August 22, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

August 22, 1804


22nd of August 〈Friday〉 Wendesday 1804    Set out early    wind from the South. G Shannon joined the Boat last night. Course this morning is S 47° W. on the S. point    West 1¼ me. to the Commencement of a Bluff on the L. S.    the High land near the river for Some distance below. This Bluff contain Pyrites alum, Copperass & a Kind Markesites also a clear Soft Substance which 〈will mold and become pliant like wax〉 Capt lewis was near being Poisened by the Smell in pounding this Substance I belv to be arsenic or Cabalt. I observe great Quantity of Cops. ans [copperas] and almin [alum] pure & Straters of white & brown earth of 6 Inch. thick. [1]    a Creek Coms in above the Bluffs on which there is great quantities of those minerals, This Creek I call Roloje a 〈name given me last night in my Sleep,〉 [2] at those Allom banks Shields joined in with two Deer—

N. 18° W.   2 ½ ms. to a point High wood on the L. S.    passed the
Creek & a Sand bar
N. 56° E.   5 ½ ms. to a 〈Bluff〉 Clift on the L. S. opsd. a pt on
the S. S.    passed Sand bars on both Sides of the river
N. 54° E   2 mes. to a pt. of Sand on the L. S. opsd. to which
the Souix R. is near the Missou and 3 or 4 ms. east
at which place this river Comes out of the high
N 48 W.   6 ½ to a Single tree in a butiful large Prarie [one word
] Pt. on the S. S.    passed a Pt. of Sand
on the S. S.    2 sand bars in the River wide    this
Said Course continued to the upper tree of Some

Camped on the S. S. [3]    a Great Deel of Elk Sign fresh    Capt. Lewis took a Dost of Salts this evening to carry of the effects of (arsenec) or cobalt which he was trying to find out the real quallity [4]    (2) passed a Clift of Rock much impregnated with alum, Containing also a great quantity of Cabalt—

ordered a Vote of the men for a Sergeant of the three highest numbers a choice to be made [two words illegible, crossed out] Gass Bratton & Gibson—    Gass [5]    is worth remark, that my Ink after Standing in the pot 3 or four days Soaks up & becons thick


Set out early wind from the South    at three miles we landed at a Bluff where the two men Sent with the horses were waiting with two Deer, by examonation of this (1) Bluff Contained alum, Copperas, Cobalt, Pyrites; a alum rock Soft & Sand Stone.    Capt. Lewis in proveing the quality of those minerals was near poisoning himself by the fumes & task of the Cabalt which had the appearance of Soft Isonglass—    Copperas & alum is verry pure, Above this Bluff a Small Creek Coms in from the L. S. passing under the Clifts for Several miles, this Creek I Call Roloje a name I learned last night in m[y] S[leep].    (2) 〈Eight〉 Seven miles above is a Clift of Allom Stone of a Dark Brown Colr. Containing also in crusted in the Crevices & Shelves of the rock great qts. of Cabalt, Semented Shels & a red earth.    from this the (3) river bends to the East and is within 3 or 4 miles of the River Soues at the place where that river Coms from the high land into the Low Prarie & passed under the foot of those Hills to its mouth. [6]

Capt Lewis took a Dost of salts to work off the effects of the Arsenic, we Camped on the S. S.    Sailed the greater part of this day with a hard wind from the S. E.    great deel of Elk Sign, and great appearance of wind from the N.W.

Course Distance & refr. 22nd Augt
S. 47° W.   1 ¼ mes. on the S. point.
West   1 ¼ mes. to the lower point of a Bluff on the L. S. (1)
N. 18 W.   2 ½ ms. to a pt. of high wood on the L. S.    passed. a Creek (2)
N. 56 W.   5 ½ Ms. to a 〈Blu〉 Clift on the L. S. opsd. a pt.    passd a Sand
bar on both Sides of the river (3)
N. 54 E.   2 mes. to a pt. of sand on the L. S. opsds. the R Souis is near
the Missouries. (4)
N. 48 W.   6 ½ Ms. to a Tree in the Prarie on the S. S.    psd a pt. of Sand
on the S. S.    2 Sand bars in the middle of the river—

ordered a vote for a Serjeant to chuse one of three which may be the highest number    the highest numbers are P. Gass had 19 Votes, Bratten & Gibson


