June 16, 1806
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

June 16, 1806

 

We collected our horses very readily this morning, took breakfast and set out at 6 A. M.; proceeded up the creek about 2 miles through some handsom meadows of fine grass abounding with quawmash, here we passed the creek [1] & ascended a ridge which led us to the N. E. about seven miles when we arrived at a small branch of hungry creek. [2]    the difficulty we met with from the fallen timber detained us untill 11 oC before we reached this place.    here is a handsome little glade in which we found some grass for our horses    we therefore halted to let them graize and took dinner knowing that there was no other convenient situation for that purpose short of the glaids on hungry creek where we intended to encamp, as the last probable place, at which we shall find a sufficient quantity of grass for many days.    this morning Windsor busted his rifle near the muzzle.    before we reached this little branch on which we dined we saw in the hollows and N. hillsides large quatities of snow yet undisolved; in some places it was from two to three feet deep.    vegetation is proportionably backward; the dogtooth violet [3] is just in blume, the honeysuckle, [4] huckburry [5] and a small speceis of white maple [6] are beginning to put fourth their leaves; these appearances in this comparatively low region augers but unfavourably with rispect to the practibility of passing the mountains, however we determined to proceed, accordingly after taking a haisty meal we set out and continued our rout though a thick wood much obstructed with fallen timber, and intersepted by many steep ravines and high hills.    the snow has increased in quantity so much that the greater part of our rout this evening was over the snow which has become sufficiently firm to bear our horshes, otherwise it would have been impossible for us to proceed as it lay in immence masses in some places 8 or ten feet deep.    we found much difficulty in pursuing the road as it was so frequently covered with snow.    we arrived early in the evening at the place that Capt. C. had killed and left the flesh of a horse for us last September. [7]    [EC?: 19th they got there]    here is a small glade in which there was some grass, not a sufficiency for our horses but we thought it most advisable to remain here all night as we apprehended if we proceeded further we should find less grass.    the air is pleasent in the course of the day but becomes very cold before morning notwithstanding the shortness of the nights. Hungry creek is but small at this place but is deep and runs a perfect torrent; the water is perfectly transparent and as cold as ice.    the pitch pine, white pine some larch and firs constite the timber; the long leafed pine extends a little distance on this side of the main branch of Collins's creek, and the white cedar not further than the branch of hungry creek on which we dined. I killed a small brown pheasant today, [8] it feeds on the tender leaves and buds of the fir and pitch pine.    in the fore part of the day I observed the Cullumbine [9] the blue bells [10] and the yelow flowering pea [11] in blume.    there is an abundance of a speceis of anjelico [12] in these mountains, much stonger to the taist and more highly scented than that speceis common to the U' States.    know of no particular virtue or property it possesses; the natives dry it cut it in small peices which they string on a small cord and place about their necks; it smells very pleasantly.    we came 15 miles today.

 

Collected our horses early and Set out 7 A M proceeded on up the Creek through a gladey Swompy bottom with grass and quawmash Crossed the Creek to the East and proceeded on through most intolerable bad fallen timber over a high Mountain on which great quantity of Snow is yet lying premisquissly through the thick wood, and in maney places the banks of snow is 4 feet deep.    we noned it or dined on a Small Creek in a small open Vally where we found Some grass for our horses to eate, altho Serounded by Snow    no other Convenient Situation Short of the glades on Hungery Creek where we intended to encamp, as the last probable place, at which we Shall find a Sufficent quantity of grass for maney days. This morning Windsor bursted his rifle near the Muzzle. Vigitation is propotionable backward; the dog tooth Violet is just in blume, the honeysuckle, huckleberry and a Small Species of white maple are beginning to put foth their leaves, where they are clear of the Snow, those appearances in this comparratively low region augers but unfavourably with respect to the practibility of passing the Mountains, however we deturmine to proceed, accordingly after takeing a hasty meal we Set out and Continued our rout through a thick wood much obstructed with fallen timber, and interupted by maney Steep reveins and hills which wer very high.    the Snow has increased in quantity So much that the great part of our rout this evening was over the Snow which has become Sufficently firm to bear our horses, otherwise it would have been impossible for us to proceed as it lay in emince masses in Some places 8 or ten feet deep. We found much dificulty in finding the road, as it was So frequently covered with Snow.    we arived early in the evening at the place I had killed and left the flesh of a horse for the party in my rear last Septr.    here is a Small glade in which there is Some grass, not a Sufficency of our horses, but we thought it adviseable to remain here all night as we apprehended if we proceeded further we should find less grass. The air is pleasant in the Course of the day, but becomes very cold before morning not withstanding the Shortness of the night. Hungary Creek is but Small at this place but is deep and runs a perfect torrent; the water is perfectly transparent and as Cold as ice.    the titch pine, white pine Some Larch and firs consists the timber, the long leafed pine extends but a Short distance on the Mts. Capt. L. killed a Small brown pheasant today, it feeds on the tender leaves and buds of the fir and pitch pine.    in the forepart of the day I observed the Cullumbine the blue bells and the Yellow flowering pea in blume.    there is an abundance of a Species of Anjelico in the mountains much Stronger to the taiste, and more highly Scented than that Species common to the U' States. I know of no particular virtue or property it posesses    the nativs dry it Cut it in Small pieces which they string on a Small Cord and place about the necks; it Smells pleasently.    we Come 15 Ms. today.

