August 21, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

August 21, 1804


21st August Tuesday    we Set out verry early this morning under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E    Course S. 82° E 3 mes to the upper pt. of a Bluff on the S. S.    passed Willow Creek [1] and Some 〈Stone〉 rock 〈above〉 below the mouth of the Seouex river [2] on the Starboard Side    those Clifts are about 170 fee[t] high, this river heads with the St. peters [3] and is navagable 75 Leagues (by the act. of Mr. Durien [Dorion]) to a fall of near 200 for [from], 2 large & Som Small Pitchs [4]    below the falls on the 〈left〉 right a Creek coms in on which 〈all〉 the red pipe Stone is percured, & in the praries about, a place of Peace with all nations. [5]

South   1 ¼ Miles to the lower pt of a Sand & willow Island in the
Middle of the river
S. 48 W.   1 ¾ Miles to the head of the Said Island, passing Sand
bars thro which the water passes the whole Course
River Shalow & wide    Wind blow's hard
West   2 mes. to a high wood on the L S., passed a large Sand
bar from S. S.    river wide
N. 36° W.   4 ms. to a Beyau above wher the Mahars had a village in
the bend to the L. S.    a Sand bar on S. S. & one in the
middle    a large Island on the S. S. on which we Saw
4 wolves, on mat [one man] out Hunting Shannon
N. 18 E   2 ms. to a Pt. of willows on the L. S.    Wind verry hard
from the S. E.    Latd. 42° 28' 49" 6/10 North.    this
Countrey has a great Sameness but little timber
N. 22° W.      ¾ on the L. S. opsd. to which the R. Sieuix is within 2
miles on the S. S.—
S 50° W.      ¼ me. on L. S.
S 28 W.   2 me. to willow pt. on the S. S.
S 78 W.   1 ½ on the Sand bar to the L. S.
N. 12 W.   2 ms. to a Willow Pt. the L. Side pass Sand bars
S. 60 W   1 ¾ mes. to on the Sand bar on the L. S. exme. & Give
Sjt. Pryor Sg Floyds things except shot p[ouch]. &
Tomhk. [tomahawk]
South   2 ½ ms. to a low willows on S. S. and incamped on the
L. S.    one man out 2 with the Horses.
  22 ¾  

We Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E.    passed willow creek Small on the S. S. below a Bluff of about 170 feet high and one ½ mes. above Floyds river    at 1 ½ miles higher & above the Bluff passed the Soues River S. S.    this River is about the Size of Grand river and as Mr. Durrien our Soues intptr. says "navagable to the falls 70 or 80 Leagues and above these falls Still further, those falls are 200 feet or there abouts & has two princapal pitches, and heads with the St. peters passing the head of the Demoien, on the right below the falls a Creek Coms in which passed thro Clifts of red rock which the Indians make pipes of, and when the different nations Meet at [X: a Sort of asylum for all nations, no fightg there] those queries all is piece, passed a place in a Prarie on the L. S. where the Mahars had a Village formerly. [6] the Countrey above the Platt R has a great Similarity.    Campd. on the L. Side. [7]    Clouds appear to rise in the west & threten wind. I found a verry excellent froot resembling the read Current, the Scrub on which it grows resembles Privey & about the Common hight of a wild plumb— [8]

Course Distanc & refrs. 21st Augt.
S. 82° E.   3 mes. to the upper part of a Bluff below the Souex river on
S. S.    passed willow Creek at 1½ Ms. S. S.
South   1 ¼ mes. to Lower pt. of a willow Island in the Midle of the
river one on S. S. opsd.—
S. 48 W.   1 ¾ mes. to the head of the Isld    passed Several Sand bars
disiding the Current, wind hard
West   2 ms. to a high wood on the L. S.    passed a large Sand bar
from the S. S.    River wide
N. 36 W.   4 mes. to a Beyau is a bend to the L. S. above where the
Mahars once had a Village    a Sand bar in the Middle
of S. S.
N. 18 E.   2 mes. to a pt. of Willows on the L. S.    wind hard from S E
N. 22° W.      ¾ mes. on the L. S. opsd. to which the Soues river is within
2 miles on the S. S.
S. 50 W.      ¼ me. on the L. S.
S. 28 W.   2 mes. to the willow pt. on the S. S.
S. 78 W.   1 ½ mes. to the Sand bar on S. S.
N. 12 W   2 mes. to a willow pt. on the L. S.    passed a Sand bar.
S. 60 W   1 ¾ mes. on the Sand bar on the L. Side
South   2 ½ miles to Some low willows on the S. S.
  24 ¾  

The two men Sent with the horses has not joined us as yet [9]


On a large sand bar Stard., 4 miles above the mouth of the river Souix.

