. (back)
2. An unknown Allium sp. (back)
3. The white-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus townsendii. Burroughs, 120–23. (back)
4. See above, August 21, 1805. (back)
5. Clark's courses for his reconnaissance of August 20–23, 1805, are heavily marked by Coues in pencil but incorrect in giving some modern locations. The correct total is seventy-one miles. (back)
6. Hyssop is big sagebrush, and goldenrod may be Missouri goldenrod again. There are several varieties of cacti in the region; see Lewis's entry of August 13. (back)
7. The number "7" is written over "6." (back)
8. On Trail Creek, Beaverhead County, Montana, not far from its entrance into Horse Prairie Creek. (back)
9. At Clark's camp of August 21, 1805, Lemhi County, Idaho, a few miles north of Carmen. (back)
10. Including Shannon. (back)