 

Monday 16th June 1806.    two of our hunters went on to a glade a Short distance to hunt    we took an eairly breakfast    the morning fair.    we Set out    proced on    overtook the hunters who had killed nothing.    folled up the glade and mountains Some distance then took the hills on to a ridge of falling timber    towards noon we passed over high banks of Snow which bore up our horses. Some places 5 or 6 feet deep    about noon we halted at a Small branch [13] & green to dine    the grass is verry Short and in the woods jest Starting up.    delayed about 2 hours and Set forward again.    light Showers of rain this afternoon    the Snow is more Common and much deeper.    towards evening we came on hungry creek [14]    followed down it to a green where Capt. Clark killed a horse last fall for the party to eat.    here we Camped. [15]    the young grass verry Short.    the bushes are all bent flat down by the deep Snow lying on them.    the Snow must fall in these hollars in the winter 15 or 20 feet deep and perhaps the Snow drifts in and fills the hollars full.

 

Monday 16th.    We had a pleasant morning, and renewed our journey; went up a handsome creek about three miles, and then took to the hills which are very rough, with a great many banks of snow, some of them four or five feet deep. These banks are so closely packed and condensed, that they carry our horses, and are all in a thawing state. We halted for dinner at a handsome stream where there was some grass for our horses; and in about two hours proceeded on again, and had some rain. In the afternoon we found the snow banks more numerous, extensive and deep: in some of them the snow as much as eight feet deep. In the evening we came to Hungry creek (where Capt. Clarke killed a horse last fall and left it for the party) and encamped, [16] that our horses might get some grass as we do not expect they will get any soon again; and there is not much here.

1. Eldorado Creek, in Idaho County, Idaho. Space, 31; Peebles (RLC), 22. (back)
2. Actually a branch of Fish Creek, in Idaho County, not named on Atlas map 70. Space, 31. (back)
3. Dogtooth violet, also called fawn, or glacier, lily, Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh. It was an undescribed western species that Lewis had collected at lower elevations twice earlier (May 8 and June 5, 1806). Hitchcock et al., 1:787–88; Cutright (LCPN), 301, 308, 408. (back)
4. Orange honeysuckle, Lonicera ciliosa (Pursh) DC.; he preserved a specimen of this undescribed species on this day and two weeks earlier at Camp Chopunnish. Hitchcock et al., 4:458; Cutright (LCPN), 308, 410. (back)
5. Mountain huckleberry, Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl. ex Hook. Hitchcock et al., 4:32; Cutright (LCPN), 212, 422. (back)
6. Rocky Mountain maple, Acer glabrum Torr., the only species of maple in this part of the Rocky Mountains. Hitchcock et al., 3:412. (back)
7. At what is now called Horsesteak Meadow, on Hungery Creek, just below Windy Saddle in Idaho County. The location is marked "Small prarie, Killed a horse," on Atlas map 70. Clark's party killed the horse on September 19, 1805 (as Elliott Coues correctly noted it), and Lewis found it the following day. Space, 32. (back)
8. Perhaps the Oregon ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus sabini, but see March 3, 1806. The red vertical line from here through the remainder of the entry was apparently drawn by Biddle. (back)
9. The columbine in this area is the red, or Northwest crimson, columbine, Aquilegia formosa Fisch. Hitchcock et al., 2:333; Cutright (LCPN), 306, 402. (back)
10. Tall bluebells, Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don, is common in this region. Hitchcock et al., 4:225. (back)
11. Mountaon thermopsis, Thermopsis montana Nutt., is common in this habitat and has bright yellow "pea" flowers. Ibid., 3:352. (back)
12. The angelica-like plant abundant here is licorice-root, Ligusticum verticillatum (Geyer) Coult. & Rose. Ibid., 3:540. It is highly scented as noted. Lewis would have difficulty distinguishing between Angelica and Ligusticum without fruits, which would not have been present on this date. (back)
13. On a branch of Fish Creek, Idaho County, Idaho. (back)
15. At Horsesteak Meadow on Hungery Creek just below Windy Saddle, Idaho County. Clark's party killed the horse on September 19, 1805, and Lewis's group found it the next day. (back)
16. Apparently on a branch of Fish Creek, Idaho County, Idaho, although Lewis also identifies the main stream as Hungery Creek. (back)