August 4, 1804
30.23% Complete
Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

August 4, 1804

Course Disstance & Reffurance August 4th Satturday, 1804
S. 80° W.   1 ½ Me. to an old Tradeing house on the L. S.    passed a Sand
pt. Makeing from S. pt (1) bad ps.
N. 25 W.   2 ¼ mes. to a Willow pt. on the L. S.    passed a large Sand bar
(2)    psd. a Creek on L. S. (3)
S. 70 W.   1 ¾ ms. to a Willow point on S. S.    passed maney Snags. opsd
a Creek of the Ponds L. S.
N. 24 W.   2 ½ ms. to a Willow point on L. S.    passed a Sand from S.
N. 24 W   3 ½ ms. to a Copse of willows in a bend L. S.    willow pt. on the
S. S. opsd. a 〈Smooth Plain,〉    river verry wide & Shallow
S. 84 E.   3 ½ Mes. to a point Lard side passing a 〈Stard〉 pot. on Stard
Side. Wind E. due [1]    The high land is Some distanc from
the river on both Sides and at this place is 〈not within 20
miles of〉 apt. [approximately?] 10 or 12 Miles apart, the
tops of the high land on the S. S. appiair to contain 〈more
timber that that on the Larboard Side, the willow is low &
not So plenty as below.〉 [2]

August 4th    at 7 oClock the heavens darkened and a violent wind from the N W. Suckceeded which lasted about 〈half〉 an hour, with a little rain. Set out this morning early thro a narrow part of the [channel], the whole Channel Confined in Some parts between the (1) Sand on one Side & the bank on the other (which is washing in) within 200 yards, this Chanl. Crouded with Snags.    at 1½ m: passed an old tradeing house L. S. where one of our Crew passed 2 years P. C [Pierre Cruzatte] tradeing with the Mahar; & Ponies[3]    above 1 me. a (3) Creek [4] Coms in opsd. a large bad (2) Sand bar    this (3) Creek is the outlett of 3 ponds, which recved ther water from the Smaller Streams running from the hills on the L. S, Great qts. of Gees, passed in the next bend L. S. an out let to the Pond, Butifull bottom Prarie on both Sides of the river, Pumey [pumice] Stone is found on the Sides of the river of various Sizes. [5] Wind a head. Reed the man who went back to the Camp of last night for his Knife has not Come up this evening— [6]    we Camped at a pt. on the L. S. at a Beaver house. [7]    1 Buck Killed to daye. [8]


Set out early—    (at 7 oClock last night we had a Violent wind from the N W    Som little rain Succeeded, the wind lasted with violence for one hour    after the wind it was clear Sereen and Cool all night.)    proceeded on    passed thro betwen Snags which was quit across the Rivr    the Channel Confined within 200 yards one Side a Sand pt. S S. the other a Bend, the Banks washing away & trees falling in constantly for 1 mile, abov this place is the remains of an old Tradeing establishment L. S. where Petr. Crusett one of our hands Stayed two years & traded with the Mahars    a Short distance above is a Creek (3) the out let of Three Ponds comunicateing with each other, those Ponds or rether Lakes are fed by Springs & Small runs from the hills.    (2) a large Sand Island opposit this Creek makeing out from the L. Point, from the Camp of last night to this Creek, the river has latterly Changed its bed incroaching on the L. Side, in this Sand bar I Saw great Nos. of wild gees—    passed a Small Creek on the L. S about 3 miles above the last    both of those Creek's are out lets from the Small Lake which reive their water from the Small Streems running from the high land—    great ma[n]y Pamey Stones on the Shore of various Sises    the wind blew hard—    Reed a man who went back to Camp for his knife has not joined us.    we camped at a Beaver house on the L. S.— one Buck Killed to day—

Course Distance & refs. 4th August 1804
S. 80° W.   1 ½ ms. to an old Tradeing House on the L. S.    passed a S pt.
from S. S. (1)
N. 25° W.   2 ¼ ms. to a willow pt. on the L. S.    pass a large Sand Isd. &
Creek on the L. pt (3)
N. 70° W.   1 ¼ ms to a willow pt on the S. S.    psd a Sm: Creek L. S. &
many Snags
N. 24° W.   3 ½ ms. to a willow pt. on the L. S.    passed a Sand from a S. pt.
S. 84° E   3 ½ ms. to a pt. on the L. S.    passed a pt. on the S. S.    here
the high Lands is Some Distance from the river on both
Sides, and at the this place the High lands are at least 12
or 15 miles apart, the range of high land on the S. S. ap-
pear to Contain Some timber—    that on the L. S. appear
to be intireley Clear of any thing but what is Common in
an open Plain, Some Scattering timber or wood is to be
Seen in the riveens and where the Creeks pass into the
Hill—    the points and wet lands Contain tall timber back
of the willows which is generally Situated back of a large
Sand bar from the Points.

