April 10, 1806
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

April 10, 1806


We set out early and droped down the channel to the lower end of brant Island from whence we drew them up the rapid by a cord about a quarter of a mile which we soon performed; Collins and Gibson not having yet come over we directed Sergt. Pryor to remain with the cord on the Island untill Gibson arrived and assist him with his crew in geting his canoe up the rapid, when they were to join us on the oposite side at a small village of six houses of the Clah-clah'lahs where we halted for breakfast. [1]    in passing the river which is here about 400 yds. wide the rapidity of the currant was such that it boar us down a considerable distance notwithstanding we employed five oars.    on entering one of these lodges, the natives offered us a sheepskin for sail, [2] than which nothing could have been more acceptable except the animal itself.    the skin of the head of the sheep with the horns remaining was cased in such manner as to fit the head of a man by whom it was woarn and highly prized as an ornament.    we obtained this cap in exchange for a knife, and were compelled to give two Elkskins in exchange for the skin.    this appeared to be the skin of a sheep not fully grown; the horns were about four inches long, celindric, smooth, black, erect and pointed; they rise from the middle of the forehead a little above the eyes.    they offered us a second skin of a full grown sheep which was quite as large as that of a common deer.    they discovered our anxity to purchase and in order to extort a great plrice declared that they prized it too much to dispose of it.    in expectation of finding some others of a similar kind for sale among the natives of this neighbourhood I would not offer him a greater price than had been given for the other which he refused.    these people informed us that these sheep were found in great abundance on the hights and among the clifts of the adjacent mountains.    and that they had lately killed these two from a herd of 36, at no great distance from their village.    we could obtain no provision from those people except four white salmon trout.    at ten oclock Sergt. Pryor and Gibson joined us with Collins who had killed 3 deer.    these were all of the blacktailed fallow kind.    we set out and continued our rout up the N. side of the river with great difficulty in consequence of the rapidity of the current and the large rocks which form this shore; the South side of the river is impassable.    as we had but one sufficient toerope and were obliged to employ the cord in geting on our canoes the greater part of the way we could only take them one at a time which retarded our progress very much.    by evening we arrived at the portage on the North side where we landed and conveyed our bagage to the top of the hill about 200 paces distant where we formed a camp. [3]    we had the canoes drawn on shore and secured.    the small canoe got loose from the hunters and went a drift with a tin vessel and tommahawk in her; the Indians caught her at the last village and brought her up to us this evening for which service we gave them a couple of knives; the canoe overset and lost the articles which were in her.—    Saw the white pine at this place. [4]


Collins went out in the bottom to hunt agreeable to the order of last evening, and gibsons Crew was derected to delay for Collins dureing which time they were derected to Collect rozin from the pines in the bottom near our Camp    at 6 A M. we Set out and proceeded to the lower point of the Island from whence we were Compelled to draw our Canoes up a rapid for about ¼ mile which we Soon performed. Collins & gibson haveing not yet Come over we derected Serjt. Pryor to delay on the Island untill Gibson Came over & assist him with the large toe roap which we also left and to join us at a village of four houses of the Clah-lah-lar Tribe which is opposit to this Island on North Side at which place we intened to brackfast.    in crossing the River which at this place is not more than 400 yards wide we fell down a great distance owing to the rapidity of the Current. I entered one of the houses of those people and was Scercely Seated before they offered me a Sheep Skin for Sale    nothing could be more acceptable except the Animal itself    in examoning this Skin I found it was a young one, the Skin of the head was Cased So as to fit the head of a man and was esteemed as a great orniment and highly prised by them.    we precured this Cased head for a knife and, the Skin we were obliged to give two Raw Elk Skins for. Soon after they offered a large one for Sall.    after finding us anxious to purchase they declined silling this Skin.    those people informed us that they killed those Animals among the rocks in the mountains under which they live; and that great numbers of those animals inhabit those mountains & that the lamb was killed out of a gange of 36 at a Short distance from their village. The wool of the full grown Sheep, or that on the Skin which we Saw was much Corser than that of the one which we purchased, the Skin was about the Size of that of a Common dear. The Skin we obtained appeared to be the Skin of a Sheep not fully grown, the wool fine, the Horns were abought 4 inches long, Celindric, Smooth, black, a little bending backwards and pointed; they rise from the Middle of the foeheard, and a little above the eyes, and appeared to possess all the marks of the Common Sheep as already discribed. We could precure no provisions from those people except four white Salmon trout.    at 10 oClock Sergt. Pryor and Gibson joined us with Collins who had killed 3 deer.    these were all of the blacktailed fallow kind. We Set out and Continued up on the N. Side of the river with great dificuelty in Consequence of the Rapidity of the Current and the large rocks which forms this Shore; the South Side of the river is impassable.

As we had but one Sufficent toe roap and were obliged to employ the Cord in getting on our Canoes the greater part of the way we could only take them one at a time which retarded our progress very much.    by evening we arived at the portage on the N. Side where we landed and Conveyed our baggage to the top of the hill about 200 paces distant where we found [formd?] a Camp.    we had the Canoes drawn on Shore and Secured.    the Small Canoe got loose from the hunters and went adrift with a tin cup & a tomahawk in her; the Indians Caught her at the last Village and brought her up to us this evening for which we gave them two knives; the Canoe overset and lost the articles which were in her.—.