Wednesday 22d August 1804.    we Set off eairly    the current verry Swift.    the wind hard from the South, we proceded on round a bend & Sand bar N. S.    the hills make to the River on S. S.    below the hills their is Some large Timber of cottonwood Elm maple [7] &.C. Some oak & ceeder on the Bluffs.    we halted under the Bluff & found different kinds of oar which has the appearence of brass, copperas alum &.C. &C    all of which has a Sulpheras Smell, Broken praries Back. The 2 men who had been with the horses from the Mahars village, joined us below Sd. Bluffs.    had killed 2 Deer, 2 other men went on with the horses hunting; G. Drewyer caught one Beaver last night.—    a Small creek comes in close above Sd. Bluffs which we call Roloje Cr. [8] on S. S.    we proceeded on under a fine Breeze from the South.    passed a Red ceeder Bluff on the South Side & little above on the Same Side we passed an Alum Stone clift about 50 feet high & a great nomber of birds nests, near the top of the clift.    we Sailed on to a prarie where we Camped on N. S. after Sailing 19 Miles.    back of Sd. prarie is a large pond.    we See a great deal of Elk Sign,


Wednesday 22nd.    We proceeded early upon our voyage; passed bluffs on the south side, where there is copperas, allum and ore of some kind; also passed a creek. The high land on the south side for nine or ten miles runs close to the river, where there are cedar bluffs of various colours. We encamped on the north side.


Wednesday 22nd Augt. 1804.    we Set off eairly    the current Swift.    the [wind] hard from the South.    we passed a ceedar Bluff on the South Side in which we found Some kinds of minral Substance, the 2 men who had been with the horses joined us [9]    had killed 2 Deer we pasd. an allum Stone clift on the S. S.    we camped at a prarie on the N. S.    we See a great deal of Elk Sign &c

Wednesday August 22nd    This morning we set out early, and found the current running very Strong against us, the Wind blowing from the South, we passed under a bluff lying on the south side of the River, and some of our Men landed from the Pettiauger, they found some kind of mineral substance, but its qualities appear'd to be utterly unknown to us, The Men that had the Horses came to the bank of the River, having killed 2 Deer, which we took on board,—    we then proceeded on, and passed an Alum stone Clift, laying on the South side of the River, we proceeded on, & in the Evening we encamped at a Priari which lay on the North side, where we saw a great many Tracts & signs of Elk.—

1. Pyrite and marcasite are both ferrous sulfide minerals, although they have different crystal forms. Copperas is one name for the mineral melanterite, a hydrous ferrous sulfate that results from the weathering of pyrite and marcasite. Clark's reference to Lewis's being poisoned by substances in this area is unclear, and the mineral is indeterminable. The bluff begins above present Jackson, Dakota County, Nebraska. Atlas maps 16 and 17; MRC map 28; MRR map 76. (back)
2. Clark crossed out the words giving the source of the name and cut short his mention of it in his Codex B entry. The creek is probably the present Aowa, or Ayoway, Creek which reaches the Missouri in Dixon County, Nebraska, near present Ponca. The name derives from the Omaha, Maxúde waa i te, "where the Iowa farmed." The Iowas moved from this village down to the one noted July 28. Fletcher & La Flesche, 91; Atlas map 17; Osgood (FN), 112 n. 6. (back)
3. Probably in Union County, South Dakota, somewhat south of the present community of Elk Point. MRC map 28; MRR map 79. (back)
4. The purging of the body by a laxative was a favorite method of removing harmful substances. Chuinard, 230–31. (back)
5. See the Detachment Order for August 26, 1804. (back)
6. Atlas map 17. (back)
7. An unknown species of maple, Acer sp. (back)
8. Probably Aowa, or Ayowa, Creek, Dixon County, Nebraska, near Ponca. (back)
9. Evidently Reubin Field and George Shannon, but Clark refers to Field's return with the horses the next day and says nothing about Shannon's return. (back)