On the Starboard shore, opposite to the mouth of pond inlet.—

Observed meridian altd. of ☉'s L. L. with Octant by the back observatn.    53° 20' 30"

Latitude deduced from this obsertn.    41° 25' 3.8"

note—the ☉'s disk was frequently obscured in the course of this observation, it is therefore probable that it is not accurate by 2 or 3 minutes of Latitude, and I believe it too much by that sum.


Saturday 4th    at 7 oClock last night, a violent wind from the N. W. & thunder & rain which lasted about an hour then ceased blowing but hard rain followed, all Set out eairly this morning    proceeded on through a narrow part of the River which is filled with Snags & logs    the River in many places is confined within 200 yards.    (Reed went back for knife)    we passed an Old Tradeing house where one of our party passd. 2 years P. C . [10] trading with the Mahar, & ponies.—    above that we passd. a Small Creek [11] which comes in behind a large Sand bar    this Creek is the outelet of 3 ponds which make in from towards the hills.—    the Bottom and high praries extends along Both Sides of the River the most of this days march, Some young Groves of cotton wood on the points    we Road 10½ miles and Camped [12] on the S. S. on a high bank of willows.


Satturday august 4th 1804    Set out erly this morning after the Rain was over    it Rained Last night with wind and thunder from the N. W.    it Lasted about an ouer    prossed on    the morning Clear    passed a Creek on the South Side 〈Colled〉 as it has no name and the Council was Held below it about 7 miles we Call it Fish Creek Council or Pond [13]    this Creek Comes out of a Large Pond which Lays under the High prarie Hills    the wood Land is not plenty hear ondley along the River Banks in places, passed Som bad Sand bares    en[c]amt on the South Side    a Large prarie    that on the N. is prarie Land


Saturday 4th.    We were early under way this morning, and had a fair day. We passed a creek on the south side, which came out of ponds. One of our men [14] went out this morning and did not return: another came to us and brought a deer. We encamped on the south side.


Saturday Augst 4th    The morning was Clear    passd. Several Indian Old Camps On the W. S.    one was Calld. the hat as the Indian died there namd the hat [15]    Campd. on the East Side    Roaed 17 ms.—

Saturday August 4th    This morning we set off early, having fine Clear weather, and passed several old Indian Camps lying on the So West side of the River, which were called the hat, it being the name of an Indian, who had died there of that name; in the Evening we encamped on the No. East side of the River, having rowed 17 Miles this day

1. It appears that Lewis wrote this line of the course material. (back)
2. This column of figures is in a blank space beneath the courses and distances of this entry: ½, 3¼, 4½, 1¼, 2¼, with a total of 12. (back)
3. Perhaps the post established by Mackay in the fall of 1795, somewhere in the vicinity of the Oto villages, before he went on upriver to establish Fort Charles. Perhaps on Mill Creek, south of Blair, Washington County, Nebraska. Atlas map 14; Warren map 6; MRC map 24; MRR map 67; Osgood (FN), 99 n. 7; Nasatir (BLC), 1:97–98. (back)
4. Probably Fish Creek, Blair. Atlas map 14; MRC map 24. (back)
5. Several exposures of volcanic ash (pumice), long called the Pearlette Ash, have been observed along the Missouri River bluffs north of Omaha, and one near the mouth of Ponca Creek, south of Blair, was recorded by Miller. Although they were long considered to represent a single ash fall, recent studies have shown that there are at least three in eastern Nebraska and western Iowa, with ages between .6 and 2.0 million years. At present (1984) no ash beds exposed in this reach of the river have been dated. Miller; Reed & Dreeszen; Boellstorff; Izett. The pumicestone could also be one of several varieties of rock produced by burning of coal beds in North Dakota and carried to this point by floods. The rocks are not volcanic. Information of Robert N. Bergantino, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. (back)
6. Reed had, in fact, deserted. (back)
7. Owing to shifts in the Missouri River, the campsite may be in either Washington County, Nebraska, or Harrison County, Iowa, northeast of Blair, Nebraska. Atlas map 14; Warren map 6; MRC map 24. (back)
8. Four illegible words are written at right angles to this entry, in a column. The last three appear to be only initial letters followed by dots. The initial letters appear to be: W, W, T [or F], and [R?]. (back)
9. Lewis's observation from Codex O. (back)
10. Apparently Cruzatte, at a spot south of Blair, Washington County, Nebraska. (back)
11. Apparently Fish Creek, near Blair. (back)
12. In either Washington County, Nebraska, or Harrison County, Iowa, northeast of Blair. (back)
13. Floyd was the only one to use this name for what is apparently Fish Creek, near Blair, Washington County, Nebraska. (back)
14. Moses B. Reed, who deserted. (back)
15. Another piece of information provided only by Whitehouse; the site would be in Washington County, Nebraska, in the vicinity of present Blair. (back)