Observed meridn. Altd. of ☉'s L. L. with Octant by the back observation    65° 47' —

Latitude deduced from this observatn.    42° 28' 29"


Tuesday Augt. 21st    we Set off eairly this morning under a hard Breeze from the S.    we proceded on verry well    passed a large Sand bar on N. S.    the wind blew so hard that we were oblidged to take a reefe in our Sail & the Sand blew So thick from the Sand bars that we could not see the channel far ahead & it filled the air before us about a mile.    we Saw Several woolves on Sd. Sand beach    we passed the Mouth of the Grand River de Souix close above a high clay Bluff below Sd. Sand bar on the N. S.    the white pearogue could hardly Sail for want of Ballass, we put in Several kegs of pork &.C. Shannon went out to hunt on N. S.    we proceeded on 20 odd miles to day & Camped on S. S. Shannon joined us late. But killed nothing.    the man with the horses did not join us yet,


Tuesday 21st.    We set out early; passed handsome pale coloured bluffs, willow creek [11] and the Sioux river on the north side: and having come upwards of 20 miles, encamped on the south side.


Tuesday August 21st 1804.    we Set out eairly this morning under a hard Breeze from the South.    we passed the mouth of the Grand River Souix close abo. a high Bluff on N. S.    we came 20 odd miles & camped [12] on S. S.—

Tuesday August 21st    We set out early this morning with a stiff breeze from the South, and pass'd the Mouth of the Grand River Souix; which is close to a high bluff, which lays on the North side of the River, we saild 21 Miles this day and encamped on the South side of the River.—    The Country here is very Rich Priari land, having very high Grass on it; and at the farther side from the River, it has some Trees growing on it & affords a pleasant view.—

1. Perry Creek, which meets the Missouri at Sioux City, Woodbury County, Iowa. Atlas map 16; MRC map 27; MRR map 76. (back)
2. The Big Sioux River reaches the Missouri after skirting the western edge of Sioux City. It forms the South DakotaIowa boundary, Union County, South Dakota lying to the west. Atlas maps 16 and 17; MRC map 27; MRR map 76. (back)
3. The St. Peters River is the present Minnesota River. The source of the Big Sioux in northeast South Dakota is fairly close to that of the Minnesota River on the MinnesotaSouth Dakota border, in the area called Coteau des Praries. Petersen, 230–33. (back)
4. "Pitch" is frequently used by the captains in reference to a waterfall. The term was used in Virginia for a slope or a descent. McJimsey, 103. (back)
5. The red stone is catlinite, named for the artist George Catlin, who brought it to the attention of mineralogists. It is found at the quarries along Pipestone Creek, Pipestone County, in southwestern Minnesota. The area is now a national monument and only Indians are allowed to extract the stone. Tradition holds that the quarries were neutral ground where all tribes met in peace. Hodge, 1:217–19; Catlin, 2:164–71; Woolworth. (back)
6. The Omahas are said to have had a village here before founding Tonwontonga; it was called Ti tañga jiñga. Dorsey notes that the lodges here were made of wood, that is, they were bark-covered "wig-wams," not earth lodges or tipis. Dorsey, 213. This village was probably located several miles west of present Dakota City, Dakota County, Nebraska, on the west side of the Missouri River. Atlas map 16; MRC map 27; MRR maps 76, 78. (back)
7. In Union County, south of present Jefferson, and probably on the north side of Lake Goodenough, which appears to have been the 1804 bed of the Missouri. Atlas map 17; MRC map 28; MRR map 78. (back)
8. Shepherdia argentea (Pursh) Nutt., buffaloberry, was then new to science. The privey, or privet, used for comparison is Ligustrum vulgare L., a native of Europe. Barkley, 203. (back)
9. Reubin Field was with the horses on August 23, but it is not clear that he was one of the two mentioned here. (back)
10. Lewis's observation from Codex O. (back)
12. In Union County, South Dakota, south of present Jefferson, and probably on the north side of Lake Goodenough, the apparent 1804 bed of the Missouri. (back)