Thursday 10th of April 1806.    rained hard the grater part of last night.    a cloudy & Showery morning.    2 men [5] Sent out to hunt pitch who belonged to a Small canoe.    we took up the large canoes one at a time up the rapids with the towing line.    the Small one also who was left to help up with the other small one.    we then crossed over the River to the N. Side and halted at a village where we took breakfast.    the men who were hunting pitch came up with their canoe    one of them by the name of Collins had killed three Deer and brought them to us. Capt. Lewis purchased a white mountain Sheep [6] Skin for which he gave 2 Elk hides    we bought a fiew Salmon trout [7]    then we proceed. on    Soon came to bad rapids where we had to tow one canoe up at a time. Drewyer & the 2 Fields went on a head with their Smal canoe.    their chord broke & their canoe went back down the rapids and taken up by the Indians below, who returnd. it to us.    our officers gave them two knives for the kindness.    one of the men lamed one of his feet towing over the Stons    with Some fatigue we got all the canoes to the lower end of the portage of the big Shoote and unloaded in the large eddy below on N. Side and carried all the baggage on the top of the hill, and Camped [8]    a number of the natives visited us    Some distance below this place I Saw a large grave yard little below an ancient village. [9]    this is a different manner from any I have Seen of burrying the dead in tombs about 8 feet Square made of wood plank and tite flowers [floors?] made of plank layn in them and the corps are layn out on the flower Roped up in Some kind of a Robe, and all thier property is deposited with them Such as copper tea kittles baskets cockle Shells    canoes are layn by the Side of Sd. tombs also. Several Images cut in wood one put up at the ends of Said tombs &C    one of the Indians Stole an axe from us    another told one of our men and he followed him and took it from him and told him that he was bad and he replied that he was &C—


Thursday 10th.    A party of men went out to collect pitch to repair one of our canoes, which was split; and the rest went round the point of the island, and took the canoes over the rapid, one at a time, with the assistance of a line. When we got over the rapids we crossed to another village of the natives of the north side, [10] where I saw the skin of a wild sheep, which had fine beautiful wool on it. Here we took breakfast and waited the arrival of the other canoe, which in about an hour came up; and the men [11] when out for pitch killed three deer. We proceeded on, and the water was so rapid that we had to tow the canoes up by the line almost all the way to the landing at the lower end of the portage, a distance of about six miles. In passing a bad place the tow-line of the small canoe, which the hunters had on ahead, broke; but fortunately there was nothing in her, as the three hunters were on shore dragging her up, and had taken out all the loading. [12] As she passed by us Capt. Lewis got some of the natives to bring her to shore. In the evening, we got to the end of the portage, which is about two miles. We took our baggage to the top of the hill and remained with it all night; during which, some showers of rain fell.

1. In Skamania County, Washington, in or near present North Bonneville. Atlas map 79. This village of six houses (four according to Clark) was visited by the Corps on October 31, 1805; see the entry for that day. See also Minor, Toepel, & Beckham (Rev). (back)
2. The mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus. This was the only specimen they obtained, although Clark thought he saw one at a distance earlier (see August 24, 1805). Apparently the earliest descriptions and naming of the animal, by George Ord and M. H. D. deBlainville, were based on Lewis's description and specimen. Burroughs, 168–71; Cutright (LCPN), 263, 387, 444. (back)
3. In Skamania County; the site is not marked on Atlas maps 78 or 79, nor on other maps of the area; it may be at the same place as the camp of November 1, 1805, in the vicinity east of North Bonneville. This is the area that was once the Cascades of the Columbia, now inundated by Bonneville Dam. The constriction of the Columbia formed by the rapids created an extremely favorable location for native fishing; it also required travelers to portage in order to pass up or down the river. The Cascades area was a major focus of native settlement in the late prehistoric and early historic periods. Archaeological research in the Cascades area has most recently been revised by Minor, Toepel, & Beckham (Rev). (back)
4. This is the first mention of the occurrence of the western white pine since leaving the Pacific. The lack of white pine was specifically noted by Lewis on March 30, 1806, as the party passed the mouth of the Willamette River. Since white pine tends to be found at higher elevations, it is interesting that Lewis observed it at this low elevation along the Columbia River. Little (CIH), 62-W; Franklin & Dyrness, 310–11. (back)
5. Apparently Collins and Gibson, according to Lewis and Clark and to Ordway in this entry. (back)
6. The mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus. (back)
7. Salmon trout was the party's name for the steelhead trout. (back)
8. In the area east of North Bonneville, Skamania County, Washington; see the captains' entries for this day. (back)
9. Lewis places this description under his entry of April 11. (back)
11. Including Pryor and Gibson, who had waited for Collins, who was hunting; they were collecting pitch to repair cracks in the canoes while they waited. (back)
12. Lewis says the canoe had "a tin vessel and tomahawk in her." (back)